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Cyber crimes (By Mohammad Ahmed)

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  • 1. “Your computer is the crime scene” Presented By:Seminar Guide: ANSARI MD. AHMEDMrs. BUSHRA ROLL NO. 12886
  • 2. The first recorded cyber crime took place inthe year 1820 That is not surprising considering thefact that the abacus, which is thought to be theearliest form of a computer, has been around since3500 B.C.
  • 3.  Internet has offered us a much more convenient way to share information across time and place. Cyberspace also opened a new venue for criminal activities. The anonymity of cyberspace makes identity tracing a significant problem which hinders investigations. Uninformed and misguided users .
  • 4.  “Any criminal activity that uses a computer either as an instrumentality, target or a means for perpetuating further crimes comes within the ambit of cyber crime” “ unlawful acts wherein the computer is either a tool or target or both” “Illegal computer-mediated activities that can be conducted through global electronic networks”
  • 5.  It Is A Criminal Activity Committed On The Internet . Criminal activity where a computer or computer network is source ,tool , target, or place of a crime. A Generalized Definition Of Cyber Crime May Be “Unlawful Acts Wherein The Computer Is Either A Tool Or Target Or Both”. Cyber crime offenses against the information technology infrastructure.
  • 6.  The Computer as a Target : using a computer to attack other computers. The Computer as a Weapon : using a computer to commit real world crimes.
  • 7.  Physical damage Theft or destruction of information (data). The spread of viruses , Trojans and Worms . Software piracy, Hacking etc.
  • 8. COMPUTER CRIME is any crime where ,• Computer is a target.• Computer is a tool of crime. • Computer is incidental to crime.
  • 9. Because….. Everybody is using Computers. From white collar criminals to terrorist organizations And from Teenagers to Adults New generation is growing up with computers MOST IMPORTANT – Money transactions are moving on to the INTERNET
  • 10. Hackin IRC g Crimes Credit Card Fraud WebJackin Data g Diddlin Some g Types Of Cyber CrimesLogic SoftwaBombs re Piracy Virus / Worm Email Attack Salami Bombi Attack ng s
  • 11. What is Hacking? Unauthorized use of computer and network resources. “Hacker” originally meant a very gifted programmer. Hacking is a felony in the US and most other countries. When it is done by request and under a contract between an ethical hacker and an organization, it is OK! The difference is that the ethical hacker has authorization to probe the target. “The number of really gifted hackers in the world is very small, but there are lots of wannabes…”(-Dr. Charles C. Palmer, IBM)
  • 12. o In December of 1947, the transistor was invented.o Captain Cruncho Steve Jobso Kevin Mitnicko AT&To The Worm- Robert Tappan Morriso Kevin Poulsen (a.k.a. Dark Dante)o Tsumomu Shimomurao David Smitho Jon Johansen (A.K.A. DVD Jon)
  • 13.  System• Access confidential information• Threaten someone from YOUR computer• Broadcast your confidential letters or materials• Store illegal or espionage material Network• Eavesdrop and replay• Imposer: server / client• Modify data / stream• Denial-of-Service
  • 14.  System Hacking Network Hacking Software Hacking
  • 15. Professional hackers Black Hats – the Bad Guys White Hats – Professional Security ExpertsUnderemployed Adult Hackers Former Script Kiddies Can’t get employment in the field Want recognition in hacker communityIdeological Hackers hack as a mechanism to promote some political or ideological purpose Usually coincide with political eventsCriminal Hackers Real criminals, are in it for whatever they can get no matter who it hurtsDisgruntled Employees Most dangerous to an enterprise as they are “insiders” Since many companies subcontract their network services a disgruntled vendor could be very dangerous to the host enterprise
  • 16.  Spam Downloads Pop-ups Active X
  • 17.  Eric McCarty hacks into USC database Australian hacker attacks sewage control computers
  • 18. Computer hacking is broadly defined as any action that results inunauthorized interference with a computer, computer system or network.Computer hacking includes breaking into a computer with the intent tosteal, damage, modify or monitor data or settings within the system.Significance Computer hacking is considered a crime in all countries; it is alsoa crime under federal and international law. Because a computer may beaccessed from anywhere, a person may be charged with computer hackingon the state, federal and international level.Types Hacking often involves more than just unauthorized access to acomputer. Computer hackers may access a computer in order to: stealfinancial information such as credit card access numbers; steal personalinformation (identity theft); harass (swatting); vandalize; gain access toother computers; launch computer attacks; or place malicious software(malware).
  • 19. You simply have to type credit card number intowww page off the vendor for online transaction Ifelectronic transactions are not secured the credit cardnumbers can be stolen by the hackers who can misuse thiscard by impersonating the credit card owner
  • 20.  Altering Raw Data just before it is processed by a computer and then Changing It Back after the processing is completed. Electricity Boards in India have been victims to data diddling programs inserted when private parties were computerizing their systems.
  • 21.  Theft of software through the illegal copying of genuine programs or the counterfeiting and distribution of products intended to pass for the original.. Retail revenue losses worldwide are ever increasing due to this crime Can be done in various ways:End user copying,, Hard disk loading,, Counterfeiting, Illegal downloads from the internet etc..
  • 22. Soft lifting:purchasing a single licensed copy of software and loading it ontoseveral computers contrary to the license terms. For example,sharing software with friends, co-workers and others.Uploading and downloading:making unauthorized copies of copyrighted software available toend users connected by modem to online service providers and/orthe Internet.Software counterfeiting:illegally duplicating and selling copyrighted software in a formdesigned to make it appear legitimate
  • 23. OEM unbundling:selling standalone software that was intended to be bundled withspecific accompanying hardwareHard disk loading:installing unauthorized copies of software onto the hard disks ofpersonal computers, often as an incentive for the end user to buy thehardware from that particular hardware dealerRenting:unauthorized selling of software for temporary use, like you would avideo.
  • 24.  Piracy harms you and your customers. Intellectual Property. Protection. Increase your sales potential.
  • 25. Sending huge volumes of e-mail To an address or server in an attempt to overflow themailbox or overwhelm the serverZip BombingMethods of email bombing  Mass Mailing  Link Listing
  • 26. Refers to sending a large number of emails to thevictim resulting in the victims Email account (in case of an individual) or Mail servers (in case of a company or an email service provider) crashing.
  • 27.  These attacks are used for the commission of financial crimes. A bank employee inserts a program into bank’s servers, that deducts a small amount from the account of every customer Used for the commission of FINANCIAL CRIMES. Key here is to make the alteration so insignificant that in a single case it would go completely unnoticed. E.g. A bank employee inserts a program, into the banks servers, that deducts a small amount of money (say Rs. 5 a month) from the account of every customer. No account holder will probably notice this unauthorized debit, but the bank employee will make a sizable amount of money every month.
  • 28. A series of minor attacks that together results in a largerattack Used for financial crimes in which criminals steal money orresources a bit at a time from a systemPrevention:  Find indications of an attack.  Random audits.  Dont ignore what appear to be errors in computer-based financial systems.
  • 29. Definition: A computer virus is a computer program that canreplicate itself and spread from one computer to another.The term "virus" is also commonly, but erroneously, usedto refer to other types of malware, including but notlimited to adware and spyware programs that do not havea reproductive ability.
  • 30. Virus Removal:One possibility on Windows Me, Windows XP, Windows Vista andWindows 7 is a tool known as System Restore, which restores theregistry and critical system files to a previous checkpoint. Often a viruswill cause a system to hang, and a subsequent hard reboot will render asystem restore point from the same day corrupt. Restore points fromprevious days should work provided the virus is not designed to corruptthe restore files and does not exist in previous restore points. Some virusesdisable System Restore and other important tools such as Task Managerand Command Prompt An example of a virus that does this is CiaDoor.Many such viruses can be removed by Rebooting the computer, enteringWindows Safe Mode, and then using system tools.
  • 31. A COMPUTER WORM is a standalone malwarecomputer program that replicates itself in order to spread toother computers. Often, it uses a computer network tospread itself, relying on security failures on the targetcomputer to access it. Unlike a computer virus, it does notneed to attach itself to an existing program. Worms almostalways cause at least some harm to the network, even if onlyby consuming bandwidth, whereas viruses almost alwayscorrupt or modify files on a targeted computer.
  • 32. Beginning with the very first research into worms atXerox PARC, there have been attempts to create usefulworms. The Nachi family of worms, for example, tried todownload and install patches from Microsofts website to fixvulnerabilities in the host system–by exploiting those samevulnerabilities. In practice, although this may have made thesesystems more secure, it generated considerable network traffic,rebooted the machine in the course of patching it, and did itswork without the consent of the computers owner or user.Regardless of their payload or their writers intentions, mostsecurity experts regard all worms as malware.
  • 33. A logic bomb is a piece of code intentionallyinserted into a software system that will set off amalicious function when specified conditions are met. Forexample, a programmer may hide a piece of code thatstarts deleting files (such as a salary database trigger),should they ever be terminated from the company.
  • 34.  Event dependent programs. Programs are created to do something only when a certain event (known as a trigger event) occurs. E.g. even some viruses may be termed logic bombs because they lie dormant all through the year and become active only on a particular date (like the Chernobyl virus).
  • 35. Software that is inherently malicious, such asviruses and worms, often contain logic bombs thatexecute a certain payload at a pre-defined time or whensome other condition is met. This technique can be usedby a virus or worm to gain momentum and spread beforebeing noticed. Many viruses attack their host systems onspecific dates, such as Friday the 13th or April FoolsDay. Trojans that activate on certain dates are often called"Time bombs".
  • 36.  This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliabl sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (October 2011) In "Moffetts Ghost," an episode of the Airwolf television series, Hawk loses control of the onboard computer, which was programmed on a timer by Airwolfs creator, Doctor Charles Henry Moffett... once activated, Airwolf is set to destroy any aircraft in its range.
  • 37.  Do not need the host to attach themselves to. Make functional copies of themselves and do this repeatedly till they eat up all the available space on a computers memory.
  • 38. Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is a form of real-time Interne Online chat or synchronous conferencing. It ismainly designed for group communication in discussionforums called channels, but also allows one-to-onecommunication via private message, as well as chat and datatransfers via Direct Client-to-Client.Internet Relay Chat (IRC)servers have chat rooms inwhich people from anywherethe world can come togetherand chat with each other.
  • 39. • Criminals use it for meeting coconspirators.• Hackers use it for discussing their• exploits / sharing the techniques• Pedophiles use chat rooms to allure small children• Cyber Stalking - In order to harass a woman• her telephone number is given to others as if she wants the befriend males
  • 40. Financial fraud 11%Sabotage of data/networks 17%Theft of proprietary information 20%System penetration from the outside 25%Denial of service 27%Unauthorized access by insiders 71%Employee abuse of internet privileges 79%Viruses 85%
  • 41.  Use antivirus software’s. Insert Firewalls. Uninstall Unnecessary Software Maintain Backup. Check Security Settings. Stay anonymous - choose a genderless screen name. Never give your full name or address to strangers. Learn more about Internet privacy.
  • 42. Internet security is a branchof computer securityspecifically related tothe Internet. Its objective is to establish rules and measure to use against attacks over the Internet.
  • 43.  Defend us from critical attacks. browse the safe website. Internet security process all the incoming and outgoing data on our computer.
  • 44. Malicious Identity TheftVirus Code (Phishing) (Melissa) Breaking Advanced Worm / Organized Crime Web Sites Trojan (I LOVE Data Theft, DoS / YOU) DDoS1977 1995 2000 2003-04 2005-06 2007-08
  • 45.  Use anti-virus software and firewalls - keep them up to date Keep your operating system up to date with critical security updates and patches Dont open emails or attachments from unknown sources Use hard-to-guess passwords. Don’t use words found in a dictionary. Remember that password cracking tools exist Dont share access to your computers with strangers Back-up your computer data on disks or CDs often If you have a Wi-Fi network, password protect it Disconnect from the Internet when not in use Reevaluate your security on a regular basis Make sure your employees and family members know this info too!
  • 46.  Tampering with computer source documents Hacking with computer system Publishing of information which is obscene in electronic form Misrepresentation Breach of confidentiality and privacy Publishing digital signature false in certain particulars Publication of unlawful document for fraudulent purposeCan be charged up to rupees 1 to 3 Lakhs ORCan get imprisonment for 2 to 10 Years ORBoth can be implemented according to the law.
  • 47.  User awareness is key to a secure computer/network  Do not open suspicious files/emails  Verify ActiveX/Java prompts  Avoid using P2P programs  Avoid downloading freeware If attacked, disconnect the network. Do not turn off the computer Without Careful Attention To These Issues, The Uncontrolled Interconnection Of Existing Systems, On Which People And Organizations Are Critically Dependent, Will Continue To Create Huge, Ill-defined And Defenseless Super - Systems. So We Must Pay Attention To All Those Issues And Protect The World From Cyber Crime.