7
Chapter One
The Concepts & principles of management
1- Introduction:
In the early of twentieth century, the management
A...
8
During World War II Period, several of Scientifics were
developed techniques of management science, even some of
Scienti...
9
2- Management Concept :
Management Science is a social Science that related
with; regulation & technical skills, such as...
10
3- definitions of management:
There are many most important definitions for management
according to several Scientifics...
11
14 Principles of Management as said:
1-The division of labor
2- Unit direction
3- Unit command
4- Discipline
5- System
...
12
-
-
The management definition From " Max Weber perspective,
he said that any organization must be represented in a
bure...
13
9/26/2012- dr ramadan
elnagar
ahmedramadan2758@yahoo.com 37
The management definition as "Mary Parker Follett" (1868–
1...
14
1- Planning
2- Organization
3- Guidance, leadership and operating Direction .
4- Control and supervision and follow-up ...
15
efficiency and effectiveness, with take regard of the
surrounding environmental and social responsibility,
especially t...
16
engineer, and so on, and the management task at any
Commission regardless of the kind; is to achieve the results
that i...
17
o Report the results to be achieved.
o Selection of the fittest elements to be used here to achieve the
desired results...
18
1 - Economic dimension1
:
- To achieve the main goal of organization with efficiency and
effectiveness.
-Efficiency: to...
19
-----
9- Management elements :
Management elements consists of major groups as the
following
1) A set of administrative...
20
5) The surrounding environment (external - internal) for the
project..
:
( ---–
10- Importance of management:
Rational ...
21
variables and social technology which requires proficiency in
the application of the principles of management for
commu...
22
The following figure shows the importance of management
of the various areas;
-
.
23
24
Importance of management
Projects
projects
ent
Developmen
t
Society
Removing
the
contradiction
between
Avoid
Failure
Ac...
25
11- Management principles:
Management principles Is a set of basic facts that are applicable
under certain circumstance...
26
As the general recognition of managers as a class solidified
during the 20th century and gave perceived practitioners o...
27
In the 21st century observers find it increasingly difficult to
subdivide management into functional categories in this...
28
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1ch1 cocepte معدل

  1. 1. 7 Chapter One The Concepts & principles of management 1- Introduction: In the early of twentieth century, the management Approached to the natural sciences, and it's became have references that taught in schools and college. At the beginning of scientific management At 1911 "Frederick Winslow Taylor" developed the scientific management techniques, and "Henri Fayol" was one of the most influential contributors to modern concepts of management.
  2. 2. 8 During World War II Period, several of Scientifics were developed techniques of management science, even some of Scientifics were considered the World War II period as the beginning of management science, not at the beginning of twentieth century. After World War II, the management became based on a set of principles, methods, and concepts of contemporary scientific, Which targeted completion of works by others, and resorted to experiment, and derived from it; several principles and duties, instead of based on the personals attempts or trial and error.
  3. 3. 9 2- Management Concept : Management Science is a social Science that related with; regulation & technical skills, such as: planning, organizing, directing and controlling, to overcome the encountered problems, and take appropriate decisions to achieve the organize goals, with efficiency and effectiveness, taking into consideration internal and external influences of the environment work. . What are the efficiency and effectiveness? - Efficiency: use the resources best using. - Effectiveness: Achievement best results and Effectiveness related with Efficiency. - - -
  4. 4. 10 3- definitions of management: There are many most important definitions for management according to several Scientifics as following. A-The management definition From "Frederick Winslow Taylor" perspective, "To know exactly what you want, then make sure that individuals achieve their works with best and cheapest way possible." . B- The management definition From "Henri Fayol" (1841–1925) perspective, "Management consists of six functions: forecasting, planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating and controlling, Then "Fayol” puts 14 Principles of Management as follow. -
  5. 5. 11 14 Principles of Management as said: 1-The division of labor 2- Unit direction 3- Unit command 4- Discipline 5- System 6- initiative 7- Centralization. 8- Team spirit 9- Pay equity 10-chain of command (Authorities include) 11- General benefit 12- Authority and responsibility 13- The stability of work 14- Equality unity of direction. - - - - - - - - - - - -
  6. 6. 12 - - The management definition From " Max Weber perspective, he said that any organization must be represented in a bureaucratic system based on a hierarchical, and the power come down from the top to the base, while General Director Give his order to the Manager at the main departments (Human resources - finance. Production& Operations and Marketing department). The following figure shows the Hierarchy of authority.
  7. 7. 13 9/26/2012- dr ramadan elnagar ahmedramadan2758@yahoo.com 37 The management definition as "Mary Parker Follett" (1868– 1933), she defined management as another way of thinking, Management: is a type of thinking that actually diagnoses and identify problems and constraints faced by Objectives that seek to achieve them. And elements of the administrative process (management activities) are four:
  8. 8. 14 1- Planning 2- Organization 3- Guidance, leadership and operating Direction . 4- Control and supervision and follow-up controlling & supervision & monitoring. –––- –– – The management definition According to "Peter Drucker" (1909–2005): the basic task of a management is twofold: marketing and innovation. " The art of getting things done through people". he described management as philosophy. - According to The author can defined management as open system: That system is based on the sciences , concepts , principles & modern methods to achieve the goal of the organization, using the resources available with highest degree of
  9. 9. 15 efficiency and effectiveness, with take regard of the surrounding environmental and social responsibility, especially the rights of future generations. 4- Management activities & Functions : Management activities & Functions; are Organizing and coordination of the activities of an enterprise accordance with certain policies, and implementation of the works by others, using the Management Function such as; planning , organizing , guidance and control, in order to achieve organization goals. 5- Publically of management: management are Applied at all organizations, whether formal or not official, the hospital is managed by the doctor, and the school is managed by the teacher, the factory is run by the
  10. 10. 16 engineer, and so on, and the management task at any Commission regardless of the kind; is to achieve the results that institute found for it, whether: Ministry, or company, or university, or college, or hospital or club, or even at house,... Etc... 6- Management mission: management is a member institution is responsible for achieving results for which they found such an institution in society, management is the responsibility of the commissioning of the community to achieve the best results using the elements (physical and human) appropriate, and use those elements to use optimized with the achievement of (continuity) the work of a delicate balance between the requirements of the present and the future. 7- Management Mission Focused in the Following Points:
  11. 11. 17 o Report the results to be achieved. o Selection of the fittest elements to be used here to achieve the desired results (effectiveness). o Make the necessary arrangements for the use of those elements best use (efficiently). o -Ensure the continuity of the organization in achieving its results, so that a balance occurs between the requirements of the short-term and long term. 8- Dimensions of task management : The main management mission by achieving the following three dimensions (economic, social, time). The main task of management by achieving the following three dimensions (economic, social, time)
  12. 12. 18 1 - Economic dimension1 : - To achieve the main goal of organization with efficiency and effectiveness. -Efficiency: to use the resources of organization best using. (Efficiency) = Output ÷ Input. - Effectiveness: to achieve best results through using the appropriate elements best using (effectiveness). 2- Social dimension. - Interest in the human dimension. -Coordination between human needs and objectives of the organization, which depends on the efficiency of the qualitative study human behavior. Achieve self-development through education and training. Administrative coordination and cooperation to achieve harmony and full cooperation between the leaders. 3-The time dimension. Achieve the objectives of the organization at present and the future, especially taking into account the rights of future generations. Implementation of the tasks at present. Implementation of the tasks in the future to be established in the case of permanent readiness to cope with environmental variables, and preserving the rights of future generations in life in terms of social responsibility. 1 The Wealth of NationsWritten in 1776 by Adam Smith, a Scottishmoral philosopher, The Wealth of Nations aims for efficient organization of work through Specialization of labor. Smith described how changes in processes could boost productivity in the manufacture of pins. While individuals could produce 200 pins per day, Smith analyzed the steps involved in manufacture and, with 10 specialists, enabled production of 48,000 pins per day.
  13. 13. 19 ----- 9- Management elements : Management elements consists of major groups as the following 1) A set of administrative & leadership that characterized the capabilities and management skills . 2) A set of activities or functions (planning - organization - Guidance - control. 3) Knowledge and concepts introduced and developed by scientists and practitioners of management. 4) Financial, material and human resources used.
  14. 14. 20 5) The surrounding environment (external - internal) for the project.. : ( ---– 10- Importance of management: Rational management achieved the desires of all (whether society or projects or development) with efficiently and effectively, but they are only capable with its tools and capabilities and skills to reconcile the conflicting interests of the parties may appear in many cases, including the conflict of interest as bearers the project and the workers and the community. The management is also an important role in directing the collective efforts of all kinds and levels, and the growing importance of management the more the wheel of economic
  15. 15. 21 variables and social technology which requires proficiency in the application of the principles of management for community needs to collective efforts in a spirit of cooperation and teamwork to achieve goals, and in the current era, management is successful necessary for the following reasons: (1)The large size organizations and increase the need for different specialties, which shows the importance of planning, organization, coordination and oversight. (2)Intense competition in the market, which requires innovation in production methods and in the tools to achieve economic savings. (3) The increasing scarcity of natural resources, which requires the development of human resources capable to detect alternative resources. (4)Increasing administrative problems, the complexity and interrelatedness of the areas of administrative work and increase the dynamic variables that surround the organizations, which requires the emergence of a need for management to modern methods for managing these problems, depending on the scientific method rather than the method of trial and error, which is no longer valid to address these problems.
  16. 16. 22 The following figure shows the importance of management of the various areas; - .
  17. 17. 23
  18. 18. 24 Importance of management Projects projects ent Developmen t Society Removing the contradiction between Avoid Failure Achieve efficiency and production efficiency Optimum use and efficient for all of society's resources Human resour ces Material resources Knowledge and technology Increasing sophistication and progress and the advancement of efficient in all scall of development Others Cultur al politica l EconomicSocial Owner s Employeescommunity desires Sports -diplomatic - - religious - education - health – care- Military – Housing - Construction - civil rights associations - associations of consumer protection - the development of democracy . Agriculture-industry…etc ... etc.
  19. 19. 25 11- Management principles: Management principles Is a set of basic facts that are applicable under certain circumstances and where the principles are interrelated and coherent set of ideas they are the theory of the subject, who devised principles for it., and The following are the most important theories that have affected at the process of management which include the following topics: 1- The traditional2 school or scientific management movement: 2 - Human Relations School. 3- Behavioral Sciences School. 4- Environment and management. 5- Systems theory. . 2 By about 1900 one finds managers trying to place their theories on what they regarded as a thoroughly scientific basis (see scientism for perceived limitations of this belief). Examples include Henry R. Towne's Science of management in the 1890s, Frederick Winslow Taylor's The Principles of Scientific Management (1911), Frank and Lillian Gilbreth's Applied motion study (1917), and Henry L. Gantt's charts (1910s). J. Duncan wrote the first college management textbook in 1911. In 1912 Yoichi Ueno introduced Taylorism to Japan and became first management consultant of the "Japanese-management style". His son Ichiro Ueno pioneered Japanese quality assurance.
  20. 20. 26 As the general recognition of managers as a class solidified during the 20th century and gave perceived practitioners of the art/science of management a certain amount of prestige, so the. In this context many management fads may have had more to do with pop psychology than with scientific theories of management. Business management came to consist of six separate branches, namely: Human resource management Operations management or production management Marketing management Financial management Information technology management responsible for management information systems. Strategic management
  21. 21. 27 In the 21st century observers find it increasingly difficult to subdivide management into functional categories in this way at 20th century. At 20th century the management needs More and more processes simultaneously involve several categories. In the 21st century existed new Branches of management relating to nonprofits and government organizations : such as public administration, public management, and educational management. Further, management programs related to civil- society organizations have also spawned programs in nonprofit management and social entrepreneurship.
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