Job Stress Management

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Job Stress Management

  1. 1. Job Stress Management
  2. 2. STRESS <ul><li>Stress is a psychological and physiological response to events that upset our personal balance in some way. </li></ul><ul><li>These events or demands are known as stressors. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Research findings from WHO (World Health Organization ) <ul><li>40% of workers reported their job was very or extremely stressful. </li></ul><ul><li>25% view their jobs as the number one stressor in their lives. </li></ul><ul><li>Job stress is more strongly associated with health complaints than financial or family problems. </li></ul><ul><li>25% have felt like screaming or shouting because of job stress , 10% are concerned about an individual at work they fear could become violent. </li></ul><ul><li>9% are aware of an assault or violent act in their workplace and 18% had experienced some sort of threat or verbal intimidation </li></ul>
  4. 4. Research Findings <ul><li>19% had quit a previous position because of job stress </li></ul><ul><li>26% have been driven to tears because of workplace stress. </li></ul><ul><li>62% routinely find that they end the day with work-related neck pain. </li></ul><ul><li>44% reported stressed-out eyes. </li></ul><ul><li>38% complained of hurting hands </li></ul><ul><li>34% reported difficulty in sleeping because they were too stressed-out. </li></ul><ul><li>12% had called in sick because of job stress. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Work Place Stress <ul><li>Workplace stress has a negative impact on the business as well as on the individual employee. The increase in job stress creates emotional, financial, and safety concerns for employers and managers </li></ul><ul><li>The World Health Organization labeled stress a “worldwide epidemic.” Today, workplace stress is estimated to cost companies more than $300 billion a year in poor performance, absenteeism and health costs. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Factors that Lead to Job Stress <ul><li>Specific work factors </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive workload. </li></ul><ul><li>Tedious or meaningless tasks . </li></ul><ul><li>Long hours and low pay. </li></ul><ul><li>Infrequent rest breaks. </li></ul><ul><li>Unreasonable performance demands </li></ul><ul><li>Physical environment </li></ul><ul><li>Noise and overcrowding. </li></ul><ul><li>Poor air quality. </li></ul><ul><li>Ergonomic problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Health and safety risks (heavy equipment, toxic chemicals). </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Organizational practices </li></ul><ul><li>Unclear responsibilities or expectations . </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicting job demands. </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple supervisors . </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of autonomy or participation in decision-making. </li></ul><ul><li>Inefficient communication patterns. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of family-friendly policies </li></ul><ul><li>Career Development </li></ul><ul><li>Over Promotion. </li></ul><ul><li>Under Promotion </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of Job Security </li></ul><ul><li>Thwarted ambition. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Workplace change </li></ul><ul><li>Fear of layoff. </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent personnel turnover. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of preparation for technological changes. </li></ul><ul><li>Poor chances for advancement or promotion. </li></ul><ul><li>Tensions brought about by greater workplace diversity. </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal Relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Distant, uncommunicative supervisors . </li></ul><ul><li>Poor performance from subordinates. </li></ul><ul><li>Office politics, competition, and other conflicts among staff. </li></ul><ul><li>Bullying or harassment. </li></ul><ul><li>Problems caused by excessive time away from family. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Sources of Occupational or Job stress <ul><li>Job related stressors </li></ul><ul><li>Environment specific </li></ul><ul><li>Economic conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Increased level of competitions </li></ul><ul><li>Market changes </li></ul><ul><li>Technological changes </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in the production and products </li></ul><ul><li>New forms of organization and product development </li></ul><ul><li>Drive for greater cost –effectiveness networks. </li></ul><ul><li>Multinational </li></ul><ul><li>General public concerns for the environment </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Organizational Specific </li></ul><ul><li>Changes with in the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Reorganizations </li></ul><ul><li>Layoffs </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational structure </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational culture, climate </li></ul><ul><li>Mergers, acquisitions and similar changes of the company ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Work force diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Reward systems </li></ul><ul><li>Promotional policies </li></ul><ul><li>Job security </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership style </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Job Specific </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure to work for long hours </li></ul><ul><li>Job characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicting job demands </li></ul><ul><li>Unclear job expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure of responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Time pressures </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of resources to perform job </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of information </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Relationships with subordinates </li></ul><ul><li>Working conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficient training </li></ul><ul><li>Work overload </li></ul><ul><li>Poor fit between abilities and skills </li></ul>
  12. 12. Individual – Related Stressors. <ul><li>Individual Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Personality traits </li></ul><ul><li>Demographic characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Coping skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Individual life circumstances </li></ul><ul><li>Work/life conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Family problems </li></ul><ul><li>Personal problems </li></ul><ul><li>Social problems </li></ul><ul><li>Financial difficulties. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Worker Characteristics that can Cause Job Stress May Include : <ul><li>1. A Need to be in Control </li></ul><ul><li>The worker feels a need to be in control at all times. </li></ul><ul><li>The worker views lack of control as a sign of weakness. </li></ul><ul><li>The worker has difficulty delegating assignments to others. </li></ul><ul><li>The worker avoids showing signs of weakness or nervousness. </li></ul><ul><li>2. A lack or Perceived lack of Competence </li></ul><ul><li>The worker feels his or her work is inferior compared to others. </li></ul><ul><li>The worker feels he or she makes poor judgments . </li></ul><ul><li>The worker feels a lack of common sense. </li></ul><ul><li>The worker feels doubts about his or her competence and ability to do the job. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>3. A Desire to Please People </li></ul><ul><li>The worker relies on favorable opinions and input from others as a basis for building self-esteem . </li></ul><ul><li>The worker fears he or she may disappoint others </li></ul><ul><li>The worker cares more about others' needs than his or her own. </li></ul><ul><li>The worker avoids communications and actions that would displease others . </li></ul><ul><li>4. A Need to be Perfect (Perfection) </li></ul><ul><li>The worker feels under pressure to achieve. </li></ul><ul><li>The worker is highly self-critical . </li></ul><ul><li>The worker feels a job well done could have been done  even better. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Signs and Symptoms of stress <ul><li>Intellectual Symptoms (How stress can affect the Mind) </li></ul><ul><li>Memory problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty making decisions. </li></ul><ul><li>Inability to concentrate. </li></ul><ul><li>Confusion. </li></ul><ul><li>Seeing only the negative. </li></ul><ul><li>Repetitive or racing thoughts .  </li></ul><ul><li>Poor judgment. </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of objectivity. </li></ul><ul><li>Desire to escape or run away </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Emotional Symptoms :( How stress can make us feel) </li></ul><ul><li>Moody and hypersensitive . </li></ul><ul><li>Restlessness and anxiety. </li></ul><ul><li>Depression. </li></ul><ul><li>Anger and resentment. </li></ul><ul><li>Easily irritated and “on edge ”. </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of being overwhelmed. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of confidence. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Physical Symptoms : (How stress can affect the Body) </li></ul><ul><li>Headaches. </li></ul><ul><li>Digestive problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle tension and pain. </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep disturbances . </li></ul><ul><li>Fatigue. </li></ul><ul><li>Chest pain, irregular heartbeat. </li></ul><ul><li>High blood pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>Weight gain or loss. </li></ul><ul><li>Asthma or shortness of breath. </li></ul><ul><li>Skin problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased sex drive. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Behavioral Symptoms : (How stress can affect the Behavior) </li></ul><ul><li>Eating disorder. </li></ul><ul><li>Sleeping too much or too little. </li></ul><ul><li>Isolating self from others. </li></ul><ul><li>Neglecting the responsibilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing alcohol and drug use. </li></ul><ul><li>Nervous habits (e.g. nail biting, pacing). </li></ul><ul><li>Teeth grinding or jaw clenching. </li></ul><ul><li>Overdoing activities such as exercising or shopping . </li></ul><ul><li>Losing the temper. </li></ul><ul><li>Overreacting to unexpected problems. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Long term effects of stress </li></ul><ul><li>Recent research suggests that anywhere from two-thirds of illness is stress-related . </li></ul><ul><li>some of the health problems that can be caused or exacerbated by long-term stress. </li></ul><ul><li>Health Problems Linked to long term Stress </li></ul><ul><li>Heart attack, Cancer, Stroke, Ulcers,Depressions,Eating disorders, </li></ul><ul><li>Obesity,Memeory loss,Thyroid problems </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Consequences of occupational stress can be grouped into those on </li></ul><ul><li>1.Individual level . </li></ul><ul><li>2.Organizational level. </li></ul><ul><li>On the individual level , </li></ul><ul><li>There are three main subgroups of strains : </li></ul><ul><li>1.Unwanted Feelings and Behaviours </li></ul><ul><li>2. Physiological Diseases (Poor Physical Health) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Psychological Diseases (Poor Emotional (Mental) Health) </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>1. Unwanted Feelings and Behaviors – </li></ul><ul><li>Job dissatisfaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Lower motivation. </li></ul><ul><li>Low employee morale. </li></ul><ul><li>Less organizational commitment,. </li></ul><ul><li>Lowered overall quality of work life . </li></ul><ul><li>Absenteeism, turnover. </li></ul><ul><li>Intention to leave the job, </li></ul><ul><li>Lower productivity, decreased quantity and quality of work. </li></ul><ul><li>Inability to make sound decisions. </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>2. Physiological Diseases (Poor Physical Health) </li></ul><ul><li>such as increased blood pressure and pulse rate, cardiovascular diseases, high cholesterol, high blood sugar, insomnia, headaches , infections, skin problems, injuries and fatigue. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>3. Psychological Diseases (Poor Emotional (Mental) Health) – </li></ul><ul><li>1. Psychological distress, depression, </li></ul><ul><li>anxiousness . </li></ul><ul><li>2.Passiveness, Aggressiveness. </li></ul><ul><li>3.Boredom, lose of self-confidence and self-esteem. </li></ul><ul><li>4.Lose of dissatisfaction with job and live, losing of contact with reality and emotional fatigue. </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>On the Organization level , </li></ul><ul><li>Consequences of Occupational or Job Stress can be Grouped into two Major subgroups. </li></ul><ul><li>1 . Organizational factors </li></ul><ul><li>2 . Organizational Costs. </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>1. Organizational factors - </li></ul><ul><li>1.Such as discontent and poor morale among the workforce. </li></ul><ul><li>2.Performance/productivity losses, low quality products and services. </li></ul><ul><li>3.Poorer relationships with clients, images and reputation, missed opportunities . </li></ul><ul><li>4.Disruption to production, high accident and mistakes rates, high labor turnover. </li></ul><ul><li>5.Loss of valuable staff, increase sick-leave, permanent vacancies, premature retirement. </li></ul><ul><li>6.Diminished cooperation , poor internal communications, more internal conflicts, and dysfunctional workplace climate. </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>2. Organizational Costs :- </li></ul><ul><li>1.Such as cost of reduced performance , productivity (lack of added value to product and /or service), </li></ul><ul><li>2.High replacement costs in connection with labor turnover ( increase in recruitment, training and retraining costs), </li></ul><ul><li>3.Increases sick pay, increased health-care costs and disability payments, </li></ul><ul><li>4.Higher grievance and litigation/compensation costs, and costs of equipment damage . </li></ul>
  27. 27. Physical Factors affecting the Job Stress. 12% Poor site conditions *17% Noise levels *20% Inadequate Temperature control 11% Poor lighting *20% Lack of Privacy 6% Problems with office accommodation 14% Inadequate Ventilation
  28. 28. Organizational factors affecting Job stress 14% Poor relations with superiors 16% Interpersonal Relations 24% Insufficient Training 20% Poor Communications 26% Inadequate staffing
  29. 29. Job Demand factors affecting Occupational or Job stress 12% Insufficiency skilled for job 16% Working in Isolation 25% Ambitious Deadlines 19% Pressure 28% Too much of work
  30. 30. Job role factors affecting Occupational or Job stress 14% Job insecurity 22% Lack of career progression 17% Inadequate Managerial support 24% Conflicting demands 23% Lack of clarity about responsibility
  31. 31. COPING WITH STRESS STRESS MANAGEMENT STRESS REDUCTION-TECHNIQUES &
  32. 32. Approach to reduce stress <ul><li>Stress on the job creates high costs for </li></ul><ul><li>businesses and institutions, reducing </li></ul><ul><li>morale, productivity, and earnings. </li></ul><ul><li>Clearly, it is in every employer’s best </li></ul><ul><li>interests—fiscal and otherwise—to </li></ul><ul><li>reduce workplace stress as much as </li></ul><ul><li>possible. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Organizational approach Organization can foster low levels of job stress and high levels of productivity: <ul><li>Organization level to Reduce Job Stress </li></ul><ul><li>Improve communication </li></ul><ul><li>Consult your employees </li></ul><ul><li>Offer rewards and incentives </li></ul><ul><li>Cultivate a friendly social climate </li></ul>
  34. 34. Employees can reduce job stress While organizational change comes from management, there are still many things employees—individually or collectively—can do to reduce workplace stress. <ul><li>Stand Up for Yourself </li></ul><ul><li>Get a job description </li></ul><ul><li>Change your job </li></ul><ul><li>Get support </li></ul><ul><li>Get a new job </li></ul>
  35. 35. Approaches to Reduce Stress Change of life style habits to Manage Stress better <ul><li>Get enough sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Connect with others: </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise regularly </li></ul><ul><li>Eat a balanced, nutritious diet </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce caffeine and sugar </li></ul><ul><li>Do something for yourself everyday </li></ul>
  36. 36. Change of thinking and emotional responses to handle stress better <ul><li>Have realistic expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Reframe problems </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain your sense of humor </li></ul><ul><li>Express your feelings instead of bottling them up </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t try to control events or other people </li></ul>
  37. 37. Meet the challenges of stressful situations <ul><li>Manage time </li></ul><ul><li>Give priority to the most important tasks and do those first </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule time for both work and recreation </li></ul><ul><li>Delegate tasks and break up big projects </li></ul>
  38. 38. Stress Relief: Yoga, Meditation, and Other Relaxation Techniques <ul><li>Breathing exercises relieve stress </li></ul><ul><li>Meditation to Relieve Stress </li></ul><ul><li>Yoga help with stress relief </li></ul>
  39. 39. How to Change the Organization to Prevent Job Stress <ul><li>Ensure that the workload is in line with workers' capabilities and resources. </li></ul><ul><li>Design jobs to provide meaning, stimulation, and opportunities for workers to use their skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Clearly define workers' roles and responsibilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Give workers opportunities to participate in decisions and actions affecting their jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>Improve communications-reduce uncertainty about career development and future employment prospects </li></ul><ul><li>Establish work schedules that are compatible with demands and responsibilities outside the job. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Preventing Job Stress - Getting Started <ul><li>STEPS TOWARDS PREVENTION </li></ul><ul><li>Step 1 - Identify the Problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2 - Design and Implement Interventions. </li></ul><ul><li>Step 3 - Evaluate the Interventions. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Thank You

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