The Concepts & principles of management
In the early of twentieth century, the management
Approached to the natural sciences, and it's became have
references that taught in schools and college.
At the beginning of scientific management At 1911
"Frederick Winslow Taylor" developed the scientific
management techniques, and "Henri Fayol" was one of the
most influential contributors to modern concepts of
During World War II Period, several of Scientifics were
developed techniques of management science, even some of
Scientifics were considered the World War II period as the
beginning of management science, not at the beginning of
After World War II, the management became based on a set
of principles, methods, and concepts of contemporary
scientific, Which targeted completion of works by others, and
resorted to experiment, and derived from it; several
principles and duties, instead of based on the personals
attempts or trial and error.
2- Management Concept :
Management Science is a social Science that related
with; regulation & technical skills, such as: planning,
organizing, directing and controlling, to overcome the
encountered problems, and take appropriate decisions
to achieve the organize goals, with efficiency and
effectiveness, taking into consideration internal and
external influences of the environment work.
What are the efficiency and effectiveness?
- Efficiency: use the resources best using.
- Effectiveness: Achievement best results and Effectiveness
related with Efficiency.
3- definitions of management:
There are many most important definitions for management
according to several Scientifics as following.
A-The management definition From "Frederick Winslow
"To know exactly what you want, then make sure that
individuals achieve their works with best and cheapest
B- The management definition From "Henri Fayol"
"Management consists of six functions: forecasting,
planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating and
controlling, Then "Fayol” puts 14 Principles of
Management as follow.
14 Principles of Management as said:
1-The division of labor
2- Unit direction
3- Unit command
8- Team spirit
9- Pay equity
10-chain of command (Authorities include)
11- General benefit
12- Authority and responsibility
13- The stability of work
14- Equality unity of direction.
The management definition From " Max Weber perspective,
he said that any organization must be represented in a
bureaucratic system based on a hierarchical, and the power
come down from the top to the base, while General Director
Give his order to the Manager at the main departments
(Human resources - finance. Production& Operations and
The following figure shows the Hierarchy of authority.
9/26/2012- dr ramadan
The management definition as "Mary Parker Follett" (1868–
1933), she defined management as another way of thinking,
Management: is a type of thinking that actually diagnoses and
identify problems and constraints faced by Objectives that seek to
achieve them. And elements of the administrative process
(management activities) are four:
3- Guidance, leadership and operating Direction .
4- Control and supervision and follow-up controlling & supervision
The management definition According to "Peter Drucker"
(1909–2005): the basic task of a management is twofold:
marketing and innovation.
" The art of getting things done through people". he described
management as philosophy.
According to The author can defined management as
That system is based on the sciences , concepts , principles &
modern methods to achieve the goal of the organization,
using the resources available with highest degree of
efficiency and effectiveness, with take regard of the
surrounding environmental and social responsibility,
especially the rights of future generations.
4- Management activities & Functions :
Management activities & Functions; are Organizing
and coordination of the activities of an enterprise
accordance with certain policies, and implementation
of the works by others, using the Management
Function such as; planning , organizing , guidance and
control, in order to achieve organization goals.
5- Publically of management:
management are Applied at all organizations, whether formal
or not official, the hospital is managed by the doctor, and the
school is managed by the teacher, the factory is run by the
engineer, and so on, and the management task at any
Commission regardless of the kind; is to achieve the results
that institute found for it, whether: Ministry, or company, or
university, or college, or hospital or club, or even at house,...
6- Management mission:
management is a member institution is responsible for achieving
results for which they found such an institution in society,
management is the responsibility of the commissioning of the
community to achieve the best results using the elements (physical
and human) appropriate, and use those elements to use optimized
with the achievement of (continuity) the work of a delicate balance
between the requirements of the present and the future.
7- Management Mission Focused in the Following Points:
o Report the results to be achieved.
o Selection of the fittest elements to be used here to achieve the
desired results (effectiveness).
o Make the necessary arrangements for the use of those
elements best use (efficiently).
o -Ensure the continuity of the organization in achieving its
results, so that a balance occurs between the requirements of
the short-term and long term.
8- Dimensions of task management :
The main management mission by achieving the following
three dimensions (economic, social, time).
The main task of management by achieving the following three
dimensions (economic, social, time)
1 - Economic dimension1
- To achieve the main goal of organization with efficiency and
-Efficiency: to use the resources of organization best using.
(Efficiency) = Output ÷ Input.
- Effectiveness: to achieve best results through using the appropriate
elements best using (effectiveness).
2- Social dimension.
- Interest in the human dimension.
-Coordination between human needs and objectives of the
organization, which depends on the efficiency of the qualitative
study human behavior.
Achieve self-development through education and training.
Administrative coordination and cooperation to achieve harmony
and full cooperation between the leaders.
3-The time dimension.
Achieve the objectives of the organization at present and the future,
especially taking into account the rights of future generations.
Implementation of the tasks at present.
Implementation of the tasks in the future to be established in the
case of permanent readiness to cope with environmental variables,
and preserving the rights of future generations in life in terms of
1 The Wealth of NationsWritten in 1776 by Adam Smith, a Scottishmoral
philosopher, The Wealth of Nations aims for efficient organization of work
through Specialization of labor. Smith described how changes in processes
could boost productivity in the manufacture of pins. While individuals could
produce 200 pins per day, Smith analyzed the steps involved in manufacture
and, with 10 specialists, enabled production of 48,000 pins per day.
9- Management elements :
Management elements consists of major groups as the
1) A set of administrative & leadership that characterized
the capabilities and management skills .
2) A set of activities or functions (planning - organization -
Guidance - control.
3) Knowledge and concepts introduced and developed by
scientists and practitioners of management.
4) Financial, material and human resources used.
5) The surrounding environment (external - internal) for the
10- Importance of management:
Rational management achieved the desires of all (whether
society or projects or development) with efficiently and
effectively, but they are only capable with its tools and
capabilities and skills to reconcile the conflicting interests of
the parties may appear in many cases, including the conflict
of interest as bearers the project and the workers and the
The management is also an important role in directing the
collective efforts of all kinds and levels, and the growing
importance of management the more the wheel of economic
variables and social technology which requires proficiency in
the application of the principles of management for
community needs to collective efforts in a spirit of
cooperation and teamwork to achieve goals, and in the
current era, management is successful necessary for the
(1)The large size organizations and increase the need for
different specialties, which shows the importance of
planning, organization, coordination and oversight.
(2)Intense competition in the market, which requires
innovation in production methods and in the tools to
achieve economic savings.
(3) The increasing scarcity of natural resources, which
requires the development of human resources capable to
detect alternative resources.
(4)Increasing administrative problems, the complexity and
interrelatedness of the areas of administrative work and
increase the dynamic variables that surround the
organizations, which requires the emergence of a need for
management to modern methods for managing these
problems, depending on the scientific method rather than
the method of trial and error, which is no longer valid to
address these problems.
The following figure shows the importance of management
of the various areas;
Importance of management
Optimum use and efficient for all of
Increasing sophistication and progress and
the advancement of efficient in all scall of
Sports -diplomatic - - religious - education - health – care-
Military – Housing - Construction - civil rights associations -
associations of consumer protection - the development of
democracy . Agriculture-industry…etc
11- Management principles:
Management principles Is a set of basic facts that are applicable
under certain circumstances and where the principles are
interrelated and coherent set of ideas they are the theory of the
subject, who devised principles for it., and The following are the
most important theories that have affected at the process of
management which include the following topics:
1- The traditional2
school or scientific management movement:
2 - Human Relations School.
3- Behavioral Sciences School.
4- Environment and management.
5- Systems theory.
By about 1900 one finds managers trying to place their theories on what
they regarded as a thoroughly scientific basis (see scientism for perceived
limitations of this belief). Examples include Henry R. Towne's Science of
management in the 1890s, Frederick Winslow Taylor's The Principles of
Scientific Management (1911), Frank and Lillian Gilbreth's Applied motion
study (1917), and Henry L. Gantt's charts (1910s). J. Duncan wrote the first
college management textbook in 1911. In 1912 Yoichi Ueno introduced
Taylorism to Japan and became first management consultant of the
"Japanese-management style". His son Ichiro Ueno pioneered Japanese
As the general recognition of managers as a class solidified
during the 20th century and gave perceived practitioners of the
art/science of management a certain amount of prestige, so the. In
this context many management fads may have had more to do
with pop psychology than with scientific theories of management.
Business management came to consist of six separate branches,
Human resource management
Operations management or production management
Information technology management responsible for
management information systems.
In the 21st century observers find it increasingly difficult to
subdivide management into functional categories in this way at
At 20th century the management needs More and more processes
simultaneously involve several categories.
In the 21st century existed new Branches of management relating
to nonprofits and government organizations : such as public
administration, public management, and educational
management. Further, management programs related to civil-
society organizations have also spawned programs in nonprofit
management and social entrepreneurship.