Introduction to Gifted for UNCW Teaching FellowsPresentation Transcript
In Introduction to the World of the Academically & Intellectually Gifted Watson School of Education Teaching Fellows Angela Housand, Ph.D. email@example.com
This person was told by an editor that she could never write anything that had popular appeal.
P Louisa May Alcott was told by an editor that she would never write anything popular. Little Women is considered one of the the best American children’s books of the past 200 years.
This person had a stormy and emotionally traumatic childhood. She was considered an odd-ball by many of her playmates. Even her family provided her with very little encouragement and support. For many years she lived in fantasy as the mistress of her alcoholic father’s household.
You must do the thing you think you cannot do. -Eleanor Roosevelt
This person was four years old before he could speak and seven before he could read: He was considered dull by both his parents and his teachers.
Albert Einstein Above average intelligence (Cox, 1926; Reis, 1995; Walberg et. al., 1981; Walberg & Paik, 2005) Image: http://streams.gandhiserve.org/images/einstein.jpg
P This man was fired by a newspaper editor because he didn’t have enough good ideas.
P Walt Disney This man was fired by a newspaper editor because he didn’t have enough good ideas.
As a child this person was hyperactive, had a speech defect, was prone to constant colds, had poor peer relationships, and frequently failed in school. It took him three years to complete the first grade. His father soon decided the boy needed more discipline and suggested military school. Before being admitted, however, he failed the entrance examination three times. A teacher once called him the naughtiest small boy in England.
WinstonChurchill Superior capacity for communication Well-rounded Broad interests (Reis, 1995, 1998, 2005; Van-Tassel Baska 1989; Walberg et. al., 1981; Walberg & Paik, 2005) Image: http://worldroots.com/brigitte/gifs/churchill.jpg
Giftedness in Context
Why discuss giftedness in context? No Universal Definition of Giftedness NC Department of Public Instruction alignment of program delivery with student identification Student Success
3 Ring Conception of Giftedness
Gagné’s DMGT Model Differentiated Model of Giftedness and Talent Distinguishes between “gifts” and “talents” Gifts: General aptitudes Untrained natural ability Talents: Specific skills Learned capabilities
Taylor’s Multiple Talent Totem Poles
Multiple Talent Totem Poles (1984) Academic Productive Thinking Communicating Forecasting Decision Making Planning (Designing) Implementing Human Relations Discerning Opportunities
Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory Analytical Giftedness Synthetic Giftedness Creativity Insightfulness Intuition Ability to cope with novelty Practical Giftedness Apply first two in pragmatic situations Wisdom – concerns about needs and welfare of others
Definition There is no universally accepted definition for gifted, talented, or giftedness
U.S. D.O.E Definition Children and youth with outstanding talent perform or show the potential for performing at remarkably high levels of accomplishment when compared with others of their age, experience, or environment. These children and youth exhibit high performance capability in intellectual, creative, and/or artistic areas, possess an unusual leadership capacity, or excel in specific academic fields. They require services of activities not ordinarily provided by the schools. Outstanding talents are present in children and youth from all cultural groups, across all economic strata, and in all areas of human endeavor (Department of Education, 1993).
Article 9B Academically or intellectually gifted students perform or show the potential to perform at substantially high levels of accomplishment when compared with others of their age, experience, or environment. Academically or intellectually gifted students exhibit high performance capability in intellectual areas, specific academic fields, or in both intellectual areas and specific academic fields. Academically or intellectually gifted students require differentiated educational services beyond those ordinarily provided by the regular educational program. Outstanding abilities are present in students from all cultural groups, across all economic strata, and in all areas of human endeavor. (1996, 2nd Ex. Sess., c. 18, s. 18.24(f).)
Article 9B School districts are required to follow the North Carolina state definition: Guide the identification process Consequently determine who is selected for services
www.ncpublicschools.org/academicservices/gifted/ OR Google: NC DPI AIG Program Standards
Continuum of Services In Class Enrichment Enrichment Clusters SchoolwideEvents Grade Level Events Differentiation/ Compacting Pull-out Programs Enrichment Clusters Enrichment Triad
Characteristics: Seeing Unusual alertness Joy in learning Keen observation Sees “Big Picture” Makes connections Intense focus Curious
Characteristics: Speed Early and rapid learning Rapid language development Metacognitively efficient
Characteristics: Differences Superior language Verbal fluency Large vocabulary Superior analytical and reasoning ability High-capacity memory Goes beyond what is sought Abstract, complex, and insightful thinking
T I C U C A P Gifted Behaviors NOT Gifted People!
3 Ring Conception of Giftedness
School House Giftedness Creative Giftedness
Teacher Pleaser Evil Genius
Creatively Gifted Independent High energy Curious Sense of humor Open-minded Need for privacy and alone time
Creatively Gifted Aware of their own creativeness Originality in thought and action Attracted to complexity and novelty Artistic tendencies Willing to take risks Perceptive
And the not so good… Impulsive Egotistical Argumentative Rebellious Uncooperative Stubborn Childish Absentminded Neurotic Temperamental Capricious Careless Disorganized Demanding Indifferent to Conventions
Characteristics: Negative Uneven mental development Interpersonal difficulties Underachievement
Asynchronous Development Uneven intellectual, physical, and emotional development.
Asynchronous Development Cognitively understand advanced concepts (like mortality) but lack emotional maturity to cope with knowledge Perceived as older due to cognitive ability, but lack behavioral maturity
Underachievers: Personality Low self-esteem or Low self-efficacy Feelings of Pessimism Anxious, impulsive, or inattentive Aggressive, hostile Depressed Socially immature
Internal Mediators Fear of failure Fear of success Negative attitude toward school Antisocial, rebellious Self-critical or perfectionistic
Demonstrate honesty and integrity when rejecting inappropriate school work
Intense outside interests
What about these characteristics? Inability to master certain academic skills Lack of motivation Disruptive classroom behavior Failure to complete assignments Lack of organizational skills Poor listening and concentration skills Unrealistic self-expectations
Twice-Exceptional Gifted with Learning Disability May also demonstrate Learned helplessness Perfectionism Supersensitivity Low self-esteem Behaviors may hamper identification
Look For: Advanced vocabulary use Exceptional analytic abilities High levels of creativity Advanced problem-solving skills Divergent thinking Specific aptitude Good memory Spatial abilities
They Are All So Different… Children come to us in a variety of shapes, sizes, intellectual abilities, creative abilities, inter/intra personal skills, and a myriad more characteristics that makes each child we deal with unique and special. Carol Ann Tomlinson
Diversity in students can include: Ability Achievement Academic background Cultural differences second language acquisition, interaction style differences Differences in affect enthusiasm level and personality
Diversity in students can include: Differences learning styles Differences in interests Differences in preferences for products and processes Differences in effort Differences in self-regulation and study skills
Why Aren’t Some Students Challenged?
Classroom Practices Study Teachers reported that they never had any training in meeting the needs of gifted students. 61% public school teachers 54% private school teachers Archambault, F. X., Jr., Westberg, K. L., Brown, S. W., Hallmark, B. W., Emmons, C. L., & Zhang, W. (1993). Regular classroom practices with gifted students: Results of a national survey of classroom teachers (Research Monograph 93102). Storrs, CT: The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented, University of Connecticut.
Classroom Practices Observational Study Students experienced no instructional or curricular differentiation in 84% of the activities in which they participated: Reading Language Arts Mathematics Social Studies Science Westberg, K. L., Archambault, F. X., Jr., Dobyns, S. M., & Salvin, T. J. (1993). An observational study of instructional and curricular practices used with gifted and talented students in regular classroom (Research Monograph 93104). Storrs, CT: The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented, University of Connecticut.
Types of Differentiation in Which Target Gifted Students Were Involved No Differentiation Advanced Content Advanced Process Advanced Product Indep. Study w/ Assigned Topic Indep. Study w/ Self-selected Topic Other Differentiation
Achievement Gap The observed disparity on a number of educational measures between the highest performing students and the lowest performing students
Achievement Gap Performance gaps defined by groups Gender, Race or ethnicity Socioeconomic status The disparities are clearly documented and are of substantial magnitude
Estimated Variability Typical 1st Grade Classroom DSS of 110 Developmental standard score Lowest 1st grader DSS of 199 Average 4th grader Low 9th grader
Estimated Variability Typical 1st Grade Classroom DSS of 110 to 199 4-5 grade level difference between top performing student and lowest performing student
Estimated Variability Typical 5th Grade Classroom DSS of 140 (average 1st grader) DSS of 309 (top 9th grader) 8 grade level difference between top performing student and lowest performing student
Typical 9th Grade Classroom DSS of 150 (average 1st grader) DSS of 369 The gap widens by 145% between 1st grade and 9th grade
The Question of Equity Equity, the quality of being fair, is not about offering the exact same thing to every student, it is providing individuals with suitable challenges and experiences that will enable them to be successful and grow beyond where they are now or where they have been before.
Approximately 40-50% of traditional classroom material could be eliminated for targeted students. Reis, S. M., Westberg, K.L., Kulikowich, J., Caillard, F., Hébert, T., Plucker, J., Purcell, J.H., Rogers, J.B., & Smist, J.M. (1993). Why not let high ability students start school in January? The curriculum compacting study (Research Monograph 93106). Storrs, CT: The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented, University of Connecticut.
When teachers eliminated as much as 50% of the curriculum, no differences were found between treatment and control groups in most content areas. In fact, students whose curriculum was compacted scored higher than control group students in some areas. Reis, S. M., Westberg, K.L., Kulikowich, J., Caillard, F., Hébert, T., Plucker, J., Purcell, J.H., Rogers, J.B., & Smist, J.M. (1993). Why not let high ability students start school in January? The curriculum compacting study (Research Monograph 93106). Storrs, CT: The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented, University of Connecticut.
Student Behaviors Suggesting that Compacting(a form of acceleration)May Be Necessary
Finishes tasks quickly Completes homework in class Appears bored during instruction time Brings in outside reading material Creates puzzles, games, or diversions in class
Tests scores consistently excellent Asks questions that indicate advanced familiarity with material Sought after by others for assistance Daydreams
For Students, Compacting Eliminates boredom resulting from unnecessary drill and practice. Provides challenge leading to continuous growth.
Bright Knows the Answers Asks the Questions Gifted
Bright Is Attentive Is Intellectually Engaged Gifted
Bright Has Good Ideas Has Original Ideas Gifted
Bright Absorbs Information Manipulates Information Gifted
Bright Top Student Beyond Her Age Peers Gifted
Bright Repeats 6-8 Times for Mastery Repeats 1-2 Times for Mastery Gifted
Imagine your future classroom… How will you differentiate to meet the needs of your highest ability students while still meeting the needs of your lowest achieving students? How will you advocate for the special needs of gifted students within your future school? Does differentiation really meet the needs of gifted students in current instructional settings? What can you do to change current practice if necessary?