١٤٣٤/٠٨/١ 2SFL: BASIC CLASSIFICATIONSFL: BASIC CLASSIFICATION• In SFG, language is seen as beingorganized around three complementarymetafunctions: ideational, interpersonaland textual. The idea of ‘metafunctionaldiversity’ (or metafunctionalcomplementarity) is a hypothesis aboutthe organization of language on twolevels:• (1) on a macro level, it is a hypothesisabout the way in which language, as asemiotic system, plays a role in humanlife in general;• (2) on a more specific, linguistic level, itis a hypothesis about the way in which
١٤٣٤/٠٨/١ 3• IdeationalIdeational serves for theserves for theexpression of content ,i.e.,expression of content ,i.e.,the speaker’s attitude towardsthe speaker’s attitude towardsthe world.the world. TRANSITIVITYTRANSITIVITY• InterpersonalInterpersonal serves andserves andmaintains social roles ,i.e. tomaintains social roles ,i.e. tobuild up social relations.build up social relations.MOOD AND MODALITYMOOD AND MODALITY• TextualTextual serves serves howserves serves howthe speaker or the writerthe speaker or the writerconstructs a text, usingconstructs a text, usingcohesive ties.cohesive ties. THEME ANDTHEME ANDRHEMERHEME
١٤٣٤/٠٨/١ 4DEFINITIONDEFINITION• Transitivity is concerned with theTransitivity is concerned with thetransmission of world-view.transmission of world-view.• Transitivity generally refers to howTransitivity generally refers to howmeaning is represented in the clausemeaning is represented in the clause ..• It plays a role in showing how speakersIt plays a role in showing how speakersencode in language their mental pictureencode in language their mental pictureof reality and how they account for theirof reality and how they account for theirexperience of the world around themexperience of the world around them ..
١٤٣٤/٠٨/١ 5DEVELOPMENT OF THE TERMDEVELOPMENT OF THE TERM• Transitivity was developed as theconcept of transitive or intransitive verb(Halliday,1976:159) whether the verbtakes an object or not, but in SFL itfunctions to link grammar to the metafunctions; however, in Halliday’s terms,transitivity as a major component inexperiential function of the clause dealswith the “transmission of ideas“representing ‘processes’ or‘experiences’: actions, events, processes
١٤٣٤/٠٨/١ 6THE STRUCTURE OFTHE STRUCTURE OFTRANSITIVITYTRANSITIVITY• In Halliday’s concept ofIn Halliday’s concept of transitivitytransitivity there arethere arethree components of what he calls athree components of what he calls a transitivitytransitivityprocessprocess::• (i) the(i) the processprocess itselfitself(ii)(ii) participantsparticipants in the processin the process(iii)(iii) circumstancescircumstances associated with the processassociated with the process• TheThe processprocess is realized by ais realized by a verbal groupverbal group,,• thethe participant(s)participant(s) by (a)by (a) nominal group(s)nominal group(s)(although there may be exceptions here), and(although there may be exceptions here), and• thethe circumstance(s)circumstance(s) by (an)by (an) adverbial group(s)adverbial group(s)oror prepositional phrase(s)prepositional phrase(s)(Halliday,1985:101)(Halliday,1985:101)
١٤٣٤/٠٨/١ 7Typical function of group and phrase classestype ofelement:typically realized by:(i) process verbal group(ii) participant nominal group(iii) circumstance adverbial group or prepositionalphrase
١٤٣٤/٠٨/١ 8TYPES OF PROCESSESTYPES OF PROCESSES• Halliday proposesHalliday proposes threethree majormajor (and other(and otherthreethree minorminor) types of processes that) types of processes thatexist in the transitivity system of English,exist in the transitivity system of English,and the different types of the semanticand the different types of the semanticroles which are associated with eachroles which are associated with eachprocess.process.1-1- Material ProcessesMaterial Processes2- Mental Processes2- Mental Processes3- Relational Processes3- Relational Processes4-4- Behavioural ProcessesBehavioural Processes5- Verbal Processes5- Verbal Processes6- Existential Processes6- Existential Processes
١٤٣٤/٠٨/١ 9MATERIAL PROCESSESMATERIAL PROCESSES• These are the processes ofThese are the processes of DOINGDOING..• They convey the image that some entity DOESThey convey the image that some entity DOESsomething that may be done to some othersomething that may be done to some otherentity ( Halliday,1985:103).entity ( Halliday,1985:103).• These processes involve two inherentThese processes involve two inherentparticipants roles:participants roles: the obligatory ACTORthe obligatory ACTOR whichwhichis assigned to the doer of the processis assigned to the doer of the processexpressed by the clause ; andexpressed by the clause ; and the optionalthe optionalGOALGOAL which is assigned to the entity affectedwhich is assigned to the entity affectedby the process.by the process.• Material processes can be:Material processes can be:1-1- Action processAction process (where the processes are(where the processes areperformed by animate actors)performed by animate actors)i-i- intentionintention processes (the actor performs theprocesses (the actor performs theact voluntarily)act voluntarily)ii-ii- supervensionsupervension process (the act happens by itsprocess (the act happens by itsown)own)2-2- Event processEvent process (where the processes are(where the processes are
١٤٣٤/٠٨/١ 10• John kicked the ball.Actor Process Goal(material)John hit the man very hard. in the bayActor Process Goal Circumstancematerial Manner Place
١٤٣٤/٠٨/١ 11MENTAL PROCESSESMENTAL PROCESSES• These processes encompass senses ofThese processes encompass senses offeelings, thinking and perceiving.feelings, thinking and perceiving.• They include two participants: the firstThey include two participants: the firstone is theone is the SENSORSENSOR who is the consciouswho is the consciousbeing ,and thebeing ,and the PHENOMENONPHENOMENON which iswhich isthe sensed, felt or thought.the sensed, felt or thought.• Mental processes can be subdivided intoMental processes can be subdivided into(Halliday,1985:106-111):(Halliday,1985:106-111):1-1- PerceptionPerception processes as seeing,processes as seeing,hearing, etc.hearing, etc.2-Affection2-Affection processes as liking, fearing,processes as liking, fearing,etc.etc.3-3- CognitionCognition processes as in thinking,processes as in thinking,
١٤٣٤/٠٨/١ 12Cognition : I don’t understand his theory.Senser mental PhenomenonAffection : I fear the coming war.Senser mental PhenomenonPerception : I heard the musicSenser mental Phenomenon.
١٤٣٤/٠٨/١ 13RELATIONAL PROCESSESRELATIONAL PROCESSES• These are the processes ofThese are the processes of BEINGBEING..• The fundamental meaning of clausesThe fundamental meaning of clausesexpressing such processes isexpressing such processes is that something isthat something is ..These indicate that some relationship connectsThese indicate that some relationship connectsbetween two participants without implying thatbetween two participants without implying thatone participant affects the other in any way.one participant affects the other in any way.• These processes can be subdivided into:These processes can be subdivided into:1-1- IntensiveIntensive processes (expressing an ‘X is a’processes (expressing an ‘X is a’relatiuonship)relatiuonship)2-2- PossessivePossessive processes (expressing an ‘X has a’processes (expressing an ‘X has a’relationship)relationship)3-3- CircumstantialCircumstantial processes (expressing an ‘X isprocesses (expressing an ‘X isat/on a ‘ relationship)at/on a ‘ relationship)
١٤٣٤/٠٨/١ 14John is talentedCarrier attributing attributeJohn is the leader.identified identifying identifieridentified identifying identifier
١٤٣٤/٠٨/١ 15BEHAVIOURAL PROCESSESBEHAVIOURAL PROCESSES• This type of processes is concernedThis type of processes is concernedwith physical and psychologicalwith physical and psychologicalbehaviours like breathing, dreamingbehaviours like breathing, dreaming, smiling ,etc., smiling ,etc.• This type lies between material andThis type lies between material andmental processes. Themental processes. The BEHAVERBEHAVER isisa conscious sensor ,but the processa conscious sensor ,but the processexpresses a meaning of doing. Mostexpresses a meaning of doing. Mostof the clauses of behaviouralof the clauses of behaviouralprocesses have just one
١٤٣٤/٠٨/١ 16John is crying.Behaver Process : behavioralSome other examples of behavioral processes are sit,dance, sing,near material processes, think, watch, look, listennear mental processes, talk, gossip, grumble, chatter
١٤٣٤/٠٨/١ 17VERBAL PROCESSESVERBAL PROCESSES• Verbal processes are those ofVerbal processes are those of sayingsaying. But. Butsaying here implies a rather broad sense; itsaying here implies a rather broad sense; itincludes any type of symbolic exchange ofincludes any type of symbolic exchange ofmeaning.meaning.• This type involves two participants: the first oneThis type involves two participants: the first oneis theis the SAYERSAYER who is speaking, and the secondwho is speaking, and the secondis of three kinds:is of three kinds:1- The1- The VerbiageVerbiage (which means the verbalization(which means the verbalizationitself).itself).2- The2- The ReceiverReceiver (the one to whom the(the one to whom theverbalization is addressed)verbalization is addressed)3- The3- The TargetTarget (the direct participant on whom the(the direct participant on whom thesayer acts verbally with such verbs as insultsayer acts verbally with such verbs as insult,praise,etc.),praise,etc.)
١٤٣٤/٠٨/١ 18EXISTENTIAL PROCESSESEXISTENTIAL PROCESSES• Existential processes represent that somethingExistential processes represent that somethingexistsexists oror occursoccurs as in ‘as in ‘There seems to be aThere seems to be aproblem’problem’. The word ‘. The word ‘therethere’ in this example is’ in this example issemantically empty and has no representationalsemantically empty and has no representationalfunctions, but it is required just to occupy thefunctions, but it is required just to occupy thesubject position in the clause.subject position in the clause.• These clauses must contain the verbThese clauses must contain the verb BEBE ororsome other verb of existencesome other verb of existence followed by afollowed by anoun phrase taking the role of the existent,noun phrase taking the role of the existent,• The existent may be aThe existent may be a phenomenonphenomenon as in ‘as in ‘ThereTherefollowed an angry debatefollowed an angry debate ’ ,or an’ ,or an eventevent as inas in‘‘There was a warThere was a war’.’.• Existential clauses often contain aExistential clauses often contain acircumstantialcircumstantial element as in ‘element as in ‘There was a warThere was a war
١٤٣٤/٠٨/١ 19The committee announced that the new bill willbe passed.Sayer verbal VerbiageI told her how to play the piano.Sayer verbal Target Verbiage
١٤٣٤/٠٨/١ 20There was a little house on the big prairie.existential Existent CircumstancePlace
١٤٣٤/٠٨/١ 21NUMBER OF PARTICIPANTSNUMBER OF PARTICIPANTS• BehaviouralBehavioural andand existentialexistential processesprocesses have only onehave only oneparticipant each, whereas theparticipant each, whereas the other processesother processes maymayhave two.have two.• Second participants ofSecond participants of materialmaterial andand relationalrelationalprocessesprocesses may or may not be present.may or may not be present.• Two further points:Two further points:– firstlyfirstly, the participants are usually represented by, the participants are usually represented bynominal groups, andnominal groups, and– secondlysecondly, processes with single participants make use of, processes with single participants make use ofintransitive verbs, whilst those with two participantsintransitive verbs, whilst those with two participantsmake use of transitive verbs (except for relationalmake use of transitive verbs (except for relationalprocesses which make use of intensive verbs).processes which make use of intensive verbs).
١٤٣٤/٠٨/١ 22TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBSTRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBSTheboy sleptParticipant ProcessSubject PredicatorThetheft runs ontheroadParticipant Process CircumstanceSubject Predicator AdjunctJohn kicks the ballParticipant  Process Participant Subject Predicator Complementthe boy kicks the ball on the fieldParticipantProcess ParticipantCircumstanceSubject Predicator Complement Adjunct
١٤٣٤/٠٨/١ 23TRANSITIVITY , CLASS ANDTRANSITIVITY , CLASS ANDCLAUSE STRUCTURECLAUSE STRUCTURETheteacherwrites his letters carefully in the libraryparticipant process participant circumstance circumstance TransitivityNominalgroupVerbalgroupNominalgroupAdverbialgroupPrepositio-nal phraseClassSubject Predica-torComple-mentAdjunct Adjunct Clausestructure
١٤٣٤/٠٨/١ 24Hao Plam’sHao Plam’s Heroic MotherHeroic Mother• 1a1a My family thinkMy family think• 1b1b I’m a little crazy.I’m a little crazy.• 2a2a They say it,They say it,• 2b2b then ^ they zoom off on their nice new mopeds,then ^ they zoom off on their nice new mopeds,• 2c2c or their kids turn on the TVor their kids turn on the TV• 2d2d and ^ they watch their cartoon American movies.and ^ they watch their cartoon American movies.• 3a3a I smile at themI smile at them• 3b3b and ^ I makeand ^ I make• 3c3c as if I do not understandas if I do not understand• 3d3d when they speak in Englishwhen they speak in English• 3e3e when I’m around.when I’m around.• 44 Hanoi has changed so much.Hanoi has changed so much.• 5a5a In the early morning I do my exercises near Hoan Kiem Lake with theIn the early morning I do my exercises near Hoan Kiem Lake with thegroup of Heroic Mothers,group of Heroic Mothers,• 5b5b and we follow the instructions of our leader, Vuong.and we follow the instructions of our leader, Vuong.• 6a6a It’s funnyIt’s funny• 6b6b how we all still defer to her,how we all still defer to her,• 6d6d she is high up in rank in the Women’s Union.she is high up in rank in the Women’s Union.• 7a7a We all have families of our own,We all have families of our own,• 7b7b but we still call her Bac, elder aunt for her leadership and care.but we still call her Bac, elder aunt for her leadership and care.• 8a8a The green of the lake is often shrouded by mist in the morning,The green of the lake is often shrouded by mist in the morning,• 8b8b and the traffic is thin.and the traffic is thin.• 9a9a Few tourists are up at this timeFew tourists are up at this time• 9b9b and it’s just the locals,and it’s just the locals,• 9c9c ^ the locals are doing star jumps^ the locals are doing star jumps• 9d9d and ^the locals are playing badminton on the pavements.and ^the locals are playing badminton on the pavements.
١٤٣٤/٠٨/١ 25• 1a My family think1a My family think MentalMental processprocess• 1b I am1b I am RelationalRelational processprocess• 2a They say2a They say VerbalVerbal processprocess• 2b they zoom off2b they zoom off MaterialMaterial processprocess• 2c their kids turn on2c their kids turn on MaterialMaterial processprocess• 2d they watch2d they watch BehaviouralBehavioural processprocess• 3a I smile3a I smile BehaviouralBehavioural processprocess• 3b I make3b I make BehaviouralBehavioural processprocess• 3c I do not understand3c I do not understand MentalMental processprocess• 3d3d they speakthey speak BehaviouralBehavioural processprocess• 3e3e I amI am RelationalRelational processprocess• 44 Hanoi has changedHanoi has changed MaterialMaterial processprocess• 5a5a I doI do MaterialMaterial processprocess• 5b5b we followwe follow MaterialMaterial processprocess• 6a6a It isIt is RelationalRelational processprocess• 6b6b we deferwe defer MaterialMaterial processprocess• 6d6d she isshe is RelationalRelational processprocess• 7a7a We haveWe have RelationalRelational processprocess• 7b7b we callwe call RelationalRelational processprocess• 8a8a The green of the lake is shroudedThe green of the lake is shrouded MaterialMaterial processprocess• 8b8b the traffic isthe traffic is RelationalRelational processprocess• 9a9a Few tourists areFew tourists are RelationalRelational processprocess• 9b9b it isit is RelationalRelational processprocess• 9c9c the locals are doingthe locals are doing MaterialMaterial processprocess9d the locals are playing Material process
١٤٣٤/٠٨/١ 26THEME AND RHEMETHEME AND RHEME• This concept goes back to the founder of theThis concept goes back to the founder of theLinguisticLinguistic Circle of Prague schoolCircle of Prague school, Vilém, VilémMathesius who developed and applied theMathesius who developed and applied theconcept of “Functional Sentenceconcept of “Functional SentencePerspective” (FSP). According toPerspective” (FSP). According toMathesius, every utterance hasMathesius, every utterance has twotwodifferent structures: one isdifferent structures: one is grammaticalgrammatical,,and the other isand the other is informationalinformational termed: “thetermed: “theinformation-bearing structure of theinformation-bearing structure of theutterance”utterance”
١٤٣٤/٠٨/١ 27KNOWN AND COREKNOWN AND CORE• The basic elements of the formal structure ofThe basic elements of the formal structure ofthe sentence are the grammatical subject andthe sentence are the grammatical subject andthe grammatical predicate, the basic elementsthe grammatical predicate, the basic elementsof the information-bearing structure are theof the information-bearing structure are thefoundationfoundation of the utterance- whatever in aof the utterance- whatever in agiven situation isgiven situation is knownknown or at leastor at least obviousobviousand thus forms aand thus forms a point of departurepoint of departure for thefor thespeaker- and thespeaker- and the corecore of the utterance, that is,of the utterance, that is,whatever the speakerwhatever the speaker affirmsaffirms about theabout thefoundation of the utterance or in terms of it.foundation of the utterance or in terms of it.
١٤٣٤/٠٨/١ 28• The terms “foundation” and “core” are usuallyThe terms “foundation” and “core” are usuallyreplaced, respectively, by “theme ”andreplaced, respectively, by “theme ”and“rheme”“rheme”• Unless special effects are aimed at,Unless special effects are aimed at, themethemeusually precedesusually precedes rhemerheme (i.e. theme is(i.e. theme isunmarked). In marked utterances, rheme isunmarked). In marked utterances, rheme ispromoted to thepromoted to the first positionfirst position followed by thefollowed by thethemetheme
١٤٣٤/٠٨/١ 29a. The mana. The man is coming.is coming.b. His hairb. His hair I can’t stand.I can’t stand.c. Smithc. Smith her name was.her name was.Thus theme in (a) is unmarked, but is markedThus theme in (a) is unmarked, but is markedin (b, c) owing to thein (b, c) owing to the thematizationthematization of the newof the newinformationinformation
١٤٣٤/٠٨/١ 30SENTENCE:TWO POINTSSENTENCE:TWO POINTS• A sentence contains a point of departure and aA sentence contains a point of departure and agoal of discourse. The point of departure, calledgoal of discourse. The point of departure, calledthethe themetheme, is the ground on which the speaker and, is the ground on which the speaker andthe hearer meet.the hearer meet.• The goal of discourse, called theThe goal of discourse, called the rhemerheme, presents, presentsthe very information that is to be imparted to thethe very information that is to be imparted to thehearer.hearer.– Movement from theme to rheme reveals the movementMovement from theme to rheme reveals the movementof the mind itself.of the mind itself.
١٤٣٤/٠٨/١ 31NATURE OF THEMEAND RHEMENATURE OF THEMEAND RHEME• Theme provides theTheme provides the settingssettings for thefor theremainder of the sentence – rheme.remainder of the sentence – rheme.Rheme is theRheme is the remainderremainder of the messageof the messagein a clause in which Theme is developed,in a clause in which Theme is developed,that is to say, rheme typically containsthat is to say, rheme typically containsunfamiliar or new information. Newunfamiliar or new information. Newinformation is knowledge that a writerinformation is knowledge that a writerassumes the reader does not know, butassumes the reader does not know, butneeds to have in order to follow theneeds to have in order to follow theprogression of the argument . Theprogression of the argument . Theboundary between Theme and Rheme isboundary between Theme and Rheme issimple:simple: Theme is the first elementTheme is the first element
١٤٣٤/٠٨/١ 32• Theme Theme RhemeRheme The lion The lion beat the unicorn all beat the unicorn allround the town.round the town.All round the town All round the town the lion beat the lion beatthe unicorn.the unicorn.However, the unicornHowever, the unicorn still did not want to bow still did not want to bowto the lion.to the lion.Would the unicorn Would the unicorn give in give into the lion.to the lion.When the lion got to the battle field When the lion got to the battle field the the
١٤٣٤/٠٨/١ 33• ║║ItIt was the rush and roar of rain║was the rush and roar of rain║║║that hethat he typified, ║ ║typified, ║ ║and itand it stoppedstoppedhim║, ║him║, ║for no voicefor no voice could be heardcould be heardin it║. ║in it║. ║A memorable storm ofA memorable storm ofthunder and lightningthunder and lightning broke withbroke withthat sweep of water, ║ ║that sweep of water, ║ ║ and thereand therewas not a moments interval inwas not a moments interval incrash ,and fire, and rain, ║ ║crash ,and fire, and rain, ║ ║ untiluntilafter the moonafter the moon rose at midnight. ║rose at midnight. ║(A Tale of Two Cities, P.104)(A Tale of Two Cities, P.104)
١٤٣٤/٠٨/١ 34• The flow of information in a sentenceThe flow of information in a sentencefrom theme to R is crucial in achievingfrom theme to R is crucial in achievingcommunicative effectiveness in acommunicative effectiveness in amessage. The exchange of informationmessage. The exchange of informationbetween successive Theme and Rhemebetween successive Theme and Rhemepairings in a text is calledpairings in a text is called ThematicThematicPatterningPatterning oror ProgressionProgression(Eggins,2004:45ff). Thematic patterning(Eggins,2004:45ff). Thematic patterningcontributes to the cohesive developmentcontributes to the cohesive developmentof a text, that is to say, in a cohesiveof a text, that is to say, in a cohesivetext the distribution of given and newtext the distribution of given and new
١٤٣٤/٠٨/١ 35DANES’S MODELDANES’S MODEL• Danes has claimed that the way in which lexicalDanes has claimed that the way in which lexicalstrings and reference chains interact withstrings and reference chains interact withtheme is not random. Rather, the patterns oftheme is not random. Rather, the patterns ofinteraction realize what he refers to as a textsinteraction realize what he refers to as a textsThematic Patterning (1974:113).Danes(1974)Thematic Patterning (1974:113).Danes(1974)proposal of four main types of Thematicproposal of four main types of ThematicPatterning constitutes a functional explanationPatterning constitutes a functional explanationof the ordering of information in discourse. Heof the ordering of information in discourse. Heclaims that the organization of information inclaims that the organization of information intexts is determined by the progression in thetexts is determined by the progression in theordering of utterance themes and their rhemes.ordering of utterance themes and their rhemes.His spelling out of the relationship betweenHis spelling out of the relationship betweensuccessive themes and their rhemes wouldsuccessive themes and their rhemes wouldappear to provide a more satisfactory accountappear to provide a more satisfactory accountof the method of development of textsof the method of development of texts
١٤٣٤/٠٨/١ 36• 1- Simple linear progression1- Simple linear progressionAn item from the rheme of the first clause becomes theAn item from the rheme of the first clause becomes thetheme of the subsequent clause, as in:theme of the subsequent clause, as in:-We are observed by our resident pair of collared doves-We are observed by our resident pair of collared doves,perched on a convenient tree, cable or roof-top.,perched on a convenient tree, cable or roof-top.- They recognize not only us by our car- They recognize not only us by our car- Strangers and unfamiliar cars are viewed with suspicion- Strangers and unfamiliar cars are viewed with suspicionThe examples can be mapped as follows:The examples can be mapped as follows:T1 (we)T1 (we) +R1 (collared doves)+R1 (collared doves)T2 (They)T2 (They) + R2 (car)+ R2 (car)T3 (strangers and unfamiliar cars)T3 (strangers and unfamiliar cars)+R3+R3
١٤٣٤/٠٨/١ 37• ii- Constant Progressionii- Constant ProgressionThe item in the theme of the first clause is also selected asThe item in the theme of the first clause is also selected asthe theme of the following clause, as in:the theme of the following clause, as in:-- Homer employs a particular event, the quarrel betweenHomer employs a particular event, the quarrel betweenan arrogant …an arrogant …- Homer grasps that there is an internal logic to existence.- Homer grasps that there is an internal logic to existence.- For Homer, actions must have their consequences.- For Homer, actions must have their consequences.T1 (Homer) + R1T1 (Homer) + R1||T2 (Homer) + R2T2 (Homer) + R2||T3 (For Homer ) + R3T3 (For Homer ) + R3
١٤٣٤/٠٨/١ 38• iii- Derived Hyperthematic Progreesioniii- Derived Hyperthematic ProgreesionThe particular themes in subsequent clauses are derived from aThe particular themes in subsequent clauses are derived from ahypertheme or from the same overriding theme, as in:hypertheme or from the same overriding theme, as in:In England, there was scarcely an amount of order andIn England, there was scarcely an amount of order andprotection to justify much national boasting. Daringprotection to justify much national boasting. Daringburglaries by armed men, and highway robberies, tookburglaries by armed men, and highway robberies, tookplace in the capital itself every night; families wereplace in the capital itself every night; families werepublicly cautioned not to go out of town removing theirpublicly cautioned not to go out of town removing theirfurniture to upholsterers warehouses for security; thefurniture to upholsterers warehouses for security; thehighwayman in the dark was a City tradesman in thehighwayman in the dark was a City tradesman in thelight, and being recognized and challenged by his fellow-light, and being recognized and challenged by his fellow-tradesman whom he stopped in his character of "thetradesman whom he stopped in his character of "theCaptain," gallantly shot him through the head and rodeCaptain," gallantly shot him through the head and rodeaway; the mail was waylaid by seven robbers, and theaway; the mail was waylaid by seven robbers, and theguard shot three dead, and then got shot dead himselfguard shot three dead, and then got shot dead himselfby the other four,…by the other four,… (A Tale of Two Cities :Ch. 1:p.4f(A Tale of Two Cities :Ch. 1:p.4f))
١٤٣٤/٠٨/١ 39T1(In England, there) + R1 (was an amount of order andT1(In England, there) + R1 (was an amount of order andprotection )protection )T2(Daring burglaries) + R2T2(Daring burglaries) + R2T3 (families) + R3T3 (families) + R3T4(the high wayman in…) R4T4(the high wayman in…) R4T5(the mail ) +R5T5(the mail ) +R5T6(the guard ) +R6T6(the guard ) +R6
١٤٣٤/٠٨/١ 40• iv- Splitting Progressioniv- Splitting ProgressionThe theme of the first clause is split into two items;The theme of the first clause is split into two items;each is considered a theme element in the subsequenteach is considered a theme element in the subsequentclause:clause:• On this fine Sunday, Mr. Lorry walked towardsOn this fine Sunday, Mr. Lorry walked towardsSoho ,early in the afternoon, for three reasonsSoho ,early in the afternoon, for three reasonsof habit. Firstly, because on fine Sundays, heof habit. Firstly, because on fine Sundays, heoften walked out, before dinner , with theoften walked out, before dinner , with theDoctor and Luice; secondly, because onDoctor and Luice; secondly, because onunfavourable Sundays, he was accustomed tounfavourable Sundays, he was accustomed tobe with them at the family friend ,talking,be with them at the family friend ,talking,reading, looking out of windows, and generallyreading, looking out of windows, and generallygetting through the day; thirdly, because hegetting through the day; thirdly, because hehappened to have his own little shrewd doubtshappened to have his own little shrewd doubts