Web Accessibility


Published on

Published in: Technology, Design
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Web Accessibility

  1. 1. Web Accessibility By Amy Thornton
  2. 2. What is Web Accessibility? <ul><li>Web accessibility refers to the practice of making Web sites usable by people of all abilities and disabilities. (Wikipedia) </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Law <ul><li>Section 504 </li></ul><ul><li>1998 Amendment to Section 508 </li></ul><ul><li>American with Disabilities Act (ADA) </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) </li></ul><ul><li>Assistive Technology Act (ATA) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Section 504 <ul><li>Purpose: to protect any person with a disability in any program receiving federal funding </li></ul><ul><li>Institutions receiving federal funding must ensure accessibility to all of their services for anyone who wishes to use them </li></ul><ul><li>Enforced by the Office of Civil Rights </li></ul>
  5. 5. Section 508 <ul><li>Purpose: requires that all electronic and information technology from federal agencies be made accessible to everyone. </li></ul><ul><li>Checklist of guidelines to follow to make sure 508 compliant: http://www.webaim.org/standards/508/checklist </li></ul>
  6. 6. American with Disabilities Act (ADA) <ul><li>Prevents discrimination against persons with disabilities in job hiring </li></ul><ul><li>Enforcement by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) <ul><li>Governs how services are provided to children with disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>It ensures the equal opportunity of educational opportunities to all students in general and special education </li></ul>
  8. 8. Assistive Technologies Act (ATA) <ul><li>Purpose: to provide financial assistance to states to allow them to provide technology-related assistance to persons with disabilities </li></ul>
  9. 9. Types of Disabilities <ul><li>Mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Hearing impairment </li></ul><ul><li>Vision impairment </li></ul><ul><li>Learning impairment </li></ul>
  10. 10. Mobility impairment <ul><li>Difficulty using fingers, hands, or arms </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unable to use mouse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unable to select small buttons or icons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unable to participate in real-time text chat </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Mobility impairment <ul><li>Types of assistive technologies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speech recognition software (Dragon Naturally Speaking - http://www.nuance. com/naturallyspeaking/ ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assistive keyboards and switches </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What can you do to help? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make buttons and links reasonably large </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide keyboard alternatives for anything that requires a mouse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide audio alternatives for text requirements </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Hearing impairment <ul><li>Deaf or hard of hearing </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Listening to audio/video clips </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulty participating in real-time audio chats </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What can you do to help? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide transcripts for audio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide captioning for video </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide closed captioning or tty access for live chats </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Vision impairment <ul><li>Blind low vision, color blindness </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to view images or videos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to understand and navigate organization of Web page </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types of assistive technologies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Screen reader </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speech recognition software (Dragon Naturally Speaking - http://www.nuance. com/naturallyspeaking/ ) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Vision impairment <ul><li>What can you do to help? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide alt tags for all images </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide headers and descriptions for tables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide audio explanations for complicated diagrams and images </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Learning impairment <ul><li>Effects the learning process involving one or more abilities (e.g, speaking, listening, reading, writing, spelling, reasoning, and organizing) </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Getting lost in navigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to understand cluttered content or worded clearly </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Learning impairment <ul><li>Types of assistive technologies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concept mapping software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speech output software </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What can you do to help? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Include alternative methods of receiving information to accommodate different learning styles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offer longer exam durations </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Assistive Technology Resources <ul><li>Captioning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caption Colorado ( http://www. captioncolorado .com/ ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Screen Readers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Job Access With Speech (JAWS) ( http://www.freedomscientific.com/fs_products/software_jaws.asp ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Speech Recognition Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dragon Naturally Speaking ( http://www.nuance. com/naturallyspeaking/ ) </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Design Tips <ul><li>Standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use an accessibility checking tool such as Bobby or A-Prompt to check your Web site against W3C WAI or Section 508 guidelines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Layout and Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use headings in content consistently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the captions, summaries, and row and column headers for tables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use appropriate metadata </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Design Tips <ul><li>Navigation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use clear, descriptive text for hyperlinks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set hyperlinks to open in new window </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use meaningful text for page titles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Color </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid using color as only indicator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid using red </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Text </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use clear, simple language </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Design Tips <ul><li>Images </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Add meaningful alt text to all images </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For complex images, add a description link </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid flickering images and unnecessary animated images </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid using images of text </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multimedia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For audio clips, use a description link </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For video clips, use captioning or use a description link </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For video clips, provide a link to an audio file </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide a link to download appropriate audio/video player </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. References <ul><li>American with Disabilities Act (2008, April). Retrieved April 18, 2008, from http://www.ada.gov/ </li></ul><ul><li>Attention Deficit Disorders Association Southern Region (2007, October). Section 504 . Retrieved: April 15, 2008, from http://www.adda-sr.org/504.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Nuance Communication (2008). Dragon Naturally Speaking . Retrieved April 17, 2008, from http://www.nuance.com/naturallyspeaking/ </li></ul><ul><li>Section 508 (n.d.). Retrieved: April 15, 2008, from http://www.section508.gov/ </li></ul><ul><li>Section 508 (n.d.). Assistive Technology Act of 1998 . Retrieved April 18, 2008, from https://www.buyaccessible.gov/docs/AT1998.html </li></ul>
  22. 22. References <ul><li>The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (1997, January). Facts About the Americans with Disabilities Act . Retrieved April 18, 2008, from http://www.eeoc.gov/facts/fs-ada.html </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Department of Education (n.d.). Building the Legacy: IDEA 2004 . Retrieved April 18, 2008, from http://idea.ed.gov/ </li></ul><ul><li>United States Access Board (n.d.). Retrieved: April 15, 2008, from http://www.access-board.gov/ </li></ul><ul><li>United States Department of Health & Human Services (2008, February). Your Rights Under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act . Retrieved: April 15, 2008, from http://www.hhs.gov/ocr/504.html </li></ul><ul><li>WebAIM: Web Accessibility in Mind (2008). Section 508 Checklist . Retrieved: April 15, 2008, from http://www.webaim.org/standards/508/checklist </li></ul>