2 mandibular molars future


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2 mandibular molars future

  1. 1. First permanent molar toFirst permanent molar to calcify and erupt.It is known asIt is known as six molar toothtooth..WHYWHY??ItsIts number in the lower arch is 6in the lower arch is 6..&&ItsIts eruption date is six yearsis six years..Functionally, it is considered as theFunctionally, it is considered as the key ofocclusion.
  2. 2. No. of surfaces:It has five surfacesNo. of roots:It has 2 rootsBUCCAL LINGUAL MESIAL DISTALOCCLUSAL
  3. 3. The geometric outline: Trapezoidalwith small uneven side presentcervically.DMesial outline: concave till the contactarea at the junction of the occlusal andmiddle 1/3.Distal outline: straight till the contact areabeneath the distal cusp ridge.MBUCCAL ASPECT
  4. 4. DOcclusal outline: formed by 3 cusps,MB, DB, DCervical outline: straight with dippinginto the root bifurcationM
  5. 5. D MAnatomical landmarks:*2Developmental grooves ( MB, DB(*Cervical ridge at the cervical 1/3*Developmental depression run M-D inthe middle 1/3
  6. 6. The Roots:The Roots:* Root trunk: 3 mm.*The roots twice the length of the crown.* The axis of the roots are inclined distally* Deep developmental grooveextend on the root trunk.MD
  7. 7. DM* Lingual convergenceMesial outline: Straight till the contactarea at the junction of the occlusal andmiddle 1/3Distal outline: Convex till the contactarea beneath the distal cusp ridgeLINGUAL ASPECT
  8. 8. DMOcclusal outline: formed by 2 lingualcusps, ML, DL of nearly equal widthCervical outline: Irregular with dippinginto the root bifurcationAnatomical landmarks:Lingual Developmental groove
  9. 9. The root trunk appears longer on the ling. surface due to:*the occlusal position of cervical line*Lingual conversionLINGUALBUCCAL
  10. 10. B LThe geometric outline: Rhomboid andinclined lingually.Notes:1-ML cusp is more pointed than MB cusp( because it is out of occlusion(2-The cervical line slants occlusally from thebuccal to the lingual side.MESIAL ASPECT
  11. 11. Buccal outline: convex cervically represents………..,then slightly concave represents……… finally ends byconvexity related to the cusps.Lingual line: convex with maximumconvexity at the middle half.
  12. 12. B LAnatomical landmarks:*Contact area centered B-L below thecrest of marginal ridge*Deep developmental depression on themesial surface of the root.MESIAL ASPECT
  13. 13. DISTAL ASPECTL BMESIAL ASPECT*The crown is shorter distally*There is a distal conversion*DMR is U- shape, shorter and more cervically than MMR*Distal contact area located below the distal cuspL
  14. 14. M DThe geometric outline: HexagonalLB* The crown measurementsis larger MD than BL .* The crown converge linguallyand distallyOCCLUSAL ASPECT
  15. 15. M DBLAnatomical landmarks:Elevations:*5 cusps with 5 triangular ridges*MMR and DMR
  16. 16. *1major central fossae + pit*2Minor fossae ( mesial and distaltriangular fossae(*Developmental grooves:Central groove is zigzag in its MD coarse.M DBLMB groove , DB and L grooveAnatomical landmarks:Depressions:
  17. 17. -The pulp chamber is broad MD.-It is almost rectangular in shape.-There is a pulp horn beneath eachcusp►Pulp Chamber:☻Pulp cavity►Root Canals:-3 main root canals.-M root has 2 root canals while D root has 1root canal.Buccal viewMesial view
  18. 18. Note:The two mesial root canals appear in x – rayoverlapping each other.
  19. 19. Abnormalities you may find:1-Three or four roots.2-Four root canals.
  20. 20. Enumerate the names of the followingelevations and depression?1-Central groove2-MMR3-Central fossa4-Distal triangular fossa5-Mesio-buccal groove
  21. 21. Label the different surfacesLabel the different surfaces::Buccal surfaceLingual surfaceMesial surfaceDistal surface
  22. 22. What is thisWhat is this??
  23. 23. What is thisWhat is this??
  24. 24. What is this?
  25. 25. What is thisWhat is this??
  26. 26. No. of surfaces:It has five surfacesNo. of roots:It has 2 rootsBUCCAL LINGUAL MESIAL DISTALOCCLUSAL
  27. 27. M DGeometric outline: Trapezoidwith small uneven side locatedcervicallyThe roots are closer and nearlyparallel with more pointed apexthan 6Anatomical Landmark:Buccal developmental groove may end in a buccal pit.MB cusp is longer than the DB cusp.BUCCAL ASPECT
  28. 28. MDThe lingual cusps are more pointedthan buccal cusps.Anatomical Landmark: Lingualdevelopmental groove never pitted.The CrownThe RootShort root trunk with a developmentaldepression.LINGUAL ASPECT
  29. 29. The geometric outline:Rhomboidal with lingualinclination*The mesial root is onlyvisible*Longitudinal depression on themesial surface of mesial root*MMR is concaveL BMESIAL ASPECT
  30. 30. LB*DMR is concave but lessangular than MMR*Distal root is narrower than mesialroot, so both roots are seenDISTAL ASPECT
  31. 31. The geometric outline: Rectangular.MLBDNote:* Disto-Lingual convergence.* Mesio-Distally is larger than bucco-lingually.OCCLUSAL ASPECT
  32. 32. MLBDAnatomical landmarks:Elevations:*4 cusps with 4 triangular ridges ( mesialcusps are larger than distal cusps).*Mesial and distal marginal ridge.OCCLUSAL ASPECT
  33. 33. *1major central fossae with central pit*2Minor fossae ( mesial and distaltriangular fossae)*Developmental grooves: form a typicalCross patternMBDL*supplemental grooves radiate fromdevelopmental groovesNote : All grooves provide important escapeways for food during masticationDepression:
  34. 34. -►Bucco-Lingually, the pulpchamber is square-There is pulp horn beneath eachcuspPulp Chamber:☻Pulp cavityRoot Canals:-3 main root canals.-M root usually has 2 root canals while D roothas 1 root canal►Mesio-Distally, the pulpchamber is rectangularM D LB
  35. 35. ☻Pulp cavityNote:Cervical cross section:Triangular due to small dimensiondistallyMid root section:*M root is kidney shape with 2 smallcanals*D root is oval with 1 large roundedcanalM D LB
  36. 36. No. of surfaces:It has five surfacesBUCCAL PALATALMESIALDISTALOCCLUSAL
  37. 37. MD*The 3rdmolar is either 4 or 5 cusptype*The buccal surface is convex*2Short roots (M and D) may befused in all or part of their length*The roots are more inclined distallythan 1stand 2ndmolarsBUCCAL ASPECT
  38. 38. LBThe buccal cusp tips are closer to thelingual cusp tips giving a smallocclusal tableL BThere is a distal conversionDistal root is narrower than mesialroot, so both roots are seenMESIAL ASPECTDISTAL ASPECT
  39. 39. MLDThe geometric outline:Rectangular (similar to lower7) or hexagonal (similar tolower 6)There are numerous supplementalgrooves and pits give a wrinkledappearanceBOCCLUSAL ASPECT
  40. 40. ☻ Note:1-The 3rdmolar is showed multiplevariation in the size and shape.2-The pulp cavity also showed greatvariation in the size and shape3-The pulp chamber of 8 is larger than othermolars because it is younger than othermolars by 9-11 years
  41. 41. What is thisWhat is this??L. surface 7
  42. 42. What is thisWhat is this??D. Surf. 7
  43. 43. Occ. Surf. 7
  44. 44. MMR 7
  45. 45. DL cusp 7
  46. 46. CDG 7
  47. 47. BDG 7
  48. 48. M F 7