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Unit 1 Chapter 1 To 3  Wla103
Unit 1 Chapter 1 To 3  Wla103
Unit 1 Chapter 1 To 3  Wla103
Unit 1 Chapter 1 To 3  Wla103
Unit 1 Chapter 1 To 3  Wla103
Unit 1 Chapter 1 To 3  Wla103
Unit 1 Chapter 1 To 3  Wla103
Unit 1 Chapter 1 To 3  Wla103
Unit 1 Chapter 1 To 3  Wla103
Unit 1 Chapter 1 To 3  Wla103
Unit 1 Chapter 1 To 3  Wla103
Unit 1 Chapter 1 To 3  Wla103
Unit 1 Chapter 1 To 3  Wla103
Unit 1 Chapter 1 To 3  Wla103
Unit 1 Chapter 1 To 3  Wla103
Unit 1 Chapter 1 To 3  Wla103
Unit 1 Chapter 1 To 3  Wla103
Unit 1 Chapter 1 To 3  Wla103
Unit 1 Chapter 1 To 3  Wla103
Unit 1 Chapter 1 To 3  Wla103
Unit 1 Chapter 1 To 3  Wla103
Unit 1 Chapter 1 To 3  Wla103
Unit 1 Chapter 1 To 3  Wla103
Unit 1 Chapter 1 To 3  Wla103
Unit 1 Chapter 1 To 3  Wla103
Unit 1 Chapter 1 To 3  Wla103
Unit 1 Chapter 1 To 3  Wla103
Unit 1 Chapter 1 To 3  Wla103
Unit 1 Chapter 1 To 3  Wla103
Unit 1 Chapter 1 To 3  Wla103
Unit 1 Chapter 1 To 3  Wla103
Unit 1 Chapter 1 To 3  Wla103
Unit 1 Chapter 1 To 3  Wla103
Unit 1 Chapter 1 To 3  Wla103
Unit 1 Chapter 1 To 3  Wla103
Unit 1 Chapter 1 To 3  Wla103
Unit 1 Chapter 1 To 3  Wla103
Unit 1 Chapter 1 To 3  Wla103
Unit 1 Chapter 1 To 3  Wla103
Unit 1 Chapter 1 To 3  Wla103
Unit 1 Chapter 1 To 3  Wla103
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Unit 1 Chapter 1 To 3 Wla103

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Chapter 1 - The early history of Malaysia …

Chapter 1 - The early history of Malaysia
Chapter 2 - The struggle for independence
Chapter 3 - The formation of Malaysia

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  • 1. UNIT 1 History and the Struggle for Independence Chapter 1
  • 2. Chapter 1: The Early History of Malaysia
  • 3. Introduction <ul><li>Evidences of early settlements in Malaysia: </li></ul><ul><li>i. Niah caves burial site </li></ul><ul><li>ii. Perak Man </li></ul><ul><li>iii. Artefacts of Hindu civilisation in Malaysia </li></ul><ul><li>iv. Candi in Merbok Valley </li></ul><ul><li>*Web References </li></ul><ul><li>1. ‘Perak Man’s bones tell his story”,http://allmalaysia.info/news/story.asp?file=/2003/ </li></ul><ul><li>10/4/state/6340195&sec=mi_perak (Accessed 13 May 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>2. ‘Perak Man’,http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lenggong#Perak_Man (Accessed 13 May 2009) </li></ul>
  • 4. Refer to pg. 3 of textbook – Ancient Periods and Early Inhabited Areas in Malaysia. Table 1.1 Activity 1.1 Why do you think early civilisations centred on seashores or river mouths? Which were the ancient ports in Malaysia? ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ Answer
  • 5. <ul><li>Early 1 st century, powerful kingdoms existed in the Malay Archipelago. </li></ul><ul><li>Refer to Table 1.2 of textbook </li></ul><ul><li>What is an Archipelago? </li></ul>
  • 6. The Malay Archipelago (M.A.) <ul><li>one Malay language and culture </li></ul><ul><li>similarities in languages in Malaysia, Indonesia,Kampuchea,Patani and </li></ul><ul><li>South of Mindanao. </li></ul><ul><li>With colonisation Malay Archipelago fragmented </li></ul>
  • 7. Colonisation of Malay Archipelago The Phillippines Spanish Indochina French Indonesia Dutch Peninsular Malaysia,Part of the Borneo Island English Parts of M.A. Colonisers
  • 8. The Malay Kingdom of Malacca <ul><li>an empire of advanced civilisation </li></ul><ul><li>founded by Parameswara in 1403 A.D. </li></ul><ul><li>grew to a great empire in the M.A. </li></ul><ul><li>renowned for maritime trade and spread of Islam </li></ul><ul><li>famed trading traditions – “fairness” </li></ul><ul><li>Tome Pires wrote +vely of its dev. And influence </li></ul><ul><li>Admiral Cheng Ho- good observation of it. </li></ul>
  • 9. The administrative structure of the Malacca Sultanate <ul><li>based on Malacca Law (ML) and Malacca Law of the Sea (MLOS) </li></ul>Sultan (king) Bendahara Laksamana Temenggung Penghulu Bendahari
  • 10. Points to Ponder <ul><li>Do you know the roles of these officials ? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the similarities and differences between the system of administration of Malacca and the current system of administration in Malaysia? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the factors that contributed to the rise and fall of the empire of Malacca ? (pages 6 to 8 of text) </li></ul><ul><li>What are the lessons to be learnt here? </li></ul>Web Reference http://www.melaka.net/history2.htm
  • 11. Colonial era <ul><li>Table 1.3 – list of powers that have colonised Malaysia due to </li></ul><ul><li>our nation’s natural resources- tin , spices, Industrial Rev. </li></ul><ul><li>Table 1.5 – Summary of British intervention in the Malay states, </li></ul><ul><li>Sabah and Sarawak . </li></ul><ul><li>Table 1.4 – Chronology of British colonisation in our nation. </li></ul>
  • 12. Activity 1.2 <ul><li>Can do trace the domination of the British in our country? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you think are the effects of British colonisation in </li></ul><ul><li>Malaysia? </li></ul>Refer to textbook, page 10 (Table 1.4)
  • 13. Results of colonisation <ul><li>The Straits Settlement </li></ul><ul><li>Federated Malay States </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Federated Malay States </li></ul><ul><li>1910 and 1920 = years of peace </li></ul><ul><li>1930s = decentralisation of powers= dissatisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Why distribution of power unsuccessful? –WW2 Japanese invaded </li></ul><ul><li>Malaya in 1942. (Pg 17 of text) </li></ul><ul><li>7. Japanese occupation = important event in our history </li></ul><ul><li>8. Japanese Admin support Greater East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere </li></ul><ul><li>Video Clip-Invasion of Japan </li></ul>
  • 14. Points to Ponder <ul><li>Have you heard from the older generation about their experiences </li></ul><ul><li>during Jap Occ ? </li></ul><ul><li>2. What do you think was the general feeling towards the Japs? </li></ul><ul><li>3. Do you think such sentiments still prevail? </li></ul>
  • 15. When Japs surrendered in Singapore on 15 Aug 1945 <ul><li>local populace agitate for more powers for own affairs </li></ul><ul><li>agitation for bigger roles in governance </li></ul><ul><li>emergence of Communist Party of Malaya (CPM) </li></ul><ul><li>declaration of Emergency by British High Commisioner-16 June </li></ul><ul><li>1948. </li></ul><ul><li>Era of Emergency (refer to text)- how it expedited independence </li></ul><ul><li>* Try exercises at end of Chap 1. </li></ul>
  • 16. Summary <ul><li>Malay Kingdom of Malacca influenced social, cultural and political systems of </li></ul><ul><li>country. </li></ul><ul><li>Invasion of colonialists – Malay Archipelago divided into 2 :- British control </li></ul><ul><li>north (Malaysia) Dutch –south (Indonesia) </li></ul><ul><li>Influence of colonialists over country </li></ul><ul><li>Various forms of British admin introduced= attempt to take over economy of country </li></ul><ul><li>Japs occ = uncertainty, chaos </li></ul><ul><li>After independence – a period of emergency + locals rejected communism. </li></ul><ul><li>These experiences formed basis of building our nation. </li></ul>
  • 17. Self-Test 1.1 <ul><li>List 5 Early Kingdoms of the Malay Archipelago </li></ul><ul><li>What are the internal factors that led to the decline of the Malacca Empire? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the significance of the Anglo-Dutch Treaty 1824? </li></ul><ul><li>Beginning 1919, the states in Malaya were under 3 political units known as: </li></ul><ul><li>a._____________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>b._____________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>c._____________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Answers </li></ul>
  • 18. END CHAPTER 1
  • 19. UNIT 1 Chapter 2 The Struggle for Independence
  • 20. <ul><li>We celebrate Merdeka – 31 st August </li></ul><ul><li>Who declared Merdeka ? </li></ul><ul><li>Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/File:History_merdeka.jpg#filehistory </li></ul>
  • 21. Nation's Struggle for Independence <ul><li>2 stages </li></ul><ul><li>Armed/bloodshed stage </li></ul><ul><li>Began with the struggle of the Malays against Dutch and Portuguese. </li></ul><ul><li>Opposition against British colonists. </li></ul><ul><li>Spirit of nationalism stage </li></ul><ul><li>Literature </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiations </li></ul>Refer to Table 2.1-outline of people’s armed struggle against colonialists.
  • 22. Activity 1.3 What are the factors that contributed to the local inhabitants to revolt against the colonialists? _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ANSWER
  • 23. The Struggle for Independence <ul><li>Table 2.2 – various channel of influence and sources that </li></ul><ul><li>brought about this change. </li></ul><ul><li>Formation of Malayan Union (MU)-Read pg 30 to 33 of text. </li></ul><ul><li> MU dissolution – 1946 </li></ul><ul><li>Video Clips-Taylor College Student </li></ul>
  • 24. Activity 1.4 Discuss the factors that led to the failure of the MU ? 1.______________________________________________ 2.______________________________________________ 3.______________________________________________ 4.______________________________________________ 5.______________________________________________ ANSWER VIDEO CLIP OF MU
  • 25. <ul><li>MU was replaced by the Federation of Malaya (FOM) </li></ul><ul><li>FOM opposed by AMCJA and PUTERA </li></ul>Points to ponder Why do you think there was opposition from these groups?(Pg33-38) <ul><li>Growth of political parties (Table 2.3) </li></ul><ul><li>Events B4 Proclamation of Independence (pg38 -42) </li></ul><ul><li>Try out questions at the end of chapter for understanding of SFI </li></ul><ul><li>Defeat of Japan and Germany at end of SWW/WW2-return of colonial master </li></ul><ul><li>Local populace question about their welfare </li></ul><ul><li>Post WW2 – independence-India & Burma (Britain), Indonesia (Dutch) </li></ul><ul><li>Vietnam (French) </li></ul><ul><li>Take note – Mahatma Ghandhi, Nehru,Chandra Bose, Ho Chi Minh,Sukarno </li></ul>
  • 26. Summary <ul><li>Struggle for independence – 2 stages-bloodshed and spirit of nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>MU-struggle and opposition to the proposal </li></ul><ul><li>FOM replaces MU </li></ul><ul><li>Political parties – communal stance </li></ul><ul><li>Victory of Alliance (UMNO,MCA and MIC)=negotiation with British for Independence </li></ul><ul><li>Reid Commission – draw constitution framework for Independence </li></ul><ul><li>Malaya declared independence on 31 Aug. 1957 </li></ul>
  • 27. Self-test 1.2 <ul><li>Discuss how foreign influence fanned the spirit of nationalism among the locals. </li></ul><ul><li>_______________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>_______________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Answer </li></ul><ul><li>2. What were the four principles of PUTERA? </li></ul><ul><li>_______________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>_______________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Answer </li></ul><ul><li>3. What are the fundamental principals of our Constitution? </li></ul><ul><li>a.______________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>b.______________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>c. ______________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>d. _____________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>e. _____________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Answer </li></ul>
  • 28. END OF CHAPTER 2
  • 29. Chapter 3 The Formation of Malaysia <ul><li>Concept pioneered by Tunku Abdul Rahman (TAR) </li></ul><ul><li>Malaysia was inaugurated as a new nation -16 Sept. 1963 </li></ul>
  • 30. Factors Towards FOM Factors that contributed to the FOM Independence through unification Understanding for development United international relations Ethnic balance and unity Economic cooperation Collective fight against communism
  • 31. F O M <ul><li>Reaction from some neighbouring countries and Britain. </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction from people in Sabah and sarawak – most encouraging </li></ul><ul><li>Singapore – Accept generally </li></ul><ul><li>Brunei – unanimously agree </li></ul><ul><li>People of Malaya – mixed reaction </li></ul>
  • 32. Activity 1.5 <ul><li>What was the reaction from Britain toward FOM ? </li></ul><ul><li>What was the reason for such reaction ? </li></ul><ul><li>For various reactions – refer to Table 3.1 in textbook </li></ul><ul><li>Pay attention to objectives of steps taken and the effects </li></ul><ul><li>Brunei’s withdrawal from Malaysia surprised many. </li></ul><ul><li>3 fundamental reasons for Brunei to join Malaysia: </li></ul><ul><li>i. Speed up independence </li></ul><ul><li>ii. Strength of wall of defence against communist threat. </li></ul><ul><li>iii. Provision of help to less developed part. </li></ul><ul><li>7. What exactly caused Brunei’s withdrawal ? Claims??? </li></ul>
  • 33. Activity 1.6 What were Brunei’s claims that were conditions for joining Malaysia? 1.______________________________________________________ 2.______________________________________________________ 3.______________________________________________________ 4.______________________________________________________ 5.______________________________________________________ 6.______________________________________________________ 7.______________________________________________________ 8.______________________________________________________ 9.______________________________________________________ 10._____________________________________________________ * Table 3.2 – attempts to solve differences between Brunei and KL ANSWER
  • 34. F O M <ul><li>Face external opposition –Philippines and Indonesia (pg 58-59) </li></ul><ul><li>Think about claims staked by Indonesia </li></ul><ul><li>Similar claims in recent years? </li></ul><ul><li>Malaysia officially formed in 1963-struggle </li></ul><ul><li>Separation of Singapore – Racial polarisation </li></ul><ul><li>9 Aug. 1965-Singapore left Malaysia with passing of Separation Act </li></ul><ul><li>Read pg 59 -60 –discord between Malay and Chinese extremists=racial polarisation </li></ul>Point to ponder- What do you think our government does to avoid such situations in our multi-cultural society today?
  • 35. F O M <ul><li>Failed intervention of USA in Indochina </li></ul><ul><li>Domino Theory in Asia- spread of communism in developing Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>Emergence of socialist or communist regimes in Vietnam,Cambodia,Laos </li></ul><ul><li>and near dominance of Parti Komunis Indonesia (PKI) </li></ul><ul><li>4. The rest of Asia will fall like dominos-Lee Kuan Yew is a firm believer-used </li></ul><ul><li>ISA for “dismounting” the (communist) tiger! </li></ul><ul><li>5. President Macapagal used ISA to entrench his corrupt regime </li></ul><ul><li>6. FOM = defend against the spread of socialism or communism in SEA. </li></ul>* Attempt the questions at the end of chapter.
  • 36. SUMMARY <ul><li>Six years after independence Malaysia was declared a new nation -16 sept 1963 </li></ul><ul><li>There were problems- i. formation of new nation </li></ul><ul><li>ii. The status of member countries </li></ul><ul><li>iii. Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>3. Opposition and resistance towards FOM – Indonesia and Phillipines. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Brunei pulled out last minute </li></ul><ul><li>5. Singapore withdrew. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Malaya + Sabah + Sarawak = Malaysia </li></ul>
  • 37. Self-test 1.3 <ul><li>“ Freedom through Unification” was one of the factors for the FOM. What does “Freedom through Unification entail? </li></ul><ul><li>(ANSWER) </li></ul><ul><li>2. What caused Singapore to sever ties with Malaysia? </li></ul><ul><li>(ANSWER) </li></ul><ul><li>3. There were several attempts to resolve the differences between Brunei </li></ul><ul><li>and Kuala Lumpur. Despite these attempts, three matters remained unresolved. </li></ul><ul><li>These were; </li></ul><ul><li>a. _______________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>b. _______________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>c. _______________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>(ANSWER) </li></ul>
  • 38. Summary of Unit 1 <ul><li>Malay Archipelago constitues socio-political entity of Malays </li></ul><ul><li>Kedah,Langkasuka,Srivijaya,Majapahit and Malacca were once supreme in MA </li></ul><ul><li>Malay Kingdom of Malacca influenced our country’s social,cultural and political </li></ul><ul><li>systems before colonialists. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Influence of Portuguese,Dutch,Siamese,British and Japanese left great impact. </li></ul><ul><li>5. British introduced various forms of administration to take over country while </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese Occ created chaos. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Struggle for independence = bloodshed + spirit of nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>7. MU – opposition- replaced by FOM </li></ul><ul><li>8. Political parties –communal position </li></ul><ul><li>9.Victoryof Alliance(UMNO,MCA,MIC) </li></ul><ul><li>10.Unity of citizen =negotiation of Independence </li></ul>
  • 39. 11. With constitution, Malaya declared Independence. 12. After independence = emergency = threat of communism 13. 6 years after independence = Malaysia formed 14. Brunei withdrew before Malaysia was declared a new nation on 16 Sept 1963 15. Singapore separated from Malaysia in 1965 as a result of racial polarisation.
  • 40. References Chapter 1 Andaya,B W and Leonard Y (1982), A History of Malaya , NY: St. Martin’s Press. Asnarulkhadi Abu Samad and jayum A. Jawan (1997), Kenegaraan Malaysia , Serdang: Penerbit Universiti Putra Malaysia Chapter 2 Andaya,B W and Leonard Y (1982), A History of Malaya , NY: St. Martin’s Press. Jawan, J A (2006) Malaysian Politics and Government , Shah Alam: Karisma Publications. Chapter 3 Hanna, Willard A (1964) The Formation of Malaysia , New York: American Universities Field Staff. Mohamed Noordin Sopiee (1974) From Malayan Union to Singapore Separation , Kuala Lumpur:UM Press
  • 41. END OF SLIDE

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