The six pillars of enhencereffciency Higher education and training Goods market effciency Labour market efficiency Fininacial market spophistication Technological rediness Market size
These six pillars represent 35% of Egypt Score of GCI
Higher education and trainingOverall Rank 91 882008/09 2009/10 Critical factors of human devolpment: Quality of higher education Secondery &teyieryenrolloment rates On- job training These factors are obsoletes of comptitvnes
Higher education &Training comperised of 3 sub groups: Quantity of education Quantity of education decreased because decreased of enrollment rates of secondry &tetierty education 2. Quailty of education Egypt has shown poor performance in the quailty due to ------ 3. On job training
Expenditures / student may be indicator of higher education which is very low compared to other students in all world Egypt Unvierstives can strnghed through some points National efforts to upgrade education
2. Good Market effciency
The deterioration in demostic comp etition to poor performance in the extent market dominace Egypt continue to enhance ease of starting bussince Agriculture policy costs still effect of Economy One tool for improving compeition “ECA” health enviroment for bussiness
3. Labor Market
Heavy regulations combined with brain drain &. Low female participation lead to limit sucess Many skilled Egyptian migrates Only six countries have lower female participtation Egypt rankes among worst from worest countries using Talent
4. Financial market The improvement of ranking is due to: Local equity avalability Ease of access loans Venture capital avaliability Restiraction on capital flow &the strengh of investor protection have contributed to this improvment
5. Technologlicalredinees Egypt has comparitive advantages than others countries namely in: Firm –level technology absorption & technology transfer
6.Market Size Egypt has relative copatitve advantages in termsof both domestic and foreign market size. Foreign market size improvement is partially due to the success of the country in accessing other markets and recent expansion of energy-related exports.
There has also been a rapid increase in mobile telephone subscribers. According to the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology, the total number of mobile subscribers in Egypt reached 53.7 million in November 2009, a mobile penetration rate of 70 percent. The number of Internet users also doubled between 2006 and 2008, reaching 16.4 users per 100 people.(18) Because these rates of increase were faster than in a number of other countries, Egypt’s ranking also improved.
Egypt’s relatively large market size includes both its domestic market (which is growing) as well its access to foreign markets
Innovation and Sophistication Index Innovation is vital to the future competitive-ness of all of Egypt’s economic sectors The innovation and sophistication index measures: investment in Research & Development (R&D) , availability of high-quality scientific research institutions extensive collaboration in research between universities and industry, the protection of intellectual property.
Despite the importance of innovation in Egypt’s economic strategy going forward, Two pillars : business sophistication innvation
1. Business Sophistication
Egyptian businesses are perceived as having a comparative advantage in two indicators: the state of cluster development (41out of 133) and willingness to delegate authority (31 out of 133)
Egypt’s ranking improved in most of the indicators. Namely, it improved in terms of the : nature of competitive advantage, value chain breadth production process sophistication, extent of marketing, willingness to delegate authority and reliance on professional management
Egypt’s ranking in innovation deteriorated by7 places to 74 out of 133 countries. This year, Egypt’s ranking deteriorated in all the factors that determine the innovation score : (intellectual property protection, utility patents, availability of scientists and engineers, government procurement of advanced technology products, university-industry research collaboration, and capacity for innovation), with the exception of company spending on R&D which improved by 3 places to 54 out of 133.
Egypt’s rank for the availability of scientists and engi- neers fell to 53 out of 133 countries as compared to 47 out of 134 countries the year before (Figure 1.24). Egypt’s score fell from 4.5 last year to 4.3, above the mean of 4.1, where 1= scientists and engineers are rare and 7 = scientists and engineers are widely avail- able.
CONCLUSION The improvement in Egypt’s competitiveness rankings is encouraging, especially related to the
primary education enrollments,
port and airport expansions, and other areas
CONCLUSION many weaknesses remain, especially :
the quality of the workforce,
government bureaucracy and
These continue to drag down Egypt’s overall performance.
To make a major positive impact on future competitiveness and growth, Egypt would do well to focus on :