It is distinguishably different, and on measures of performance, it is higher or superior
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Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a theoretical physicist, philosopher and author who is widely regarded as one of the most influential and best known scientists and intellectuals of all time. He is often regarded as the father of modern physics. He received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect."His many contributions to physics include the special and general theories of relativity, the founding of relativistic cosmology, the first post-Newtonian expansion, the explanation the perihelion precession of Mercury, the prediction of the deflection of light by gravity (gravitational lensing), the first fluctuation dissipation theorem which explained the Brownian motion of molecules, the photon theory and the wave-particle duality, the quantum theory of atomic motion in solids, the zero-point energy concept, the semiclassical version of the Schrödinger equation, and the quantum theory of a monatomic gas which predicted Bose–Einstein condensation. Einstein published more than 300 scientific and over 150 non-scientific works; he additionally wrote and commentated prolifically on various philosophical and political subjects. His great intelligence and originality has made the word "Einstein" synonymous with genius.
2nd – 13rd – 04th – 35th – 15 6th – 9 7th – 16
the First Lady of the United States from 1933 to 1945. She supported the New Deal policies of her husband, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, and became an advocate for civil rights. After her husband's death in 1945, Roosevelt continued to be an internationally prominent author, speaker, politician, and activist for the New Deal coalition. She worked to enhance the status of working women, although she opposed the Equal Rights Amendment because she believed it would adversely affect women.In the 1940s, Roosevelt was one of the co-founders of Freedom House and supported the formation of the United Nations. Roosevelt founded the UN Association of the United States in 1943 to advance support for the formation of the UN. She was a delegate to the UN General Assembly from 1945 and 1952, a job for which she was appointed by President Harry S. Truman and confirmed by the United States Senate. During her time at the United Nations she chaired the committee that drafted and approved the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. President Truman called her the "First Lady of the World" in tribute to her human rights achievements.
3rd – 1 4th – 0 5th – 176th – 16 7th - 10
3rd – 174th - 255th – 16th - 17th - 1
Isadora Duncan (May 26, 1877 - September 14, 1927) was a dancer, considered by many to be the creator of modern dance.
2nd – 43rd – 224th – 125th – 1 6th – 47th – 1
3 – 137 – 24 - 3
41 – 1 2 – 21 – 4
Life Magazine May 21, 1965Mike Grost (a real person, entered Michigan State University as a fully enrolled student at age 9 or 10, now a PhD in math, a systems architect and mystery writerAn article about Mike from a while back is at http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,939545,00.html?promoid=googlepHis mother’s book about his early life is Genius in Residence
IdentifyingGifted and Talented Students Angela M. Housand University of North Carolina, Wilmington Confratute – University of Connecticut
Understand the unique behaviors that characterize giftedness Specific resources and examples for your use and adaptation An easy to follow 6-step strategy for identifying students for talent development Why This Strand?
Topics for the Week Day 1: Definitions of Giftedness Gifted Behaviors Day 2: Placing Student in a Program Testing for Placement Day 3: Nominations and Alternative Pathways Day 4: Special Placements & Closure
P Louisa May Alcott was told by an editor that she would never write anything popular. Little Women is considered one of the the best American children’s books of the past 200 years.
This person had a stormy and emotionally traumatic childhood. She was considered an odd-ball by many of her playmates. Even her family provided her with very little encouragement and support. For many years she lived in fantasy as the mistress of her alcoholic father’s household.
You must do the thing you think you cannot do. -Eleanor Roosevelt
This person was four years old before he could speak and seven before he could read: He was considered dull by both his parents and his teachers.
Albert Einstein Above average intelligence (Cox, 1926; Reis, 1995; Walberg et. al., 1981; Walberg & Paik, 2005) Image: http://streams.gandhiserve.org/images/einstein.jpg
P This man was fired by a newspaper editor because he didn’t have enough good ideas.
P Walt Disney This man was fired by a newspaper editor because he didn’t have enough good ideas.
As a child this person was hyperactive, had a speech defect, was prone to constant colds, had poor peer relationships, and frequently failed in school. It took him three years to complete the first grade. His father soon decided the boy needed more discipline and suggested military school. Before being admitted, however, he failed the entrance examination three times. A teacher once called him the naughtiest small boy in England.
WinstonChurchill Superior capacity for communication Well-rounded Broad interests (Reis, 1995, 1998, 2005; Van-Tassel Baska 1989; Walberg et. al., 1981; Walberg & Paik, 2005) Image: http://worldroots.com/brigitte/gifs/churchill.jpg
Gagné’s DMGT Model Differentiated Model of Giftedness and Talent Distinguishes between “gifts” and “talents” Gifts: General aptitudes Untrained natural ability Talents: Specific skills Learned capabilities
Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory Analytical Giftedness Synthetic Giftedness Creativity Insightfulness Intuition Ability to cope with novelty Practical Giftedness Apply first two in pragmatic situations Wisdom – concerns about needs and welfare of others
U.S. D.O.E Definition Children and youth with outstanding talent perform or show the potential for performing at remarkably high levels of accomplishment when compared with others of their age, experience, or environment. These children and youth exhibit high performance capability in intellectual, creative, and/or artistic areas, possess an unusual leadership capacity, or excel in specific academic fields. They require services of activities not ordinarily provided by the schools. Outstanding talents are present in children and youth from all cultural groups, across all economic strata, and in all areas of human endeavor (Department of Education, 1993).
NAGC State of the States In the U.S: Program and Service for gifted learners made at the state and local levels Gifted By State
State Definitions Davidson Institute for Talent Development Missouri Kansas California Connecticut North Carolina
State Definitions Why do you think CA provides the districts with choices for identification categories?
Definition DANGER! If a definition to narrow, identification methods may discriminate against low SES, minority, disabled, underachieving, and females
T I C U C A P Gifted Behaviors NOT Gifted People!
Gifted Artist Talented Mathematician Use “defining” terms as adjectives: Talented Musician Gifted Writer
Personality FactorsInfluencing Gifted Behavior Charm/Charisma Need for Achievement Ego Strength Energy Sense of Destiny Perception of Self, Self-Efficacy Courage Character Intuition Personal Attractiveness
Environmental FactorsInfluencing Gifted Behavior SES Parental Personalities Education of Parents Stimulation of Childhood Interests Family Position Formal Education Role Model Availability Physical Illness and/or Well Being Chance Factors Zeitgeist
Characteristics: Differences Superior language Verbal fluency Large vocabulary Superior analytical and reasoning ability High-capacity memory Goes beyond what is sought Abstract, complex, and insightful thinking
Creatively Gifted Independent High energy Curious Sense of humor Open-minded Need for privacy and alone time
Creatively Gifted Aware of their own creativeness Originality in thought and action Attracted to complexity and novelty Artistic tendencies Willing to take risks Perceptive
Characteristic ofEminent Adults Creative Imaginative Innovative A Sense of Destiny
And the not so good… Impulsive Egotistical Argumentative Rebellious Uncooperative Stubborn Childish Absentminded Neurotic Temperamental Capricious Careless Disorganized Demanding Indifferent to Conventions
Characteristics: Negative Uneven mental development Interpersonal difficulties Underachievement
Asynchronous Development Uneven intellectual, physical, and emotional development.
Asynchronous Development Cognitively understand advanced concepts (like mortality) but lack emotional maturity to cope with knowledge Perceived as older due to cognitive ability, but lack behavioral maturity
Identification Considerations There is no perfect identification system! Match identification procedures to the services provided
Identification Considerations High performance vs. high potential May require different kinds of programming options Establish localnorms using Grade level Similarity of learning opportunities Background characteristics
Identification Considerations Avoid designations or “rubber stamp” Identification procedures select students who would benefit from supplementary services Label the services, not the students
Identification Procedures Answer Who are the gifted and talented students? Why are we striving to identify them? How do we find them?
Identification Procedures Answer What are the most appropriate tools for identifying students’ gifts and talents? How are data from various tools analyzed and interpreted? Who is responsible for identifying students’ gifts and talents?
Identification Procedures Should: Be provided in multiple languages reflect the dominant student and parent populations Reflect the student population and demographics of the district
Identification Procedures Should: Reflect students’ needs Be defensible and inclusive Include students with disabilities who are English language learners economically disadvantaged
Identification Procedures Should: Be flexible Be communicated teachers parents administrators students Be updated at regular intervals to reflect changing demographics
3 Things to Avoid Pitting parents of advantaged children against parents of disadvantaged children Leading people to believe that any one instrument is the answer to identification Proliferating the amount of paperwork
Don’t go! I’m sure page 3 of Billy’s Gifted Matrix Checklist No. 5.3 (a) is in here somewhere.
Renzulli’sIdentification System Based on the 3-Ring Conception of Giftedness & The Enrichment Triad Model Strives for equity, excellence, and economy Designed to be flexible Based on research into the behavioral characteristics of highly creative & productive people
The 3 Goals ofRenzulli’s Identification System #1 Develop creativity and/or task commitment in students who may come to an educator’s attention through alternate means of identification.
The 3 Goals ofRenzulli’s Identification System #2 Provide learning experiences and support systems that promote interaction of creativity, task commitment, and above average achievement. (Bringing the “rings together!)
The 3 Goals ofRenzulli’s Identification System #3 Provide opportunities, resources, and encouragement for the development and application of gifted behaviors.
Internal Consistency Develop criteria foridentificationthat matches the program!
Internal Consistency Abilities and Interests of Students Services and Programs Provided Identification of interests and needs Characteristics of Students
Test Score Criteria [Approximately 50% of The Talent Pool] Total Talent Pool Consists of Approximately 15% of the General Population 99th %ile Test Score Nominations [Automatic, and Based on Local Norms] Step 1 92nd %ile Non-Test Criteria [Approximately 50% of The Talent Pool] Teacher Nominations [Automatic Except in Cases of Teachers Who Are Over or Under Nominators] Step 2 Step 3 Alternative Pathways Case Study Special Nominations Step 4 Case Study Notification of Parents Step 5 Action Information Nominations Step 6 Renzulli Identification System
Step 1: Test Score Nomination Achievement Testing And I.Q. Testing
Achievement Tests Iowa Tests of Basic Skills Riverside Publishing Company www.riversidepublishing.com Measures students’ academic skills in several content areas: reading, mathematics, social studies, science, and information sources
Achievement Tests Metropolitan Achievement Test Harcourt Brace Educational Measurement www.harcourtassessment.com Focuses on reading, mathematics, language, writing, science, and social studies
Achievement Tests Stanford Achievement Test Harcourt Brace Educational Measurement www.harcourtassessment.com Assesses reading, mathematics, language, spelling, study skills, science, social studies, and listening
Aptitude A readiness to learn or to perform well in a particular situation; requires a match between the situation demands and what the person brings to it.
Intelligence/Ability Tests Cognitive Abilities Test Form 6 (CogAT) Riverside Publishing www.riverpub.com/ Measures both general and specific reasoning abilities in three areas: verbal, quantitative, and nonverbal
Intelligence/Ability Tests Naglieri Nonverbal Ability Test Harcourt Brace Educational Measurement www.harcourtassessment.com Measures nonverbal reasoning and problem-solving abilities. Reading and math skills are not required to respond to each set of patterns.
Intelligence/Ability Tests Otis-Lennon School Ability Test Harcourt Brace Educational Measurement www.harcourtassessment.com Measures reasoning skills, including verbal comprehension, verbal reasoning, pictorial reasoning, figural reasoning, and quantitative reasoning.
Intelligence/Ability Tests Cornell Critical Thinking Tests Critical Thinking Books & Software www.criticalthinking.com Measures students’ ability to think critically when analyzing premises and conclusions, judge the reliability of information, and identify assumptions.
Intelligence/Ability Tests Kuhlmann-Anderson Tests Scholastic Testing Service www.ststesting.com Assesses verbal and nonverbal abilities. Measures academic potential or school learning ability.
Intelligence/Ability Tests Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT) Riverside Publishing www.riverpub.com Assessment of general intelligence, measured nonverbally.
Multiple Norm Groups Put data in spreadsheet Include an “opportunity-to-learn” index (e.g. ELL status) Sort data by percentile rank or SAS Provides Local Rank
Multiple Norm Groups Sort data again by “opportunity-to-learn” then percentile rank or SAS Provides list divided into two groups Identifies most talented ELL students and most talented native-speaking students
Multiple Score Review Avoid using composite scores – look at subtests individually Review the appropriate information Do not compare score with average children Look at the discrepancy between strengths and weaknesses
Step 3: Alternate Pathways Leads to initial consideration by a screening committee NOT AUTOMATIC!
Step 3: Alternate Pathways Screening evaluation based on: Previous school records Interviews with students, teachers, & parents Administered individual assessments recommended by committee Placed in program on trial basis.
Creative Thinking Skills Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking Scholastic Testing www.ststesting.com Figural and Verbal tests assess fluency, flexibility, and originality. The figural test also assesses elaboration.
Creative Thinking Skills Group Inventory for Finding Creative Talent Educational Assessment Service www.sylviarimm.com Focuses on creativity via imagination, independence, and multiple interests.
Why Creative Thinking Skills Assessments? Intelligence measures are predictive of academic or school success. Creativity measures are predictive of creative activities and accomplishments later in life. Better predictor of future success.
Talent Hidden by Underachievement Low self-esteem or Low self-efficacy Feelings of pessimism Anxious, impulsive, or inattentive Aggressive, hostile Depressed Socially immature
What about these characteristics? Inability to master certain academic skills Lack of motivation Disruptive classroom behavior Failure to complete assignments Lack of organizational skills Poor listening and concentration skills Unrealistic self-expectations
Twice-Exceptional Gifted with Learning Disability May also demonstrate Learned helplessness Perfectionism Supersensitivity Low self-esteem
Look For: Advanced vocabulary use Exceptional analytic abilities Divergent thinking High levels of creativity Spatial abilities Advanced problem-solving skills Specific aptitude Good memory
Cultural Influence Spirituality Harmony Movement & Verve Affect Communalism Expressive Individualism Oral Tradition Social Time Perspective
African American MAY… Seek structure and organization in required tasks Be slow to motivate in some abstract activities Have large vocabulary, but one inappropriate for school Makes up games or activities
African American MAY… Have extremely strong concentration Express displeasure in having to stop certain activities Be very independent Neglect school work due to other interests Not show expected achievement
Hispanics Express leadership collaboratively rather than competitively Demonstrate intensity through “Abrazo” (an index of personal support)
Step 4:Special Nominations Circulate a list to ALL past and present teachers Allows resource teachers to nominate Allows override of current teacher if necessary
Step 5:Notification & Orientation of Parents Letter of Notification Comprehensive description of Program Focuses on child placement in program or Talent Pool Not certification of giftedness
Step 5:Notification & Orientation of Parents Meeting to explain ALL program policies, procedures, & activities How admission to program was determined Additions may be made during year Invite further interactions
Step 5:Notification & Orientation of Parents Similar orientation for students! Not told they are gifted Focus on the opportunities available to develop gifted behaviors
Step 6: Action Information Nominations Safety Valve No.2
Step 6:Action Information Nominations The dynamic interactions that occur when a student becomes extremely interested in or excited about a particular topic, area of study, issue, idea, or event.
Step 6:Action Information Nominations Any enrichment opportunity (whether school or non-school) that might turn a student onto learning or causes them to express gifted behaviors.
Two Types of Information Leading to Identification Status Information Anything you can put down on paper beforehand that tells you something about the student. Action Information Things that you can only document when they are happening or after they happen.
Status Information Grades Test scores Student work samples Surveys Interest Learning Styles Expression Styles
Status Information Teacher input Parent input Students’ Self-nomination Peer Nominations
Sample Items…Imagine that you can spend a week job shadowing any person in your community to investigate a career you might like to have in the future. List the occupations of the persons you would select.1st choice ______________________2nd choice______________________3rd choice ______________________
Sample Items (Secondary Interest-A-Lyzer)…If you could conduct an interview with a man or woman you admire, past or present, who would it be? What 3 questions would you ask him or her?1. ____________________________________2. ____________________________________3. ____________________________________
Learning Styles Inventory Sample Items(Renzulli & Smith)… Really Dislike……..Really Like Being a member of a panel that 1 2 3 4 5 is discussing current events Working on your own to prepare 1 2 3 4 5 material you will discuss in class