Differentiation that Makes a         Difference:
The Enrichment Triad Model Angela M. HousandUniversity of North Carolina,...
angelahousand.com
What is your personal definition         of success?
What if all of you had a different    definition of success?
What if you were all in aclassroom with a singular set of        expectations?
Would you all succeed?
They Are All So Different… Children come to us in a variety   of shapes, sizes, intellectual abilities, creative abilities...
The success of educationdepends on adapting teachingto individual differences amonglearners.                              ...
What	  cons*tutes	  success	  in	  the	  21st	  Century?
.EC<<=%.;5DE;D5AB                                                                                                         ...
Enrichment Learning and             TeachingThe principles of enrichment learning and teaching are:	     Each learner is u...
Knowledge	  Knowledge	  Of	  	                             =   	                                        Basic	  Principles...
TYPE I*                 TYPE II  GENERAL                  GROUPEXPLORATORY              TRAINING ACTIVITIES              A...
Type I:General Exploratory Experiences
Type	  I	  Enrichment                                       	  •  Experiences	  and	  ac*vi*es	  that	  are	     purposefu...
+ Gimme Five!Today’s FiveAssembly           5 FabulousTED TalksEbook Online                      IdeasField TripsSkype an ...
TO
ReneBibaud
Jumpy Jumpertons        •  Choreographed a           “recital”        •  Introduced Schoolwide           “Jumpathon”      ...
ted.com"           23	  
NeverUnderEstimate thePower of aBook
eBooks           http://www.icdlbooks.org/            http://books.google.comhttp://kids.nypl.org/reading/Childrensebooks....
722,000
722,000
TYPE I*                 TYPE II  GENERAL                  GROUPEXPLORATORY              TRAINING ACTIVITIES              A...
Type II:The “HOW TO”
Type	  II	  Enrichment                                       	  •  The	  use	  of	  instruc*onal	  methods	  and	     mate...
Type II Enrichment:  Cognitive & Affective Training  •  Creative Thinking Skills  •  Creative Problem Solving and Decision...
Type II Enrichment:   Learning How to Learn Skills  •  Listening, Observing, and Perceiving     Skills  •  Note taking and...
Type II Enrichment:       Advanced Research Skills  •    Preparation for Type III Investigations  •    Research Skills  • ...
Type II Enrichment:       Communication Skills  •  Visual Communication  •  Oral Communication  •  Written Communication
+ Gimme Five!Today’s FiveHow To Books     5 FabulousYoutubeeHow                    IdeasAbout.comKhan Academy             ...
How to Build a Robot?
How to Build a Robot?
Student Behaviors Suggesting   that Compacting May Be          Necessary
•    Finishes tasks quickly•    Completes homework in class•    Appears bored during instruction time•    Brings in outsid...
•  Tests scores consistently excellent•  Asks questions that indicate advanced   familiarity with material•  Sought after ...
CompactingEliminates boredomresulting fromunnecessary drilland practice.Provides challengeleading tocontinuous growth.
722,000
TYPE I*                 TYPE II  GENERAL                  GROUPEXPLORATORY              TRAINING ACTIVITIES              A...
Interest and                          Rigor Lead To                          Creative                          Productivit...
Type III:Investigating Real Problems
Type	  III	  Enrichment                                         	  Inves&ga&ve	  ac&vi&es	  and	  ar&s&c	  produc&ons	  in...
Environmental Influences1.    Choice in and control over activities2.    Opportunities for help seeking3.    Student parti...
Person	  Environment	  Fit	  •  Person	  /	  Environment	  fit	  is	  the	  degree	  to	  which	     a	  person	  or	  thei...
D              I              G              I              T              A              L	     IMMIGRANTS	              ...
“From the standpoint of thechild…he is unable to apply indaily life what he is learningat school. That is theisolation of ...
AutonomyThe more autonomous (self-determined) a person believes theirbehavior to be the greater the personalsatisfaction a...
Competence…     Feelings of competence shape a  person’s willingness to actively engage    and persist in different behavi...
MotivationDiminished perception of competence       (self-efficacy), autonomy      (meaningfulness), or control (environme...
•  Tied to Student’s   Identity•  Personally   Interesting•  Integral to the   Student’s Vision   of the future•  Viewed a...
Applying the Triad:Middle School Humanities                Type I Activities•  Invited speaker from a local historical soc...
Applying the Triad:Middle School Humanities                 Type II Activities •    Locate information sources •    Interv...
Applying the Triad: Middle School Humanities                 Type III Products•  Chronicle of a historical walking tour of...
Type II ½:
The Illusion of Choice
 Start	  small	  (2-­‐3	  choices)	   Organize	  suppor*ve	  environment	      Interest	  Development	  Centers	      ...
Learning Contracts  An agreement between teacher and   student  An opportunity for a student to work   somewhat independ...
Learning Contracts       Include:  A skills component  A content component  A time line  Specification of expectations...
Consequences: Learning contracts set positive  consequences  Example: continued freedom They also set negative  conseque...
Independent                             Projects•  Build on student interest•  Encourage independence•  Allow work with co...
Timeline:• Start Date• Completion Date• Progress Report DatesProject Description: What doyou hope to find out or learn? "
Intended Project(s):• What form or format will the finalproject take?• How, when, and where willyou share and communicate ...
Getting Started:• What are the first steps youshould take to begin your work?• What types of information do youneed to fin...
Project Skills, Resources andMaterials I Will Need:What are the resources (people,organizations, businesses, etc.) Iwill n...
Intended Audience(s):• Who would be most interested inyour work or project?• What organized groups at thelocal, state, reg...
Standards:• Which standards are beingaddressed?• Does the student have ametacognitive understanding ofthese standards?• Do...
EMPOWER STUDENTS
Conner Cohen      AGE: 11  iSketch App
Ozair Patel         AGE: 13Berry School Mate
What Skills Are Required?    Problem Finding    Calculating    Organizing (relevant from irrelevant)    Planning    C...
The Question of Equity
All greatachievementsrequire time…      -Maya Angelou
The greater danger for most of uslies not in setting our aim too highand falling short;but in setting our aim too low,and ...
Questions?
Enrichment Clusters Are Not       Mini-Courses! Enrichment clusters are groups of students who share common interests and ...
Seven Steps to Implementing Enrichment    Clusters on a Schoolwide Basis    1.  Assess the Interests of Students and Staff...
•  What will I need to   work on my project?•  Where will I work?•  Who will I work with?•  What might hinder my   process?
•  Am I accomplishing   what I planned?•  Is this taking longer   than I thought?•  Am I on task or am I   being distracted?
•  Did I accomplish what I   planned to do?•  Was I distracted and how   did I get back to work?•  Did I plan enough time ...
Be Prepared to Let Go.
Cyclical and Ongoing
3 Ring Conception of Giftedness
OPERATION HOUNDSTOOTH           OPTIMISM                                  COURAGE                               ROMANCE WI...
Gifted Behaviors NOT Gifted People!
Gifted Artist      Talented MathematicianUse “defining” terms as adjectives:                    Talented Musician         ...
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T he Schoolwide Enrichment Model                    Joseph S. Renzulli & Sally M. Reis                                    ...
Reflect	  on	  YOUR	  teaching	  experiences….	  1.  Think	  about	  one	  or	  two	  students	  who	  have	  	      unique...
"First	  grade	  would	  be	  all	  right	  if	  it	  werent	  for	  the	  11	  sequels."	  
Individual	  Educa*onal	  Programming	  Guide—The	                       Compactor	                                       ...
Accelera*on	  •  Different	  books,	  same	  subject,	  different	  level	  of	     reading	  •  Math:	  odd	  problems	  on...
Ra&onale	  for	  Use	  •    Builds	  on	  student	  interest	  •    Sa*sfies	  curiosity	  •    Teachers	  planning	  and	 ...
Guidelines	  for	  Use	  •  Build	  on	  student	  interest	  •  Allow	  the	  student	  maximum	  freedom	  to	     plan,...
Why Aren’t SomeStudents Challenged?
Classroom Practices Study      Teachers reported that they never had      any training in meeting the needs of      gifted...
Classroom Practices                           Observational Study      Students experienced no instructional      or curri...
Your Experience:
   Addressing the needs ofDiverse Learners with Diverse       Learning Styles#"   What differentiation te...
Diversity in students can include:        Ability (aptitude) differences        Achievement differences        Differen...
Diversity in students can include:        Academic background differences             Potentially poor preparation      ...
100          80                                                                                                           ...
"Congratulations!! He seems very bright."
Sally Reis on Differentiation“The policy statements of almostevery school district in the nationreflect a commitment to me...
What is differentiation?Matching the given content area with a student’s interests, abilities, and learning styles through...
What is differentiated instruction? It’s teaching with student variance inmind.   It’s starting where the kids are rathe...
What Differentiated Instruction…           	IS        IS NOT• Differentiated instruction is     • Individualized instructi...
The Five Dimensions of Differentiation	  Content	                       Process	(Knowledge)	                   (Pedagogy)	...
A Quick Differentiation QUIZDid every student do it?                               NOShould every student do it?          ...
Ways to Differentiate Content•    Varied Texts•    Accelerated Coverage of Material•    Varied Supplementary Materials•   ...
Approximately 40-50% of              traditional classroom              material could be eliminated              for targ...
Compacting"  Assesses what a student knows and   what content is not yet mastered"  Content not yet mastered becomes part ...
When teachers eliminated as much as          50% of the curriculum, no differences          were found between treatment a...
What is Curriculum Compacting?"  Modifying or streamlining the regular   curriculum"  Eliminating the repetition of previo...
When once the child haslearned that four and twoare six, a thousandrepetitions will give him nonew information, and it is ...
A        BILIT                                            GROUPING       Y                                 RESEARCH-BASED ...
Cluster	  Grouping:	  	  An	  Inves&ga&on	  of	  Student	   Achievement,	  Iden&fica&on,	  and	  Classroom	                ...
Cluster GroupingSample Classroom Configuration
60585654                                                                                                    Treatment52   ...
605856                                                                                                  Treatment5452     ...
Flexible Grouping  Employs several organizational patterns for   instruction  Students are grouped and regrouped accordi...
Grouping Options  Teacher-Led Groups    Whole class    Small group    Individual  Student-Led Groups    Collaborativ...
More Grouping Options  Within Class Grouping       Ability       Interest       Question-Based       Readiness      ...
Ways to Differentiate Content in Groups    Varied Texts    Varied Supplementary Materials    Varied Graphic Organizers...
Anchor Activities   Self-paced, purposeful, content-    driven activities that students can    work on independently   C...
In Class Enrichment•  Interest Development Centers•  Learning Games•  Special Class Projects  –  Community Service, Simula...
How do I make room for     everybody?           •  Provide enrichment              opportunities for the              whol...
Joseph S. Renzulli   Abilities                   Interests                                          Style PreferencesMaxim...
Interest-A-Lyzer
Sample Items…  Imagine that you can spend a week job shadowing any  person in your community to investigate a career you  ...
Sample Items (Secondary Interest-A-Lyzer)…If you could conduct an interview with a man orwoman you admire, past or present...
Learning Styles InventorySample Items (Renzulli  Smith)…                                 Really Dislike……..Really LikeBein...
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
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Differentiation that Makes a Difference
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
Differentiation that Makes a Difference
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Differentiation that Makes a Difference

  1. 1. Differentiation that Makes a Difference:
The Enrichment Triad Model Angela M. HousandUniversity of North Carolina, WilmingtonNova Scotia Summit 2012
  2. 2. angelahousand.com
  3. 3. What is your personal definition of success?
  4. 4. What if all of you had a different definition of success?
  5. 5. What if you were all in aclassroom with a singular set of expectations?
  6. 6. Would you all succeed?
  7. 7. They Are All So Different… Children come to us in a variety of shapes, sizes, intellectual abilities, creative abilities, inter/intra personal skills, and a myriad more characteristics that makes each child we deal with unique and special. Carol Ann Tomlinson
  8. 8. The success of educationdepends on adapting teachingto individual differences amonglearners. Yuezheng, in 4th century B. C. Chinese treatise, Xue Ji
  9. 9. What  cons*tutes  success  in  the  21st  Century?
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
  11. 11. Enrichment Learning and TeachingThe principles of enrichment learning and teaching are: Each learner is unique. Learning is more effective when students enjoy what they are doing. Learning is more meaningful when content and process are learned within the context of a real problem. Learning can be enhanced through informal instruction that uses applications of students constructed knowledge and skills.
  12. 12. Knowledge  Knowledge  Of     =   Basic  Principles  &             Key  Concepts  Knowledge  How     =   Methodology  Knowledge  About     =   Applica*on  of   Principles  &  Concepts  
  13. 13. TYPE I* TYPE II GENERAL GROUPEXPLORATORY TRAINING ACTIVITIES ACTIVITIES TYPE III INDIVIDUAL & SMALL GROUP INVESTIGATIONS OF REAL PROBLEMS
  14. 14. Type I:General Exploratory Experiences
  15. 15. Type  I  Enrichment  •  Experiences  and  ac*vi*es  that  are   purposefully  designed  to  expose  students  to  a   wide  variety  of  topics,  issues,  and  ac*vi*es   not  ordinarily  covered  in  the  regular   curriculum.  
  16. 16. + Gimme Five!Today’s FiveAssembly 5 FabulousTED TalksEbook Online IdeasField TripsSkype an Expert 4 Your Type 1
  17. 17. TO
  18. 18. ReneBibaud
  19. 19. Jumpy Jumpertons •  Choreographed a “recital” •  Introduced Schoolwide “Jumpathon” •  Raised $1200
  20. 20. ted.com" 23  
  21. 21. NeverUnderEstimate thePower of aBook
  22. 22. eBooks http://www.icdlbooks.org/ http://books.google.comhttp://kids.nypl.org/reading/Childrensebooks.cfm http://etext.library.adelaide.edu.au/
  23. 23. 722,000
  24. 24. 722,000
  25. 25. TYPE I* TYPE II GENERAL GROUPEXPLORATORY TRAINING ACTIVITIES ACTIVITIES TYPE III INDIVIDUAL & SMALL GROUP INVESTIGATIONS OF REAL PROBLEMS
  26. 26. Type II:The “HOW TO”
  27. 27. Type  II  Enrichment  •  The  use  of  instruc*onal  methods  and   materials  that  are  purposefully  designed  to   promote  the  development  of  thinking  skills   and  foster  the  use  of  authen*c,  inves*ga*ve   methods  in  students.    
  28. 28. Type II Enrichment: Cognitive & Affective Training •  Creative Thinking Skills •  Creative Problem Solving and Decision Making •  Critical and Logical Thinking •  Affective Skills
  29. 29. Type II Enrichment: Learning How to Learn Skills •  Listening, Observing, and Perceiving Skills •  Note taking and Outlining •  Interviews and Surveys •  Analyzing and Organizing Data
  30. 30. Type II Enrichment: Advanced Research Skills •  Preparation for Type III Investigations •  Research Skills •  Community Resources •  Internet Research •  New Literacies
  31. 31. Type II Enrichment: Communication Skills •  Visual Communication •  Oral Communication •  Written Communication
  32. 32. + Gimme Five!Today’s FiveHow To Books 5 FabulousYoutubeeHow IdeasAbout.comKhan Academy 4 Your Type 2
  33. 33. How to Build a Robot?
  34. 34. How to Build a Robot?
  35. 35. Student Behaviors Suggesting that Compacting May Be Necessary
  36. 36. •  Finishes tasks quickly•  Completes homework in class•  Appears bored during instruction time•  Brings in outside reading material•  Creates puzzles, games, or diversions in class
  37. 37. •  Tests scores consistently excellent•  Asks questions that indicate advanced familiarity with material•  Sought after by others for assistance•  Daydreams
  38. 38. CompactingEliminates boredomresulting fromunnecessary drilland practice.Provides challengeleading tocontinuous growth.
  39. 39. 722,000
  40. 40. TYPE I* TYPE II GENERAL GROUPEXPLORATORY TRAINING ACTIVITIES ACTIVITIES TYPE III INDIVIDUAL & SMALL GROUP INVESTIGATIONS OF REAL PROBLEMS
  41. 41. Interest and Rigor Lead To Creative Productivity“We need students to get more deeply interested in things, more involved in them, more engaged in wanting to know, to have projects that they can get excited about and work on over long periods of time, to be stimulated to find things out on their own.”
  42. 42. Type III:Investigating Real Problems
  43. 43. Type  III  Enrichment  Inves&ga&ve  ac&vi&es  and  ar&s&c  produc&ons  in  which  the  learner  assumes  the  role  of  a  first-­‐hand  inquirer  and  a  prac&cing  professional.  
  44. 44. Environmental Influences1.  Choice in and control over activities2.  Opportunities for help seeking3.  Student participation in evaluation4.  Provision of complex tasks (Boekaerts & Corno, 2005; DeCorte, Verschaffel, & DeVen, 2001; Folkesson & Swalander, 2007; Hadwin et. al., 2001; Perry, 1998; Perry, Hutchinson, & Thauberger, 2007; Perry, Norby, & VandeKamp, 2003; Perry, Phillips, & Dowler, 2004; Turner, 1995)
  45. 45. Person  Environment  Fit  •  Person  /  Environment  fit  is  the  degree  to  which   a  person  or  their  personality  is  compa*ble  with   their  environment  
  46. 46. D I G I T A L   IMMIGRANTS   D I V I D E  NATIVES  
  47. 47. “From the standpoint of thechild…he is unable to apply indaily life what he is learningat school. That is theisolation of the school - itsisolation from life.” John Dewey
  48. 48. AutonomyThe more autonomous (self-determined) a person believes theirbehavior to be the greater the personalsatisfaction and enjoyment fromengaging in that behavior.
  49. 49. Competence… Feelings of competence shape a person’s willingness to actively engage and persist in different behaviors. (Bandura 1986, 1997)
  50. 50. MotivationDiminished perception of competence (self-efficacy), autonomy (meaningfulness), or control (environmental perception) leads to lower motivation and a decreasedwillingness to pursue goals and persist in their attainment, thus limiting overall educational growth.
  51. 51. •  Tied to Student’s Identity•  Personally Interesting•  Integral to the Student’s Vision of the future•  Viewed as Useful (Eccles & Wigfield)
  52. 52. Applying the Triad:Middle School Humanities Type I Activities•  Invited speaker from a local historical society•  Simulation activity•  Field trip to related historical site•  Display of historical memorabilia and old newspapers•  Panel discussion by historians and local experts•  Videos (fiction and nonfiction)•  Television special on related area
  53. 53. Applying the Triad:Middle School Humanities Type II Activities •  Locate information sources •  Interview skills •  Debate controversial historical issues •  Research skills •  Photography & media skills •  Advanced writing & editing •  Evaluation of primary sources •  Identifying stereotypes & bias in texts
  54. 54. Applying the Triad: Middle School Humanities Type III Products•  Chronicle of a historical walking tour of a city•  Oral history interviews with past city mayors•  Development of a simulation war game•  Media presentation of the music of the 1940s•  Oral history interviews recording a factorys influence on a community•  A book summarizing local folklore•  A family tree: A study of genealogy.
  55. 55. Type II ½:
  56. 56. The Illusion of Choice
  57. 57.  Start  small  (2-­‐3  choices)   Organize  suppor*ve  environment    Interest  Development  Centers    Pre-­‐planned  Crea*vity  Ac*vi*es    CD  Listening/Reading  Center   Set  clear  performance  standards;   perceived  by  students  as  aainable  
  58. 58. Learning Contracts  An agreement between teacher and student  An opportunity for a student to work somewhat independently  Increases student responsibility for their own learning  Provides some freedom for the student in acquiring skills and understandings
  59. 59. Learning Contracts Include:  A skills component  A content component  A time line  Specification of expectations •  Behavior •  Criteria for successful completion and quality  Signatures of agreement to terms (Student and Teacher) ACSD (1997) Tomlinson (1995)
  60. 60. Consequences: Learning contracts set positive consequences Example: continued freedom They also set negative consequences Example: teacher sets work parameters
  61. 61. Independent Projects•  Build on student interest•  Encourage independence•  Allow work with complex and abstract ideas•  Enable long-term and in-depth work on topics of interest•  Develop task commitment and self-regulation•  Teach planning and research skills at advanced levels
  62. 62. Timeline:• Start Date• Completion Date• Progress Report DatesProject Description: What doyou hope to find out or learn? "
  63. 63. Intended Project(s):• What form or format will the finalproject take?• How, when, and where willyou share and communicate theresults of your project with otherpeople?• In what ways will you share yourwork?What Format Will Your ProjectTake? "What will your product be?
  64. 64. Getting Started:• What are the first steps youshould take to begin your work?• What types of information do youneed to find in order to do yourwork?• Where will you get theinformation you need? Whatquestions do you have that youneed answered in order to startyour work?• What help do you need from yourteacher or parents?
  65. 65. Project Skills, Resources andMaterials I Will Need:What are the resources (people,organizations, businesses, etc.) Iwill need to do this project?
  66. 66. Intended Audience(s):• Who would be most interested inyour work or project?• What organized groups at thelocal, state, regional and nationallevels might be interested in mywork?• Where might I display this work?• What information will I need tocontact these people and tellthem about my work?
  67. 67. Standards:• Which standards are beingaddressed?• Does the student have ametacognitive understanding ofthese standards?• Does the student have a vestedinterest in meeting and/orexceeding these standards?
  68. 68. EMPOWER STUDENTS
  69. 69. Conner Cohen AGE: 11 iSketch App
  70. 70. Ozair Patel AGE: 13Berry School Mate
  71. 71. What Skills Are Required?  Problem Finding  Calculating  Organizing (relevant from irrelevant)  Planning  Communication  Collaboration  Metacognitive
  72. 72. The Question of Equity
  73. 73. All greatachievementsrequire time… -Maya Angelou
  74. 74. The greater danger for most of uslies not in setting our aim too highand falling short;but in setting our aim too low,and achieving our mark. -Michelangelo
  75. 75. Questions?
  76. 76. Enrichment Clusters Are Not Mini-Courses! Enrichment clusters are groups of students who share common interests and come together during special time blocks to pursue these interests with adults who share their interests and want to help students develop their talents in this area and produce a product or service!
  77. 77. Seven Steps to Implementing Enrichment Clusters on a Schoolwide Basis 1.  Assess the Interests of Students and Staff 2.  Set Up a Wall Chart 3.  Create a Schedule 4.  Locate People and Staff to Facilitate Clusters 5.  Provide an Orientation for Cluster Facilitators 6.  Prepare Cluster Descriptions and Register Students by Placing Them in Clusters of Interest to Them 7.  Celebrate Your Success
  78. 78. •  What will I need to work on my project?•  Where will I work?•  Who will I work with?•  What might hinder my process?
  79. 79. •  Am I accomplishing what I planned?•  Is this taking longer than I thought?•  Am I on task or am I being distracted?
  80. 80. •  Did I accomplish what I planned to do?•  Was I distracted and how did I get back to work?•  Did I plan enough time or did it take longer than I thought?•  In which situation did I accomplish the most work?
  81. 81. Be Prepared to Let Go.
  82. 82. Cyclical and Ongoing
  83. 83. 3 Ring Conception of Giftedness
  84. 84. OPERATION HOUNDSTOOTH OPTIMISM COURAGE ROMANCE WITH A TOPIC OR DISCIPLINE •hope •Psychological/intellectual•positive feelings from hard work independence •absorption •moral conviction •passion SENSITIVITY TO HUMAN PHYSICAL/MENTAL ENERGY VISION/SENSE OF CONCERNS DESTINY •charisma •insight •curiosity •sense of power to change things •empathy •sense of direction •pursuit of goals diversity WISDOM balance SATISFYING LIFESTYLE THE PURSUIT OF HAPPINESS harmony proportion © Operation Houndstooth The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented University of Connecticut Joseph S. Renzulli, Rachel E. Sytsma, & Kristin B. Berman November, 2000 www.gifted.uconn.edu
  85. 85. Gifted Behaviors NOT Gifted People!
  86. 86. Gifted Artist Talented MathematicianUse “defining” terms as adjectives: Talented Musician Gifted Writer
  87. 87. 722,000
  88. 88. T he Schoolwide Enrichment Model Joseph S. Renzulli & Sally M. Reis School Structures The Total Talent PortfolioCurriculum Modification TechniquesEnrichment Learning and Teaching TYPE I TYPE II GENERAL GROUP EXPLORATORY TRAINING ACTIVITIES ACTIVITIES TYPE III INDIVIDUAL & SMALL GROUP INVESTIGATIONS OF REAL PROBLEMS Regular Classroom Environment Service Delivery Components www.gifted.uconn.edu
  89. 89. Reflect  on  YOUR  teaching  experiences….  1.  Think  about  one  or  two  students  who  have     unique  learning  needs  and  experiences.  2.  Consider  what  these  learners  need  to  make   con&nuous  progress  in  learning?  3.  Think  about  how  you  can  meet  the  needs  of   students  with  diverse  (a)  readiness  levels,  (b)   interests,(c)  learning  styles?  4.  What  factors  make  it  easy  or  difficult  to  modify   curriculum  and  instruc&on  for  diverse  learners?  
  90. 90. "First  grade  would  be  all  right  if  it  werent  for  the  11  sequels."  
  91. 91. Individual  Educa*onal  Programming  Guide—The   Compactor   Individual Conference Dates and Persons Name Age Teacher Participating in Planning of IEP School Grade Parent(s) Curriculum   Procedures   Accelera&on   Areas  to  Be   for   and/or   Considered   Compac&ng   Enrichment   for   Basic   Ac&vi&es   Compac&ng   Materials  
  92. 92. Accelera*on  •  Different  books,  same  subject,  different  level  of   reading  •  Math:  odd  problems  only,  to  free  up  *me  for   independent  study  of  another  facet  of  math  that  the   student  would  not  otherwise  study  •  Skip  a  grade  •  Skip  a  grade  in  one  subject  
  93. 93. Ra&onale  for  Use  •  Builds  on  student  interest  •  Sa*sfies  curiosity  •  Teachers  planning  and  research  skills   at  advanced  levels  •  Encourages  independence  •  Allows  work  with  complex  &  abstract   ideas  •  Allows  long-­‐term  and  in-­‐depth  work   on  topics  of  interest  •  Taps  into  high  mo*va*on  
  94. 94. Guidelines  for  Use  •  Build  on  student  interest  •  Allow  the  student  maximum  freedom  to   plan,  based  on  student  readiness  for   freedom  •  Teacher  provides  the  guidance  &  structure   to  supplement  student  capacity  to  plan   and  ensure  high  standards  of  produc*on  •   Use  present  *melines  to  zap   procras*na*on  •  Use  process  logs  to  document  the  process   involved  throughout  the  study  •  Establish  criteria  for  success  
  95. 95. Why Aren’t SomeStudents Challenged?
  96. 96. Classroom Practices Study Teachers reported that they never had any training in meeting the needs of gifted students. 61% public school teachers 54% private school teachersArchambault, F. X., Jr., Westberg, K. L., Brown, S. W., Hallmark, B. W., Emmons, C. L., & Zhang, W. (1993). Regular classroom practices with gifted students: Results of a national survey of classroom teachers (Research Monograph 93102). Storrs, CT: The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented, University of Connecticut."
  97. 97. Classroom Practices Observational Study Students experienced no instructional or curricular differentiation in 84% of the activities in which they participated: Reading Language Arts Mathematics Social Studies ScienceWestberg, K. L., Archambault, F. X., Jr., Dobyns, S. M., & Salvin, T. J. (1993). An observational study of instructional and curricular practices used with gifted and talented students in regular classroom (Research Monograph 93104). Storrs, CT: The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented, University of Connecticut."
  98. 98. Your Experience:
 Addressing the needs ofDiverse Learners with Diverse Learning Styles#"   What differentiation techniques have you employed?""   What are your greatest successes?""   How do you think differentiation of learning styles might be different from or similar to differentiation for readiness level, ability, and interests? "
  99. 99. Diversity in students can include:   Ability (aptitude) differences   Achievement differences   Differences in affect   Enthusiasm level and personality   Differences in effort   Effort vs. Ability
  100. 100. Diversity in students can include:   Academic background differences   Potentially poor preparation   Limited exposure   Cultural differences   Second language acquisition   Interaction style differences   Differences in self-regulation and study skills
  101. 101. 100 80 Reading Language Arts Mathematics 60Percent Science 40 Social Studies All Subject Areas 20 0 No Differentiation Advanced Content Advanced Process Advanced Product Assigned Topic Self-selected Topic Differentiation Indep. Study w/ Indep. Study w/ Other No Differentiation Advanced Content Advanced Process Advanced Product Indep. Study w/Assigned Indep. Study w/Self-selected OtherDifferentiation
  102. 102. "Congratulations!! He seems very bright."
  103. 103. Sally Reis on Differentiation“The policy statements of almostevery school district in the nationreflect a commitment to meetingstudents’ individual needs, and yet,many districts lack a capacity toput these policies into practice.”
  104. 104. What is differentiation?Matching the given content area with a student’s interests, abilities, and learning styles through various instructional strategies.
  105. 105. What is differentiated instruction? It’s teaching with student variance inmind.  It’s starting where the kids are rather than with a standardized approach to teaching that assumes all kids of a given age or grade are essentially alike.  It’s responsive teaching rather than one-size fits-all teaching.
  106. 106. What Differentiated Instruction… IS IS NOT• Differentiated instruction is • Individualized instructionmore QUALITATIVE than • Chaoticquantitative. • Just another way to provide• Differentiated instruction homogeneous instructionprovides MULTIPLE (inflexible grouping)approaches to content, • Just modifying gradingprocess, and product. systems and reducing• Differentiated instruction is workloadsSTUDENT CENTERED. • More work for the “good”• Differentiated instruction is a students and less andBLEND of whole-class, group different for the “poor”and individual instruction. students• Differentiated instruction is“ORGANIC.”
  107. 107. The Five Dimensions of Differentiation Content Process (Knowledge) (Pedagogy) Yourself Classroom Products Organization and (Expression Styles) Management
  108. 108. A Quick Differentiation QUIZDid every student do it? NOShould every student do it? NOCould every student do it? NOWould every student want to do it? NODid the student do it willingly and zestfully? YESDid the student use authentic resources YESand methodology?Was it done for an audience other than (or YESin addition to) the teacher?
  109. 109. Ways to Differentiate Content•  Varied Texts•  Accelerated Coverage of Material•  Varied Supplementary Materials•  Independent Study•  Tiered Assignments•  Interest Development Centers•  Compacting
  110. 110. Approximately 40-50% of traditional classroom material could be eliminated for targeted students.Reis, S. M., Westberg, K.L., Kulikowich, J., Caillard, F., Hébert, T., Plucker, J., Purcell, J.H., Rogers, J.B., & Smist,J.M. (1993). Why not let high ability students start school in January? The curriculum compacting study (ResearchMonograph 93106). Storrs, CT: The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented, University of Connecticut."
  111. 111. Compacting"  Assesses what a student knows and what content is not yet mastered"  Content not yet mastered becomes part of learning goals"  Previously mastered content is not required thereby “freeing up” time for enriched, accelerated, or interest driven activities Renzulli & Reis (1997) Tomlinson (1995)
  112. 112. When teachers eliminated as much as 50% of the curriculum, no differences were found between treatment and control groups in most content areas. In fact, students whose curriculum was compacted scored higher than control group students in some areas.Reis, S. M., Westberg, K.L., Kulikowich, J., Caillard, F., Hébert, T., Plucker, J., Purcell, J.H., Rogers, J.B., & Smist,J.M. (1993). Why not let high ability students start school in January? The curriculum compacting study (ResearchMonograph 93106). Storrs, CT: The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented, University of Connecticut."
  113. 113. What is Curriculum Compacting?"  Modifying or streamlining the regular curriculum"  Eliminating the repetition of previously mastered material"  Upgrading the challenge level of the regular curriculum
  114. 114. When once the child haslearned that four and twoare six, a thousandrepetitions will give him nonew information, and it is awaste of time to keep himemployed in that manner. J.M. Greenwood Principles of Education Practically Applied, 1888
  115. 115. A BILIT GROUPING Y RESEARCH-BASED DECISION MAKING SERIESAll  youngsters  profit  from  grouping  programs  that  adjust  the  curriculum  to  the  ap*tude  levels  of  the  groups.    Schools  should  try  to  use  ability  grouping  in  this  way.  
  116. 116. Cluster  Grouping:    An  Inves&ga&on  of  Student   Achievement,  Iden&fica&on,  and  Classroom   Prac&ces   Marcia  Gentry  
  117. 117. Cluster GroupingSample Classroom Configuration
  118. 118. 60585654 Treatment52 Comparison504846444240 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grades Figure  3.    Adjusted  NCE  total  baery  means  for  treatment  and  comparison   school  students  class  of  2000.  
  119. 119. 605856 Treatment5452 Comparison504846444240 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grades Figure  4.  Adjusted  NCE  total  baery  means  for  treatment  and  comparison   school  students  class  of  2001.  
  120. 120. Flexible Grouping  Employs several organizational patterns for instruction  Students are grouped and regrouped according to:   Specific goals   Activities   Individual needs   Interests   Desired outcomes (products) http://www.eduplace.com/science/profdev/articles/valentino.html
  121. 121. Grouping Options  Teacher-Led Groups   Whole class   Small group   Individual  Student-Led Groups   Collaborative   Performance-based   Dyad (Pairs) http://www.eduplace.com/science/profdev/articles/valentino.html
  122. 122. More Grouping Options  Within Class Grouping   Ability   Interest   Question-Based   Readiness   Learning Style  Beyond Class Grouping   Across-Class   Multi-Age   Team Regrouping Renzulli & Reis (1997) Tomlinson (1995)
  123. 123. Ways to Differentiate Content in Groups  Varied Texts  Varied Supplementary Materials  Varied Graphic Organizers  Independent Study  Tiered Questions/Assignments  Interest Development Centers
  124. 124. Anchor Activities   Self-paced, purposeful, content- driven activities that students can work on independently   Can be done over the course of a unit, grading period, or longer   Activities that are meaningful, ongoing, and appropriate to students’ learning needs http://wblrd.sk.ca/~bestpractice/anchor/
  125. 125. In Class Enrichment•  Interest Development Centers•  Learning Games•  Special Class Projects –  Community Service, Simulations, Class Meetings, Field Trips, Videos, Guest Speakers, Free Choice Reading Time, Cooking, Art, Science, Nature Walks, etc.
  126. 126. How do I make room for everybody? •  Provide enrichment opportunities for the whole school –  Service Projects –  School Olympics –  Monster Mansion –  Art Show –  Family Nights –  Science Fairs
  127. 127. Joseph S. Renzulli Abilities Interests Style PreferencesMaximum Instructional Learning Thinking ExpressionPerformance Interest Styles Environment Styles StyleIndicators Areas Preferences Preferences Preferences PreferencesTests Fine Arts Recitation & Drill Written Inter/Intra Analytic •Standardized Peer Tutoring Crafts Personal (School Smart) Lecture Oral •Teacher-Made Literary •Self-Oriented Lecture/DiscussionCourse Grades Synthetic/ Historical Discussion •Peer-Oriented ManipulativeTeacher Ratings Creative Mathematical/Logical Guided Independent •Adult-OrientedProduct Evaluation (Creative, Study * Inventive) Discussion •Written Physical Sciences •Combined Learning /Interest •Oral Life Sciences Center Physical Display Practical/ •Visual Political/Judicial Simulation, Role Playing, •Sound Contextual Athletic/Recreation Dramatization, Guided •Heat (Street Smart) Dramatization •Musical Fantasy •Constructed Marketing/Business •Light Learning Games Legislative Artistic(Note differences between Drama/Dance Replicative Reports or •Designassigned and self-selected Musical Performance Projects* •Mobility Executive Graphicproducts) Musical Composition Investigative Reports or •Time of DayLevel of Participation Projects* Judicial Commercial in Learning Managerial/Business •Food Intake Unguided Independent Activities Photography •Seating Study* Ref: Sternberg, ServiceDegree of Interaction 1984, 1988, 1990 Film/Video Internship* With Others Ref: Amabile, 1983; Computers Apprenticeship* Ref: Kettle, Renzulli, Dunn, Dunn, & Price, & Rizza, 1998;Ref: General Tests and Other (Specify) *With or without a mentor 1977; Gardner, 1983 Renzulli & Reis, 1985Measurements Literature Ref: Renzulli, 1997 Ref: Renzulli & Smith, 1978
  128. 128. Interest-A-Lyzer
  129. 129. Sample Items… Imagine that you can spend a week job shadowing any person in your community to investigate a career you might like to have in the future. List the occupations of the persons you would select. 1st choice ______________________ 2nd choice______________________ 3rd choice ______________________
  130. 130. Sample Items (Secondary Interest-A-Lyzer)…If you could conduct an interview with a man orwoman you admire, past or present, who would itbe? What 3 questions would you ask him or her?1. ____________________________________2. ____________________________________3. ____________________________________
  131. 131. Learning Styles InventorySample Items (Renzulli Smith)… Really Dislike……..Really LikeBeing a member of a panel that 1 2 3 4 5is discussing current eventsWorking on your own to prepare 1 2 3 4 5material you will discuss in class

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