Why This Strand?• Understand the unique behaviors that characterize giftedness• Specific resources and examples for your use and adaptation• An easy to follow 6-step strategy for identifying students for talent development
Topics for the WeekDay 1: Definitions of Giftedness Gifted BehaviorsDay 2: Placing Student in a Program Testing for PlacementDay 3: Nominations and Alternative PathwaysDay 4: Special Placements & Closure
She was told by an editor that shewould never write anythingpopular.
Louisa May Alcottwas told by an editor that shewould never write anythingpopular. Little Women is considered one of the the best American children’s books of the past 200 years.
This person had a stormy andemotionally traumatic childhood. Shewas considered an odd-ball by many ofher playmates. Even her family providedher with very little encouragement andsupport. For many years she lived infantasy as the mistress of her alcoholicfather’s household.
You must do the thing you think you cannot do. -Eleanor Roosevelt
This person was four years old beforehe could speak and seven before hecould read: He was considered dull byboth his parents and his teachers.
Albert EinsteinAbove average intelligence(Cox, 1926; Reis, 1995; Walberg et. al., 1981; Walberg & Paik, 2005)Image: http://streams.gandhiserve.org/images/einstein.jpg
This man was firedby a newspapereditor because hedidn’t have enoughgood ideas.
Walt DisneyThis man was firedby a newspapereditor because hedidn’t have enoughgood ideas.
As a child this person was hyperactive, had aspeech defect, was prone to constant colds,had poor peer relationships, and frequentlyfailed in school. It took him three years tocomplete the first grade. His father soondecided the boy needed more discipline andsuggested military school. Before beingadmitted, however, he failed the entranceexamination three times. A teacher once calledhim the naughtiest small boy in England.
Winston Churchill Superior capacity for communication Well-rounded Broad interests(Reis, 1995, 1998, 2005; Van-Tassel Baska 1989; Walberg et. al., 1981; Walberg & Paik, 2005)Image: http://worldroots.com/brigitte/gifs/churchill.jpg
Gagné’s DMGT Model • Diﬀeren3ated Model of Gi6edness and Talent • Dis3nguishes between “gi6s” and “talents” • Gi6s: – General ap3tudes – Untrained natural ability • Talents: – Speciﬁc skills – Learned capabili3es
Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory • Analy3cal Gi6edness • Synthe3c Gi6edness – Crea3vity – InsighYulness – Intui3on – Ability to cope with novelty • Prac3cal Gi6edness – Apply ﬁrst two in pragma3c situa3ons – Wisdom – concerns about needs and welfare of others
U.S. D.O.E DeﬁnitionChildren and youth with outstanding talent perform or show the potential for performing at remarkably high levels of accomplishment when compared with others of their age, experience, or environment. These children and youth exhibit high performance capability in intellectual, creative, and/or artistic areas, possess an unusual leadership capacity, or excel in speciﬁc academic ﬁelds. They require services of activities not ordinarily provided by the schools. Outstanding talents are present in children and youth from all cultural groups, across all economic strata, and in all areas of human endeavor (Department of Education, 1993).
NAGC State of the States• In the U.S: Program and Service for gifted learners made at the state and local levels• Gifted By State
State Deﬁnitions• Davidson Institute for Talent Development Missouri Kansas California Connecticut North Carolina
State Deﬁnitions• Why do you think CA provides the districts with choices for identiﬁcation categories?
Definition DANGER! If a definition to narrow, identification methods may discriminate against low SES, minority, disabled, underachieving, and females
Gifted Artist Talented MathematicianUse “defining” terms as adjectives: Talented Musician Gifted Writer
Personality Factors Inﬂuencing Gifted Behavior"" Charm/Charisma" " Perception of" Need for Self, Self-Efﬁcacy" Achievement" " Courage"" Ego Strength" " Character"" Energy" " Intuition"" Sense of Destiny" " Personal Attractiveness"
Environmental Factors Influencing Gifted Behavior» SES » Formal Education» Parental » Role Model Personalities Availability» Education of » Physical Illness Parents and/or Well» Stimulation of Being Childhood » Chance Factors Interests » Zeitgeist» Family Position
Characteristics: Seeing Unusual alertness Joy in learning Keen observation Sees “Big Picture” Makes connections Intense focus Curious
Characteristics: Speed Early and rapid learning Rapid language development Metacognitively efficient
Characteristics: Differences Superior language Verbal fluency Large vocabulary Superior analytical and reasoning ability High-capacity memory Goes beyond what is sought Abstract, complex, and insightful thinking
Independent High energy Curious Sense of humor Open-‐minded Need for privacy and alone time
Aware of their own creativeness Originality in thought and action Attracted to complexity and novelty Artistic tendencies Willing to take risks Perceptive
Characteristic ofEminent AdultsCreativeImaginativeInnovativeA Sense of Destiny
Asynchronous Development Uneven intellectual, physical, and emotional development.
Asynchronous Development Cognitively understand advanced concepts (like mortality) but lack emotional maturity to cope with knowledge Perceived as older due to cognitive ability, but lack behavioral maturity
Your Mission…• Does your state have a definition of gifted/talented?• Is your district required to follow the state definition?• What are the identification guidelines for your district? Are the guidelines provided by the state?
Topics for the WeekTomorrow: Placing Student in a Program Testing for PlacementDay 3: Nominations and Alternative PathwaysDay 4: Special Placements & Closure
Average Ranking Sam Edder Mary Hall Bill Ridell Elaine Hawkins Albert Wright Sarah Lang Mike Grost
Identiﬁcation Considerations"" There is no perfect identiﬁcation system!"" Match identiﬁcation procedures to the services provided"
Identiﬁcation Considerations"" High performance vs. high potential" " May require different kinds of programming options "" Establish local norms using " " Grade level" " Similarity of learning opportunities" " Background characteristics"
Identiﬁcation Considerations"" Avoid designations or “rubber stamp”" " Identiﬁcation procedures select students who would beneﬁt from supplementary services"" Label the services, not the students"
Identiﬁcation Procedures Answer" " Who are the gifted and talented students?" " Why are we striving to identify them?" " How do we ﬁnd them?"
Identiﬁcation Procedures Answer" " What are the most appropriate tools for identifying studentsʼ gifts and talents?" " How are data from various tools analyzed and interpreted?" " Who is responsible for identifying studentsʼ gifts and talents?"
Identiﬁcation Procedures Should: " " Be provided in multiple languages" " reﬂect the dominant student and parent populations" " Reﬂect the student population and demographics of the district"
Identiﬁcation Procedures Should: " " Reﬂect studentsʼ needs" " Be defensible and inclusive" " Include students" " with disabilities" " who are English language learners" " economically disadvantaged "
Identiﬁcation Procedures Should: " " Be ﬂexible" " Be communicated" " teachers" " parents" " administrators" " students " " Be updated at regular intervals to reﬂect changing demographics"
3 Things to Avoid"" Pitting parents of advantaged children against parents of disadvantaged children"" Leading people to believe that any one instrument is the answer to identiﬁcation"" Proliferating the amount of paperwork"
Don’t go! I’m sure page 3 of Billy’s Gifted MatrixChecklist No. 5.3 (a) is in here somewhere.
Renzulli’s Identification System Based on the 3-Ring Conception of Giftedness & The Enrichment Triad Model Strives for equity, excellence, and economy Designed to be flexible Based on research into the behavioral characteristics of highly creative & productive people
The 3 Goals of Renzulli’s Identification System #1Develop creativity and/or task commitment instudents who may come to an educator’sattention through alternate means ofidentification.
The 3 Goals of Renzulli’s Identification System #2Provide learning experiences and supportsystems that promote interaction of creativity,task commitment, and above averageachievement.(Bringing the “rings together!)
The 3 Goals of Renzulli’s Identification System #3Provide opportunities, resources, andencouragement for the development andapplication of gifted behaviors.
Internal Consistency• Develop criteria for identification that matches the program!
Internal Consistency Abilities and Interests of Students Services Identiﬁcation and of interests Programs and needs Provided Characteristics of Students
99th[Approximately 50% of [Approximately 50% of Total Talent Pool Consists of Approximately 15% of the General Population Test Score Criteria %ile Test Score The Talent Pool] Nominations Step 1 [Automatic, and Based on Local Norms] 92nd %ile Teacher Nominations Non-Test Criteria The Talent Pool] Step 2 [Automatic Except in Cases of Teachers Who Are Over or Under Nominators] Case Step 3 Alternative Pathways Study Case Step 4 Special Nominations Study Step 5 Notification of Parents Step 6 Action Information Nominations Renzulli Identification System
Iowa Tests of Basic Skills Riverside Publishing Company www.riversidepublishing.com Measures students’ academic skills in several content areas: reading, mathematics, social studies, science, and information sources
Metropolitan Achievement Test Harcourt Brace Educational Measurement www.harcourtassessment.com Focuseson reading, mathematics, language, writing, science, and social studies
Stanford Achievement Test Harcourt Brace Educational Measurement www.harcourtassessment.com Assessesreading, mathematics, language, spelling, study skills, science, social studies, and listening
Ap3tude A readiness to learn or to perform well in a par3cular situa3on; requires a match between the situa3on demands and what the person brings to it.
Multiple Norm Groups Put data in spreadsheet Include an “opportunity-to-learn” index (e.g. ELL status) Sort data by percentile rank or SAS Provides Local Rank
Multiple Norm Groups Sort data again by “opportunity-to- learn” then percentile rank or SAS Provides list divided into two groups Identifies most talented ELL students and most talented native-speaking students
Multiple Score Review Avoid using composite scores – look at subtests individually Review the appropriate information Do not compare score with average children Look at the discrepancy between strengths and weaknesses
Multiple-Criteria Eligibility 1997 to 2005 Gifted Program African-American: 200% increase Hispanic: 570% increase 2002 to 2006 Advanced Placement Courses African-American: 71% increase Hispanic: 180% increase
Topics for the WeekTomorrow: Nominations and Alternative PathwaysDay 4: Special Placements & Closure
Step 2: Teacher Nomination All Teachers need to be informed Procedures for nomination Students who have gained access through test scores AVOID NEEDLESS PAPERWORK!
Step 2: Teacher Nomination Allows identification of students who exhibit behaviors not determined by tests High levels of creativity Task commitment Unusual or intense interests Unusual talents
Step 2: Teacher Nomination Acceptanceequal to test scores with one exception…
Step 2: Teacher Nomination Acceptanceequal to test scores with one exception… Teachers who over-identify
Teacher Rating Scales Tracking Talents Prufrock Press www.prufrock.com Usedto screen and identify multiple talents: cognitive abilities, academic talents, social & physical abilities, and technological & artistic talents through peer, teacher, and self-nomination.
Teacher Rating Scales CAB Clinical Assessment of Behavior PAR www4.parinc.com Assesses teachers’ and parents’ perceptions of students’ behavioral functioning including important behaviors associated with giftedness.
Teacher Rating Scales Scales for Rating the BehavioralSRBCSS Characteristics of Superior Students Creative Learning Press www.creativelearningpress.com Teachersassess students on 10 dimensions: learning, motivation, creativity, leadership, art, music, dramatics, planning, communication (precision), and communication (expressiveness)
Teacher Rating Scales Developed at the University of PurdueHOPE Marcia Gentry, Ph. D. Teachersassess students on academic and social factors related to giftedness
Step 3: Alternate Pathways Defined locally Allows program to reflect Needs of student population Demographics of district population Allows for non-traditional students to receive services
Step 3: Alternate Pathways Leads to initial consideration by a screening committee NOT AUTOMATIC!
Step 3: Alternate Pathways Screening evaluation based on: Previous school records Interviews with students, teachers, & parents Administered individual assessments recommended by committee Placed in program on trial basis.
Not all bad…• Demonstrate honesty and integrity when rejecting inappropriate school work• Intense outside interests• Creative
What about these characteristics?"" Inability to master certain academic skills"" Lack of motivation"" Disruptive classroom behavior"" Failure to complete assignments"" Lack of organizational skills"" Poor listening and concentration skills"" Unrealistic self-expectations"
Twice-Exceptional• Gifted with Learning Disability• May also demonstrate – Learned helplessness – Perfectionism – Supersensitivity – Low self-esteem
Look For:• Advanced • Advanced problem- vocabulary use solving skills• Exceptional • Specific aptitude analytic abilities • Good• Divergent thinking memory• High levels of creativity• Spatial abilities
Cultural Influence• Spirituality• Harmony• Movement & Verve• Affect• Communalism• Expressive Individualism• Oral Tradition• Social Time Perspective
African AmericanMAY…• Seek structure and organization in required tasks• Be slow to motivate in some abstract activities• Have large vocabulary, but one inappropriate for school• Makes up games or activities
African AmericanMAY…• Have extremely strong concentration• Express displeasure in having to stop certain activities• Be very independent• Neglect school work due to other interests• Not show expected achievement
Hispanics• Express leadership collaboratively rather than competitively• Demonstrate intensity through “Abrazo” (an index of personal support)
Hispanic White25+ years old with a HS Diploma 57% 88.7%Only a 9th grade education 27% 4%Managerial or Professional 14.2% 35.1%Occupations
American Indian & Alaska NativeMAY…• Be humble, quiet • Not be assertive• Not be competitive • Ask few questions• Not openly express • Be a more concrete feelings learner
American Indian & Alaska NativeMAY…• Consider family & • Not challenge incorrect religious activities statements more important than • Not look a teacher in school the eye
American Indian & Alaska NativeMAY…• Not be comfortable • Not have a strong home speaking in public reading environment• Be fluently bi- or tri- • Have more developed lingual aural/oral memory
Step 4: Special Nominations Safety Valve No.1
Step 4: Special Nominations• Circulate a list to ALL past and present teachers – Allows resource teachers to nominate – Allows override of current teacher if necessary
Step 5:Notification & Orientation of Parents Letter of Notification Comprehensive description of Program Focuses on child placement in program or Talent Pool Not certification of giftedness
Step 5:Notification & Orientation of Parents Meeting to explain ALL program policies, procedures, & activities How admission to program was determined Additions may be made during year Invite further interactions
Step 5:Notification & Orientation of Parents Similar orientation for students! Not told they are gifted Focus on the opportunities available to develop gifted behaviors
Step 6: Action Information Nominations Safety Valve No.2
Step 6: Action Information Nominations• The dynamic interactions that occur when a student becomes extremely interested in or excited about a particular topic, area of study, issue, idea, or event.
Step 6: Action Information Nominations• Any enrichment opportunity (whether school or non-school) that might turn a student onto learning or causes them to express gifted behaviors.
Two Types of InformationLeading to Identification Status Information Anything you can put down on paper beforehand that tells you something about the student. Action Information Things that you can only document when they are happening or after they happen.
Status Information Grades Test scores Student work samples Surveys – Interest – Learning Styles – Expression Styles
Status Information Teacher input Parent input Students’ Self-nomination Peer Nominations
Action Information Teacher observations • Work habits • Thinking • Questioning • Leadership Qualities • Peer Interactions • Skill Development Conversations Interviews Video/audio recordings
Sample Items… Imagine that you can spend a week job shadowing any person in your community to investigate a career you might like to have in the future. List the occupations of the persons you would select. 1st choice ______________________ 2nd choice______________________ 3rd choice ______________________
Sample Items (Secondary Interest-A-Lyzer)…If you could conduct an interview with a man orwoman you admire, past or present, who would itbe? What 3 questions would you ask him or her?1. ____________________________________2. ____________________________________3. ____________________________________
Learning Styles InventorySample Items (Renzulli Smith)… Really Dislike……..Really LikeBeing a member of a panel that 1 2 3 4 5is discussing current eventsWorking on your own to prepare 1 2 3 4 5material you will discuss in class
What differentiates giftedlearners from high achievers?
BrightKnows the Answers Asks the Questions Gifted
BrightIs Attentive Is Intellectually Engaged Gifted
BrightHas Good Ideas Has Original Ideas Gifted
BrightAbsorbs Information Manipulates Information Gifted
BrightTop Student Beyond Her Age Peers Gifted
BrightRepeats 6-8 Times for Mastery Repeats 1-2 Times for Mastery Gifted