Silent Way Teaching Method

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Silent Way Teaching Method

  1. 1. THE SILENT WAY One pulls, and then the other, neither pushes, andneither could work alone, but cutting comes only when the blade is moving toward the learner
  2. 2. Karadeniz Technical UniversityDepartment of English Language and Literature Ahmet Mesut ATEŞ Mehmet KAMMAN Samet KAYMAK
  3. 3. Methodology• The Silent Way was originated by Dr. Caleb Gattegno• It derives its name from the fact that the teacher conducting a Silent Way class is silent for most of the time the learner should be encouraged to produce as much language as possible• The Silent Way advocates that we start from what the student knows. The teacher assists learners to use that knowledge in the target language, and then the teacher can continue putting together sounds to make a name word• Silence is considered the best vehicle for learning because in silence students concentrate on the task to be accomplished and the potential means to its accomplishment• The Silent Way claims to facilitate what psychologists call "learning to learn”
  4. 4. • Learning is facilitated only; – if the learner discovers or creates rather than remembers and repeats what is to be learned, – by accompanying physical objects, – by problem solving involving the material to be learned• The Silent Way views learning as a problem- solving, creative, discovering activity, in which the learner is a principal actor• The rods and the color-coded pronunciation charts provide physical foci for student learning and also create memorable images to facilitate student recall Tell me and I forget, Teach me and I remember Involve me and I learn
  5. 5. Objectives• General objective is to give beginning level students oral and aural facility in basic elements of the target language• The general goal is near-native fluency in the target language and correct pronunciation• An immediate objective is to provide the learner with a basic practical knowledge of the grammar of the language• Learners could be able to; – Correctly and easily answer questions about themselves, their education, their family, travel, and daily events – practical knowledge and use of the target language; – Speak with a good accent; – Perform adequately in the following areas: spelling, grammar (production rather than explanation), reading comprehension, and writing
  6. 6. Materials• The materials consist mainly of a set of colored rods, color- coded pronunciation and vocabulary wall charts, a pointer and reading/writing exercises• The pronunciation charts, called "Fidels," have been devised for a number of languages and contain symbols in the target language for all of the vowel and consonant sounds of the language• The colored cuisenaire rods are used to directly link words and structures with their meanings in the target language, thereby avoiding translation into the native language• The vocabulary or word charts are Iikewise color-coded here are typically such charts containing 500 to 800 words in the native language and script
  7. 7. Fidel Chart
  8. 8. Fidel color chart (left) and Fidel vocabulary chart (right)
  9. 9. Color rods or Legos as an acceptable replacement
  10. 10. Words are selected according to their ease of application in teaching, their flexibility in terms of generalization and use with other words and their importance in illustrating basic grammatical structures: • Functional vocabulary: prepositions, numbers, pronouns, quantifiers, words dealing with temporal relations, and words of comparison. These kinds of words are referred to as the "functional vocabulary" of a language because of their high utility.Fidel Vocabulary chart • Luxury vocabulary: words used in communicating more specialized ideas, such as political or philosophical opinions. • Semi-luxury vocabulary: common expressions in the daily life
  11. 11. Application• Classes often begin by using Fidel charts in the native language• The first part of the lesson focuses on pronunciation• Rods, pictures, objects, or situations are other aids used for presentation in order to connect sounds and meanings• L1 can be used to give instructions when necessary. Meaning is made clear by focusing the students perceptions, not by translation• The teacher models a word, phrase or sentence and then elicits learner responses• After modeling the utterance, the teacher will have a student attempt to produce the utterance and will indicate its acceptability
  12. 12. • If a response is incorrect, the teacher will attempt to reshape the utterance or have another student present the correct model• Students are presented with the structural patterns of the target language and learn the grammar rules of the language through largely inductive processes• Lessons follow a sequence based on grammatical complexity, and one element presented at a time• New lexical and structural material is meticulously broken down into its elements• A typical order would be like this: colors, numbers, prepositions, daily activities, daily dialogues and so on• Reading and writing are sometimes taught from the beginning and students are given assignments to do outside the classroom at their own pace
  13. 13. Stop RepeatOne word for each finger Speak louder
  14. 14. Learners’ Role• The teacher is reluctant to repeat and that the student is obliged to pay close attention• Independent Learners must depend and use what they already know• Autonomous Learners choose proper expressions in a given set of circumstances and situations• Responsible Learners must have to ability to choose intelligently• Learners are expected to interact with each other and suggest alternatives to each other, they must learn to work cooperatively rather than competitively
  15. 15. Teacher’s Role• The teacher is a technician or an engineer who facilitates learning.• The teachers role is one of neutral observer.• The teacher is silent. The teachers presence in the classroom is limited to providing a model of the language that the students are going to work on.• The teachers tasks as: – to teach: the presentation of an item once, typically using nonverbal clues to get across meanings – to test: elicitation and shaping of student production is done in as silent a way as possible – to get out of the way: the teacher silently monitors learners interactions with each other and may even leave the room while learners struggle with their new linguistic tools
  16. 16. Teacher’s Role• Sequence and timing are more important than in many kinds of language teaching classes, and the teachers sensitivity to and management of them is critical.• The teacher uses gestures, charts, and manipulatives in order to elicit and shape student responses and so must be both facile and creative
  17. 17. Advantages• Silent Way learners acquire «inner criteria»• Creates a correctly, adequately working inter-language• The self-esteem of the students will be increased and this will enhance learning• Learners gain practical knowledge and use of the target languageDisadvantages• Method should be used in small groups of students• The rigidity of the system may be meaningless.• How successfully it might be used at more advanced levels is questionable.• Language is separated from its social context and taught through artificial situations usually by rods
  18. 18. Works CitedAbdur-Rashied, G. S. Teaching Techniques and Strategies in Foreign Languages. Retrieved November 29, 2011 http://www.jsums.edu/fulbright/FLTA/Teaching_Techniques_and_Str ategies_in_Foreign_Languages.pptBoran, G. Methods and Approaches in Language Teaching in Brief. Retrieved November 29, 2011. http://w3.gazi.edu.tr/web/gboran/iometodlari.htmPint, J., & Pint S. (2005). Discovering The Silent Way. Retrieved November 29, 2011. http://www.saudicaves.com/silentway/rods/eng-rods.htmRichards, J. C., & Rodgers, T. S. (1999). Approaches and Methods in in Language Teaching. NY:Cambridge University PressSidhakarya, I. The Silent Way Plus: The Search of a Method and Curriculum. Retrieved November 29, 2011. http://www.ialf.edu/bipa/march2002/silentway.html

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