They Are All So Different… Children come to us in a variety of shapes, sizes, intellectual abilities, creative abilities, inter/intra personal skills, and a myriad more characteristics that makes each child we deal with unique and special. Carol Ann Tomlinson
The success of educationdepends on adapting teachingto individual differences amonglearners. Yuezheng, in 4th century B. C. Chinese treatise, Xue Ji
Enrichment Learning and TeachingThe principles of enrichment learning and teaching are: Each learner is unique. Learning is more effective when students enjoy what they are doing. Learning is more meaningful when content and process are learned within the context of a real problem. Learning can be enhanced through informal instruction that uses applications of students constructed knowledge and skills.
Knowledge Knowledge Of = Basic Principles & Key Concepts Knowledge How = Methodology Knowledge About = Applica*on of Principles & Concepts
TYPE I* TYPE II GENERAL GROUPEXPLORATORY TRAINING ACTIVITIES ACTIVITIES TYPE III INDIVIDUAL & SMALL GROUP INVESTIGATIONS OF REAL PROBLEMS
Type II Enrichment • The use of instruc*onal methods and materials that are purposefully designed to promote the development of thinking skills and foster the use of authen*c, inves*ga*ve methods in students.
Type II Enrichment: Cognitive & Affective Training • Creative Thinking Skills • Creative Problem Solving and Decision Making • Critical and Logical Thinking • Affective Skills
Type II Enrichment: Learning How to Learn Skills • Listening, Observing, and Perceiving Skills • Note taking and Outlining • Interviews and Surveys • Analyzing and Organizing Data
Type II Enrichment: Advanced Research Skills • Preparation for Type III Investigations • Research Skills • Community Resources • Internet Research • New Literacies
Type II Enrichment: Communication Skills • Visual Communication • Oral Communication • Written Communication
+ Gimme Five!Today’s FiveHow To Books 5 FabulousYoutubeeHow IdeasAbout.comKhan Academy 4 Your Type 2
TYPE I* TYPE II GENERAL GROUPEXPLORATORY TRAINING ACTIVITIES ACTIVITIES TYPE III INDIVIDUAL & SMALL GROUP INVESTIGATIONS OF REAL PROBLEMS
Interest and Rigor Lead To Creative Productivity“We need students to get more deeply interested in things, more involved in them, more engaged in wanting to know, to have projects that they can get excited about and work on over long periods of time, to be stimulated to find things out on their own.”
“From the standpoint of thechild…he is unable to apply indaily life what he is learningat school. That is theisolation of the school - itsisolation from life.” John Dewey
AutonomyThe more autonomous (self-determined) a person believes theirbehavior to be the greater the personalsatisfaction and enjoyment fromengaging in that behavior.
Competence… Feelings of competence shape a person’s willingness to actively engage and persist in different behaviors. (Bandura 1986, 1997)
MotivationDiminished perception of competence (self-efficacy), autonomy (meaningfulness), or control (environmental perception) leads to lower motivation and a decreasedwillingness to pursue goals and persist in their attainment, thus limiting overall educational growth.
• Tied to Student’s Identity• Personally Interesting• Integral to the Student’s Vision of the future• Viewed as Useful (Eccles & Wigfield)
Applying the Triad:Middle School Humanities Type I Activities• Invited speaker from a local historical society• Simulation activity• Field trip to related historical site• Display of historical memorabilia and old newspapers• Panel discussion by historians and local experts• Videos (fiction and nonfiction)• Television special on related area
Applying the Triad:Middle School Humanities Type II Activities • Locate information sources • Interview skills • Debate controversial historical issues • Research skills • Photography & media skills • Advanced writing & editing • Evaluation of primary sources • Identifying stereotypes & bias in texts
Applying the Triad: Middle School Humanities Type III Products• Chronicle of a historical walking tour of a city• Oral history interviews with past city mayors• Development of a simulation war game• Media presentation of the music of the 1940s• Oral history interviews recording a factorys influence on a community• A book summarizing local folklore• A family tree: A study of genealogy.
Start small (2-‐3 choices) Organize suppor*ve environment Interest Development Centers Pre-‐planned Crea*vity Ac*vi*es CD Listening/Reading Center Set clear performance standards; perceived by students as aainable
Learning Contracts An agreement between teacher and student An opportunity for a student to work somewhat independently Increases student responsibility for their own learning Provides some freedom for the student in acquiring skills and understandings
Learning Contracts Include: A skills component A content component A time line Specification of expectations • Behavior • Criteria for successful completion and quality Signatures of agreement to terms (Student and Teacher) ACSD (1997) Tomlinson (1995)
Consequences: Learning contracts set positive consequences Example: continued freedom They also set negative consequences Example: teacher sets work parameters
Independent Projects• Build on student interest• Encourage independence• Allow work with complex and abstract ideas• Enable long-term and in-depth work on topics of interest• Develop task commitment and self-regulation• Teach planning and research skills at advanced levels
Timeline:• Start Date• Completion Date• Progress Report DatesProject Description: What doyou hope to find out or learn? "
Intended Project(s):• What form or format will the finalproject take?• How, when, and where willyou share and communicate theresults of your project with otherpeople?• In what ways will you share yourwork?What Format Will Your ProjectTake? "What will your product be?
Getting Started:• What are the first steps youshould take to begin your work?• What types of information do youneed to find in order to do yourwork?• Where will you get theinformation you need? Whatquestions do you have that youneed answered in order to startyour work?• What help do you need from yourteacher or parents?
Project Skills, Resources andMaterials I Will Need:What are the resources (people,organizations, businesses, etc.) Iwill need to do this project?
Intended Audience(s):• Who would be most interested inyour work or project?• What organized groups at thelocal, state, regional and nationallevels might be interested in mywork?• Where might I display this work?• What information will I need tocontact these people and tellthem about my work?
Standards:• Which standards are beingaddressed?• Does the student have ametacognitive understanding ofthese standards?• Does the student have a vestedinterest in meeting and/orexceeding these standards?
Enrichment Clusters Are Not Mini-Courses! Enrichment clusters are groups of students who share common interests and come together during special time blocks to pursue these interests with adults who share their interests and want to help students develop their talents in this area and produce a product or service!
Seven Steps to Implementing Enrichment Clusters on a Schoolwide Basis 1. Assess the Interests of Students and Staff 2. Set Up a Wall Chart 3. Create a Schedule 4. Locate People and Staff to Facilitate Clusters 5. Provide an Orientation for Cluster Facilitators 6. Prepare Cluster Descriptions and Register Students by Placing Them in Clusters of Interest to Them 7. Celebrate Your Success
• What will I need to work on my project?• Where will I work?• Who will I work with?• What might hinder my process?
• Am I accomplishing what I planned?• Is this taking longer than I thought?• Am I on task or am I being distracted?
• Did I accomplish what I planned to do?• Was I distracted and how did I get back to work?• Did I plan enough time or did it take longer than I thought?• In which situation did I accomplish the most work?
T he Schoolwide Enrichment Model Joseph S. Renzulli & Sally M. Reis School Structures The Total Talent PortfolioCurriculum Modification TechniquesEnrichment Learning and Teaching TYPE I TYPE II GENERAL GROUP EXPLORATORY TRAINING ACTIVITIES ACTIVITIES TYPE III INDIVIDUAL & SMALL GROUP INVESTIGATIONS OF REAL PROBLEMS Regular Classroom Environment Service Delivery Components www.gifted.uconn.edu
Reﬂect on YOUR teaching experiences…. 1. Think about one or two students who have unique learning needs and experiences. 2. Consider what these learners need to make con&nuous progress in learning? 3. Think about how you can meet the needs of students with diverse (a) readiness levels, (b) interests,(c) learning styles? 4. What factors make it easy or diﬃcult to modify curriculum and instruc&on for diverse learners?
"First grade would be all right if it werent for the 11 sequels."
Individual Educa*onal Programming Guide—The Compactor Individual Conference Dates and Persons Name Age Teacher Participating in Planning of IEP School Grade Parent(s) Curriculum Procedures Accelera&on Areas to Be for and/or Considered Compac&ng Enrichment for Basic Ac&vi&es Compac&ng Materials
Accelera*on • Diﬀerent books, same subject, diﬀerent level of reading • Math: odd problems only, to free up *me for independent study of another facet of math that the student would not otherwise study • Skip a grade • Skip a grade in one subject
Ra&onale for Use • Builds on student interest • Sa*sﬁes curiosity • Teachers planning and research skills at advanced levels • Encourages independence • Allows work with complex & abstract ideas • Allows long-‐term and in-‐depth work on topics of interest • Taps into high mo*va*on
Guidelines for Use • Build on student interest • Allow the student maximum freedom to plan, based on student readiness for freedom • Teacher provides the guidance & structure to supplement student capacity to plan and ensure high standards of produc*on • Use present *melines to zap procras*na*on • Use process logs to document the process involved throughout the study • Establish criteria for success
Classroom Practices Study Teachers reported that they never had any training in meeting the needs of gifted students. 61% public school teachers 54% private school teachersArchambault, F. X., Jr., Westberg, K. L., Brown, S. W., Hallmark, B. W., Emmons, C. L., & Zhang, W. (1993). Regular classroom practices with gifted students: Results of a national survey of classroom teachers (Research Monograph 93102). Storrs, CT: The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented, University of Connecticut."
Classroom Practices Observational Study Students experienced no instructional or curricular differentiation in 84% of the activities in which they participated: Reading Language Arts Mathematics Social Studies ScienceWestberg, K. L., Archambault, F. X., Jr., Dobyns, S. M., & Salvin, T. J. (1993). An observational study of instructional and curricular practices used with gifted and talented students in regular classroom (Research Monograph 93104). Storrs, CT: The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented, University of Connecticut."
Your Experience: Addressing the needs ofDiverse Learners with Diverse Learning Styles#" What differentiation techniques have you employed?"" What are your greatest successes?"" How do you think differentiation of learning styles might be different from or similar to differentiation for readiness level, ability, and interests? "
Diversity in students can include: Ability (aptitude) differences Achievement differences Differences in affect Enthusiasm level and personality Differences in effort Effort vs. Ability
Diversity in students can include: Academic background differences Potentially poor preparation Limited exposure Cultural differences Second language acquisition Interaction style differences Differences in self-regulation and study skills
100 80 Reading Language Arts Mathematics 60Percent Science 40 Social Studies All Subject Areas 20 0 No Differentiation Advanced Content Advanced Process Advanced Product Assigned Topic Self-selected Topic Differentiation Indep. Study w/ Indep. Study w/ Other No Differentiation Advanced Content Advanced Process Advanced Product Indep. Study w/Assigned Indep. Study w/Self-selected OtherDifferentiation
Sally Reis on Differentiation“The policy statements of almostevery school district in the nationreflect a commitment to meetingstudents’ individual needs, and yet,many districts lack a capacity toput these policies into practice.”
What is differentiation?Matching the given content area with a student’s interests, abilities, and learning styles through various instructional strategies.
What is differentiated instruction? It’s teaching with student variance inmind. It’s starting where the kids are rather than with a standardized approach to teaching that assumes all kids of a given age or grade are essentially alike. It’s responsive teaching rather than one-size fits-all teaching.
What Differentiated Instruction… IS IS NOT• Differentiated instruction is • Individualized instructionmore QUALITATIVE than • Chaoticquantitative. • Just another way to provide• Differentiated instruction homogeneous instructionprovides MULTIPLE (inflexible grouping)approaches to content, • Just modifying gradingprocess, and product. systems and reducing• Differentiated instruction is workloadsSTUDENT CENTERED. • More work for the “good”• Differentiated instruction is a students and less andBLEND of whole-class, group different for the “poor”and individual instruction. students• Differentiated instruction is“ORGANIC.”
The Five Dimensions of Differentiation Content Process (Knowledge) (Pedagogy) Yourself Classroom Products Organization and (Expression Styles) Management
A Quick Differentiation QUIZDid every student do it? NOShould every student do it? NOCould every student do it? NOWould every student want to do it? NODid the student do it willingly and zestfully? YESDid the student use authentic resources YESand methodology?Was it done for an audience other than (or YESin addition to) the teacher?
Ways to Differentiate Content• Varied Texts• Accelerated Coverage of Material• Varied Supplementary Materials• Independent Study• Tiered Assignments• Interest Development Centers• Compacting
Approximately 40-50% of traditional classroom material could be eliminated for targeted students.Reis, S. M., Westberg, K.L., Kulikowich, J., Caillard, F., Hébert, T., Plucker, J., Purcell, J.H., Rogers, J.B., & Smist,J.M. (1993). Why not let high ability students start school in January? The curriculum compacting study (ResearchMonograph 93106). Storrs, CT: The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented, University of Connecticut."
Compacting" Assesses what a student knows and what content is not yet mastered" Content not yet mastered becomes part of learning goals" Previously mastered content is not required thereby “freeing up” time for enriched, accelerated, or interest driven activities Renzulli & Reis (1997) Tomlinson (1995)
When teachers eliminated as much as 50% of the curriculum, no differences were found between treatment and control groups in most content areas. In fact, students whose curriculum was compacted scored higher than control group students in some areas.Reis, S. M., Westberg, K.L., Kulikowich, J., Caillard, F., Hébert, T., Plucker, J., Purcell, J.H., Rogers, J.B., & Smist,J.M. (1993). Why not let high ability students start school in January? The curriculum compacting study (ResearchMonograph 93106). Storrs, CT: The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented, University of Connecticut."
What is Curriculum Compacting?" Modifying or streamlining the regular curriculum" Eliminating the repetition of previously mastered material" Upgrading the challenge level of the regular curriculum
When once the child haslearned that four and twoare six, a thousandrepetitions will give him nonew information, and it is awaste of time to keep himemployed in that manner. J.M. Greenwood Principles of Education Practically Applied, 1888
A BILIT GROUPING Y RESEARCH-BASED DECISION MAKING SERIESAll youngsters proﬁt from grouping programs that adjust the curriculum to the ap*tude levels of the groups. Schools should try to use ability grouping in this way.
Cluster Grouping: An Inves&ga&on of Student Achievement, Iden&ﬁca&on, and Classroom Prac&ces Marcia Gentry
60585654 Treatment52 Comparison504846444240 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grades Figure 3. Adjusted NCE total baery means for treatment and comparison school students class of 2000.
605856 Treatment5452 Comparison504846444240 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grades Figure 4. Adjusted NCE total baery means for treatment and comparison school students class of 2001.
Flexible Grouping Employs several organizational patterns for instruction Students are grouped and regrouped according to: Specific goals Activities Individual needs Interests Desired outcomes (products) http://www.eduplace.com/science/profdev/articles/valentino.html
Grouping Options Teacher-Led Groups Whole class Small group Individual Student-Led Groups Collaborative Performance-based Dyad (Pairs) http://www.eduplace.com/science/profdev/articles/valentino.html
More Grouping Options Within Class Grouping Ability Interest Question-Based Readiness Learning Style Beyond Class Grouping Across-Class Multi-Age Team Regrouping Renzulli & Reis (1997) Tomlinson (1995)
Ways to Differentiate Content in Groups Varied Texts Varied Supplementary Materials Varied Graphic Organizers Independent Study Tiered Questions/Assignments Interest Development Centers
Anchor Activities Self-paced, purposeful, content- driven activities that students can work on independently Can be done over the course of a unit, grading period, or longer Activities that are meaningful, ongoing, and appropriate to students’ learning needs http://wblrd.sk.ca/~bestpractice/anchor/
In Class Enrichment• Interest Development Centers• Learning Games• Special Class Projects – Community Service, Simulations, Class Meetings, Field Trips, Videos, Guest Speakers, Free Choice Reading Time, Cooking, Art, Science, Nature Walks, etc.
How do I make room for everybody? • Provide enrichment opportunities for the whole school – Service Projects – School Olympics – Monster Mansion – Art Show – Family Nights – Science Fairs
Joseph S. Renzulli Abilities Interests Style PreferencesMaximum Instructional Learning Thinking ExpressionPerformance Interest Styles Environment Styles StyleIndicators Areas Preferences Preferences Preferences PreferencesTests Fine Arts Recitation & Drill Written Inter/Intra Analytic •Standardized Peer Tutoring Crafts Personal (School Smart) Lecture Oral •Teacher-Made Literary •Self-Oriented Lecture/DiscussionCourse Grades Synthetic/ Historical Discussion •Peer-Oriented ManipulativeTeacher Ratings Creative Mathematical/Logical Guided Independent •Adult-OrientedProduct Evaluation (Creative, Study * Inventive) Discussion •Written Physical Sciences •Combined Learning /Interest •Oral Life Sciences Center Physical Display Practical/ •Visual Political/Judicial Simulation, Role Playing, •Sound Contextual Athletic/Recreation Dramatization, Guided •Heat (Street Smart) Dramatization •Musical Fantasy •Constructed Marketing/Business •Light Learning Games Legislative Artistic(Note differences between Drama/Dance Replicative Reports or •Designassigned and self-selected Musical Performance Projects* •Mobility Executive Graphicproducts) Musical Composition Investigative Reports or •Time of DayLevel of Participation Projects* Judicial Commercial in Learning Managerial/Business •Food Intake Unguided Independent Activities Photography •Seating Study* Ref: Sternberg, ServiceDegree of Interaction 1984, 1988, 1990 Film/Video Internship* With Others Ref: Amabile, 1983; Computers Apprenticeship* Ref: Kettle, Renzulli, Dunn, Dunn, & Price, & Rizza, 1998;Ref: General Tests and Other (Specify) *With or without a mentor 1977; Gardner, 1983 Renzulli & Reis, 1985Measurements Literature Ref: Renzulli, 1997 Ref: Renzulli & Smith, 1978
Sample Items… Imagine that you can spend a week job shadowing any person in your community to investigate a career you might like to have in the future. List the occupations of the persons you would select. 1st choice ______________________ 2nd choice______________________ 3rd choice ______________________
Sample Items (Secondary Interest-A-Lyzer)…If you could conduct an interview with a man orwoman you admire, past or present, who would itbe? What 3 questions would you ask him or her?1. ____________________________________2. ____________________________________3. ____________________________________
Learning Styles InventorySample Items (Renzulli Smith)… Really Dislike……..Really LikeBeing a member of a panel that 1 2 3 4 5is discussing current eventsWorking on your own to prepare 1 2 3 4 5material you will discuss in class