The Role Of Culture
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The Role Of Culture

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The Role Of Culture The Role Of Culture Presentation Transcript

  • Ahmed Abdelaal Multicultural Marketing Communications www.MMCommunication.com 952-933-6825
  • Objectives
    • Identify the role that culture play in consumer behavior globally.
    • learning the marketing planning and the process of developing an international marketing strategy in a global setting.
    • Address the major decisions you need to make when going global.
  • Business Across Cultures
    • AOL in Brazil
    • Wal-Mart in Germany
    • McDonald everywhere… change in family structure …
    • Mercedes …a global brand
    • Mktg. the Titanic…
    • American/ Germen kids and
    • Coffee in Japan
    • Bank vs. ATM
    • The world is flat… Globalization
    • what to do with China … contain or compete
    • Dubai Port Deal.. Globalization ala cart
    • Doorman (Bow-wab) … in Egypt & US a security issue
    • The power of Cheese
    • There would be 57 Asians, 21 Europeans, 14 from the Western Hemisphere (North and South) and 8 Africans.
    • 51 would be female; 49 would be male
    • 70 would be non-white; 30 white.
    • 70 would be non-Christian; 30 Christian.
    • 50% of the entire world's wealth would be in the hands of only 6
    • people and all 6 would be citizens of the United States.
    • 80 people would live in substandard housing .
    • 70 people would be unable to read.
    • 50 people would suffer from malnutrition.
    • 1 people would be near death , 1 person would be near birth
    • Only 1 person would have a college education.
    • One would own a computer!
    If we shrank the Earth's population to a village of precisely 100 people, with all existing human ratios remaining the same, it would look like this:
  • UN world Survey
    • " Would you please give your honest opinion about solutions to the food shortage in the rest of the world ?"
    • The survey was a huge failure...... In Africa they didn't know what "food meant.
    • In Eastern Europe they didn't know what "honest" meant.
    • In Western Europe they didn't know what "shortage“ meant.
    • In China they didn't know what "opinion" meant.
    • In the Middle East they didn't know what "solution" meant.
    • In South America they didn't know what "please" meant.
    • &in the USA they didn't know what "the rest of the world" meant!
  • The cultural process
  • The Nature of Culture
    • Culture
      • The acquired knowledge that people use to interpret experience and generate social behavior
      • Cultural knowledge forms values, creates attitudes, and influences behavior
    The moral of this story is …
  • Global Stereotypes Heaven or Hell! Take a guess
    • Cooks - French
    • Mechanics - German
    • Police - British
    • Lovers - Italian
    • Organize - Swiss
    • Cooks - British
    • Mechanics - French
    • Police - Germans
    • Lovers - Swiss
    • Organize - Italian
  • Stereotyping as Overlapping Normal Distribution French American Shared Extremes Arrogant Self-centered Ignorant Naïve Materialistic Emotional Lazy Soft Rude
  • Stereotyping as Overlapping Normal Distribution Arab 4 B’s U.S. 4 C’s Shared Capitalist Conspirator Coward Coca-Cola Bedouin Backward Bellydancing Billionaire
  • Cultural dynamics
  • Basic cultural assumptions Figure 2.1 A model of cultural dynamics
  • Other Behaviours Self Others Self Others Behaviours Home country Host country Identity Clash The self-shock: being exposed to culturally different people puts our self-image deeply into question
    • Collectivism
      • emphasis ingroup needs & goals
      • beliefs shared with in-group
      • homogeneous ingroups heterogeneous outgroups
      • norms predict behavior better than attitudes
    • Individualism
      • emphasis self needs & goals
      • beliefs distinguish from others
      • homogeneous outgroups heterogeneous ingroups
      • attitudes predict behavior better than norms
    Collectivism vs. Individualism
  • Countries (1980)
    • Individualism
      • United States
      • Great Britain
      • Canada
      • Italy
      • Australia
    • Collectivism
      • Japan
      • Iran
      • Taiwan
      • Colombia
  • Application: Individualism – increases self-reliance
    • Individualism promotes new product development during the initial or conceptualization phase - nonconformity
    • Collectivism promotes new product development during the implementation phase - interdependence
  • Masculinity
    • Masculinity:
    • Ambitious & need to excel
    • Tendency to polarize
    • Live in order to work
    • Big & fast are beautiful
    • Admiration for the achiever
    • Decisiveness
    • Femininity:
    • Quality of life - serving others
    • Striving for consensus
    • Work in order to live
    • Small and slow are beautiful
    • Sympathy for the unfortunate
    • Intuition
  • Countries (1980)
    • Masculine
      • Venezuela
      • Italy
      • Germany
      • Australia
    • Feminine
      • Sweden
      • Thailand
      • Spain
  • Application: Masculinity - increases self-reliance
    • Femininity positively affects the conceptualization stage of new product development - supportive climate
    • Masculinity promotes the implementation stage - goal directedness and formalization
  • Power Distance
    • Large
    • High dependence needs
    • Inequality accepted
    • Hierarchy needed
    • Superiors often inaccessible
    • Power-holders have privileges
    • Change by revolution
    • Small
    • Low dependence needs
    • Inequality minimized
    • Hierarchy for convenience
    • Superiors accessible
    • All have equal rights
    • Change by evolution
  • Countries (1980)
    • High power distance
      • Philippines
      • Mexico
      • India
      • France
    • Low power distance
      • United States
      • the Netherlands
      • Australia
      • Israel
  • Application: Power Distance - promotes dependence
    • Low power distance facilitates new product development during the conceptualization stage - diverse ideas
    • High power distance facilitates new product development at the implementation stage - centralized command
  • Uncertainty Avoidance
    • Strong
    • Anxiety, higher stress
    • Inner urge to work hard
    • Emotions accepted
    • Conflict is threatening
    • Need of consensus
    • Need to avoid failure
    • Need for laws & rules
    • Weak
    • Relaxed, lower stress
    • Hard work not a virtue per se
    • Emotions not shown
    • Conflict & competition ok
    • Acceptance of dissent
    • Willingness to take risks
    • Few rules
  • Countries (1980)
    • High uncertainty avoidance
      • France
      • Belgium
      • Greece
      • Portugal
    • Low uncertainty avoidance
      • United States
      • Hong Kong
      • Canada
      • Singapore
  • Application: Uncertainty Avoidance - promotes dependence?
    • Low uncertainty avoidance facilitates the initiation phase - risk taking and minimal controls
    • High uncertainty avoidance facilitates implementation stage - tight planning and controls
  • Convergence of cultures so far?
    • Evidence says NO
      • even if you only look at the rich countries
    • People use the new media to strengthen their cultural identity
      • immigrants, researchers, family members, hobbyists, extremists...
      • living together apart