Improve Reading Comprehension online the ways to develop reading for ESL learners Done by : Milad Salim Ehsan Ahmed Ajab
The goal of reading is “to construct text meaning based on visually encoded information” (Koda, 2007, p.1).
In first language (L1) reading, readers use only one language, whereas in second language (L2) reading, learners have at least two languages to deal with. According to Carrell and Grabe (2002), L2 readers use different reading processes than L1 readers for the following reasons:
* the former group is limited in their linguistic knowledge;
* they do not have cultural and social knowledge that is common in the English context;
they do not necessarily retain prior knowledge, which is the basis of understanding.
* they study English for a variety of reasons, including accommodating English speaking countries and pursuing degrees in these countries; and
* they use both L1 and L2.
Due to these differences between L1 and L2, the L2 readers experience more challenges than the L1 readers (Koda, 2007).
This qualitative study explore the nature of reading comprehension processes while reading on the Internet .
The differences reading compression between online and normal text .
The process that the second English leaner follow during their
Problems of research The project will conduct the fair enough research to answer these questions : 1 .Do students able to apply ‘top-down' processors and bottom up' processors of texts actively? 2 -What are the comprehension readings programs may help and reinforce students’ reading skills?
Bracha Kramarski and Yael Feldman(2002) in their study “ Internet in the Classroom: Effects on Reading Comprehension, Motivation and Metacognitive Awareness” the research found a definite positive link between metacognitive awareness, and student accomplishments. Results indicate that although the internet environment contributes significantly as far as the motivation of the students towards the subject of English (as a foreign language) goes, no real contribution was found as far as the actual improvement of achievement in the area of English reading comprehension and metacognitive awareness.
SPIRO, R.J. (2004)”Principled pluralism for adaptive flexibility in teaching and learning” the theory of cognitive flexibility (Spiro et al., 1991) as applied to reading comprehension (Spiro, 2004) in at least two ways. First, in order to make sense of what they read on the Internet, strategic online readers appeared to employ a process of flexible text and knowledge integration informed by a “fluidly changeable” .
Robb (2000) stated that to every text, a reader brings hisher personality, present mood, and memories, making each person's experience of a text almost as unique as a fingerprint. Rosenblatt (1983) illustrated that readers used prior knowledge, in fonnation, and experiences stored in their mind to make meaning from a text. She stated that during reading, a reader integrated hisher personal knowledge with the author's words, creating an original text. She therefore concluded that what readers bring to a text affected their ability to comprehend the author's words.
Grossman (2002) explained that software afforded the user the ability to interact with information, respond to prompted questions or click on hypertext to gain immediate access to definitions and descriptions. Software also could provide an effective medium for graphically organizing written material. The Inspiration software program allowed users to create concept maps. Grossman concluded by stating that some kinds of software may be effective in facilitating the reading comprehension of middle school students, especially those students who would benefit from scaffold instruction.
As guardian of phonics,Professor Chall was often viewed as a bottom-up theorist, that is, one who emphasized the ability to decode or put into sound what is seen in a text. Other bottom- up theorists included Gough (1972), LaBerge and Samuels (1974). Teachers emphasized decoding skills and spent almost no time helping emerging readers recognize what they, as readers, brought to the information on the page.
The top-down model of reading does just that, focusing on what the readers bring to the process (Goodman, 1967; Smith, 1971,1982). The readers sample the text for information and contrast it with their world knowledge, helping to make sense of what is written. The focus here is on the readers as they interact with the text. For those reading theorists who recognized the importance of both the text and the reader in the reading process, an amalgamation of the two emerged-the interactive approach.
The interactive model (Rumelhart, 1977; Stanovich, 1980) stressed both what is on the written page and what a reader brings to it using both top-down and bottom-up skills.
She has divided the lesson into before, during, and after reading.
It is not enough for readers to decode the information from the text, but rather they must bring to mind their own world knowledge and worldview. It demands that the teachers activate their students' schema -- that is, help students recognize the knowledge that they already have about the topic of a text.
Teachers can Help students recognize the great variation inherent in the reading process and to understand that we do not read each piece of writing in the same way.
-Serve as guides to the variety of skills and processes used in reading.
-pose questions to help students reflect on their reading processes
Obviously, selecting relevant and interesting material for readers is the key to their engagement in the process.
Improve student motivation by creating classroom opportunities for sustained silent reading (SSR). In-class SSR, widely used in public schools, can also be part of an adult reading program. (Pingreen and Krashen, 1993; Mason and Krashen, 1997).
Readers have only a limited amount of cognitive energy to use during the process. If they spend most of their time on decoding, then they have no energy left for connecting the ideas of the text to make meaning. Therefore, being fluent demands that readers have internalized decoding and can focus conscious energy on comprehension.
The typical post-reading exercise tends to focus on comprehension exercises. I would suggest that rather than short answer or multiple choice exercises, readers might be asked to think about a visual representation of the text: a folded paper with pros and cons
Thus, the review of literature has indicated that when choosing an intervention program to increase the comprehension skills of the students, it is necessary that teachers and administrators understand the need for a variety of strategies, instructional methods, and techniques such as whole class discussions, small group work, one-on-one discussions