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B2 oral exam presenation

B2 oral exam presenation



B2 oral presentation

B2 oral presentation



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    B2 oral exam presenation B2 oral exam presenation Presentation Transcript

    •  Introduction Principles of quantum computing Pros and cons of quantum computing Availability of quantum technology Post-quantum computing Conclusion 2 B2 Oral Exam Presentation - Ahmed KAMAL
    •  DefinitionThe quantum computing is a technology of computing based on quantummechanical phonemena to perform operations on data. Its approch uses laserpulses to excite atoms, which create different levels of energy. Why do we need quantum computing ?• Technology based on transistors will achieve its limits by 2030 (Moore’s law)• We can’t reduce dimensions of atoms ! B2 Oral Exam Presentation - Ahmed KAMAL 3
    •  What is already made• First idea of a quantum processor (to simulate how atoms behave) was in 1982• First algorithms were made in 1994 (to factorise large numbers) and 1996 (to do reverse search)• In 2001, a quantum algorithm was used for the first time to factorise 15 by manipulating spins of atoms.• In 2005, an 8-qubit computer manipulated by lasers was made in Austria.• In 2009, a universal computing with a 2-qubit ion-trap processor was made in Yale University. B2 Oral Exam Presentation - Ahmed KAMAL 4
    •  Qubit• The unit of quantum information –the equivalent of the numeric bit- with additional dimensions associated to quantum propreties of atoms.• Unlike the digital bit, It can be a 0, 1 or a superposition of both.• Using laser or ion-trap to change the state of the qubit. Quantum parallelismIt can be interpreted as that atoms are radiating to manydifferent directions simultaneously. If an atom can travelthrough many different routes simultaneously, a computershould be able to use atoms to perform calculationsthrough diffrent routes too.It can be created by laser pulses to change atoms states. B2 Oral Exam Presentation - Ahmed KAMAL 5
    •  Quantum entaglement• In case of isolation of the processor, if an atom spins in a direction, the other atoms in the processor will spin in directions mathematically related to the direction of the first one.• It allows to different qubits to share the superposed states. Dots & ions• Manipulating superconducting dots (of aluminum) – which contain millions of atoms- by lasers is better than the manipulation of ions with ion-trap technique• These dots are considered as giant superatoms and represent ideal qubits. B2 Oral Exam Presentation - Ahmed KAMAL 6
    •  Example of a quantum computer B2 Oral Exam Presentation - Ahmed KAMAL 7
    •  Increase of computing power• If the number of qubits increases, the number of calculations will increase exponentially (In classic computation, it increases linearly).• Can do huge number of calculations that can’t be done by numeric computers Security• Cryptography is related to computing power, so the security in telecomuncation can reach higher levels.• Impossibility to obtain the private key, any eavesdropping will be detected. Teleportation !• It is the capability to make an object or a person disintegrate in one place while a perfect replica appears in another.• In classic physics it’s infeasable, however it can be done with EPR process. B2 Oral Exam Presentation - Ahmed KAMAL 8
    •  Unequilibred repartition of powerIf some companies use quantum computers and others not, firstones will have an advantage and can access to the system of theothers. Machines superior to human intelligenceIt will be possible to build machines that can replicatethemselves, so it will exceed human capabilities  Loss ofhuman dominance. Unpredictible changes of human lifeChanges in our life will happen very fastly, and it will beimpossible to predict what will happen. This is can be verydangerous. B2 Oral Exam Presentation - Ahmed KAMAL 9
    •  Limits of this technology today• A useful processor (multiple qubits) requires a very low temperature and difficult conditions• Quantum processors must be well isolated to work properly  Difficulty of commercialisation• The use of quantum computers in daily life will NOT be possible in the near future Decoherence• Only 94%-99% of the manipulations of atoms are made correctly: lasers make sometimes indiserable changes of atoms state. (Same thing as friction for mechanical computers in the 19th century)• Solution: Low temperature  Less noise, Extreme isolation (electromagntic and mechanical) 1 B2 Oral Exam Presentation - Ahmed KAMAL 0
    •  Application in medecineNanomachines can be made, introduced in the body to fightdiseases (fix anaomalies) DNA capacity of computing• DNA can store information, it uses the quantum paralellism• Quantity of DNA floating in 950 L could contain more information than the totality of computers ever made B2 Oral Exam Presentation - Ahmed KAMAL 11
    •  Summary• Quantum computers will change our life as numeric ones did in the last century.• BUT not tomorow, nowadays it’s infeasible B2 Oral Exam Presentation - Ahmed KAMAL 11
    •  Chen, Winshin. “Quantum computing” .“ISRC Future Technology Topic Brief”. College of Business, University of Huston Brooks, Michael. “Quantum computers are coming -just don’t ask when”. The New Scientist. September, the 16th 2009 B2 Oral Exam Presentation - Ahmed KAMAL 12