The Role Of Culture

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  • The Role Of Culture

    1. 1. Ahmed Abdelaal Multicultural Marketing Communications www.MMCommunication.com 952-933-6825
    2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Identify the role that culture play in consumer behavior globally. </li></ul><ul><li>learning the marketing planning and the process of developing an international marketing strategy in a global setting. </li></ul><ul><li>Address the major decisions you need to make when going global. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Business Across Cultures <ul><li>AOL in Brazil </li></ul><ul><li>Wal-Mart in Germany </li></ul><ul><li>McDonald everywhere… change in family structure … </li></ul><ul><li>Mercedes …a global brand </li></ul><ul><li>Mktg. the Titanic… </li></ul><ul><li>American/ Germen kids and </li></ul><ul><li>Coffee in Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Bank vs. ATM </li></ul><ul><li>The world is flat… Globalization </li></ul><ul><li>what to do with China … contain or compete </li></ul><ul><li>Dubai Port Deal.. Globalization ala cart </li></ul><ul><li>Doorman (Bow-wab) … in Egypt & US a security issue </li></ul><ul><li>The power of Cheese </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>There would be 57 Asians, 21 Europeans, 14 from the Western Hemisphere (North and South) and 8 Africans. </li></ul><ul><li>51 would be female; 49 would be male </li></ul><ul><li>70 would be non-white; 30 white. </li></ul><ul><li>70 would be non-Christian; 30 Christian. </li></ul><ul><li>50% of the entire world's wealth would be in the hands of only 6 </li></ul><ul><li>people and all 6 would be citizens of the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>80 people would live in substandard housing . </li></ul><ul><li>70 people would be unable to read. </li></ul><ul><li>50 people would suffer from malnutrition. </li></ul><ul><li>1 people would be near death , 1 person would be near birth </li></ul><ul><li>Only 1 person would have a college education. </li></ul><ul><li>One would own a computer! </li></ul>If we shrank the Earth's population to a village of precisely 100 people, with all existing human ratios remaining the same, it would look like this:
    5. 5. UN world Survey <ul><li>&quot; Would you please give your honest opinion about solutions to the food shortage in the rest of the world ?&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>The survey was a huge failure...... In Africa they didn't know what &quot;food meant. </li></ul><ul><li>In Eastern Europe they didn't know what &quot;honest&quot; meant. </li></ul><ul><li>In Western Europe they didn't know what &quot;shortage“ meant. </li></ul><ul><li>In China they didn't know what &quot;opinion&quot; meant. </li></ul><ul><li>In the Middle East they didn't know what &quot;solution&quot; meant. </li></ul><ul><li>In South America they didn't know what &quot;please&quot; meant. </li></ul><ul><li>&in the USA they didn't know what &quot;the rest of the world&quot; meant! </li></ul>
    6. 6. The cultural process
    7. 7. The Nature of Culture <ul><li>Culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The acquired knowledge that people use to interpret experience and generate social behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural knowledge forms values, creates attitudes, and influences behavior </li></ul></ul>The moral of this story is …
    8. 8. Global Stereotypes Heaven or Hell! Take a guess <ul><li>Cooks - French </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanics - German </li></ul><ul><li>Police - British </li></ul><ul><li>Lovers - Italian </li></ul><ul><li>Organize - Swiss </li></ul><ul><li>Cooks - British </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanics - French </li></ul><ul><li>Police - Germans </li></ul><ul><li>Lovers - Swiss </li></ul><ul><li>Organize - Italian </li></ul>
    9. 9. Stereotyping as Overlapping Normal Distribution French American Shared Extremes Arrogant Self-centered Ignorant Naïve Materialistic Emotional Lazy Soft Rude
    10. 10. Stereotyping as Overlapping Normal Distribution Arab 4 B’s U.S. 4 C’s Shared Capitalist Conspirator Coward Coca-Cola Bedouin Backward Bellydancing Billionaire
    11. 11. Cultural dynamics
    12. 12. Basic cultural assumptions Figure 2.1 A model of cultural dynamics
    13. 13. Other Behaviours Self Others Self Others Behaviours Home country Host country Identity Clash The self-shock: being exposed to culturally different people puts our self-image deeply into question
    14. 14. <ul><li>Collectivism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>emphasis ingroup needs & goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>beliefs shared with in-group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>homogeneous ingroups heterogeneous outgroups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>norms predict behavior better than attitudes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Individualism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>emphasis self needs & goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>beliefs distinguish from others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>homogeneous outgroups heterogeneous ingroups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>attitudes predict behavior better than norms </li></ul></ul>Collectivism vs. Individualism
    15. 15. Countries (1980) <ul><li>Individualism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>United States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great Britain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Canada </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Italy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Australia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Collectivism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Japan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iran </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taiwan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colombia </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Application: Individualism – increases self-reliance <ul><li>Individualism promotes new product development during the initial or conceptualization phase - nonconformity </li></ul><ul><li>Collectivism promotes new product development during the implementation phase - interdependence </li></ul>
    17. 17. Masculinity <ul><li>Masculinity: </li></ul><ul><li>Ambitious & need to excel </li></ul><ul><li>Tendency to polarize </li></ul><ul><li>Live in order to work </li></ul><ul><li>Big & fast are beautiful </li></ul><ul><li>Admiration for the achiever </li></ul><ul><li>Decisiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Femininity: </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of life - serving others </li></ul><ul><li>Striving for consensus </li></ul><ul><li>Work in order to live </li></ul><ul><li>Small and slow are beautiful </li></ul><ul><li>Sympathy for the unfortunate </li></ul><ul><li>Intuition </li></ul>
    18. 18. Countries (1980) <ul><li>Masculine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Venezuela </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Italy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Australia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Feminine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sweden </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thailand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spain </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Application: Masculinity - increases self-reliance <ul><li>Femininity positively affects the conceptualization stage of new product development - supportive climate </li></ul><ul><li>Masculinity promotes the implementation stage - goal directedness and formalization </li></ul>
    20. 20. Power Distance <ul><li>Large </li></ul><ul><li>High dependence needs </li></ul><ul><li>Inequality accepted </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchy needed </li></ul><ul><li>Superiors often inaccessible </li></ul><ul><li>Power-holders have privileges </li></ul><ul><li>Change by revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Small </li></ul><ul><li>Low dependence needs </li></ul><ul><li>Inequality minimized </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchy for convenience </li></ul><ul><li>Superiors accessible </li></ul><ul><li>All have equal rights </li></ul><ul><li>Change by evolution </li></ul>
    21. 21. Countries (1980) <ul><li>High power distance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Philippines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mexico </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>France </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Low power distance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>United States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the Netherlands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Australia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Israel </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Application: Power Distance - promotes dependence <ul><li>Low power distance facilitates new product development during the conceptualization stage - diverse ideas </li></ul><ul><li>High power distance facilitates new product development at the implementation stage - centralized command </li></ul>
    23. 23. Uncertainty Avoidance <ul><li>Strong </li></ul><ul><li>Anxiety, higher stress </li></ul><ul><li>Inner urge to work hard </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions accepted </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict is threatening </li></ul><ul><li>Need of consensus </li></ul><ul><li>Need to avoid failure </li></ul><ul><li>Need for laws & rules </li></ul><ul><li>Weak </li></ul><ul><li>Relaxed, lower stress </li></ul><ul><li>Hard work not a virtue per se </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions not shown </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict & competition ok </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptance of dissent </li></ul><ul><li>Willingness to take risks </li></ul><ul><li>Few rules </li></ul>
    24. 24. Countries (1980) <ul><li>High uncertainty avoidance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>France </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Belgium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greece </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portugal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Low uncertainty avoidance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>United States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hong Kong </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Canada </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Singapore </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Application: Uncertainty Avoidance - promotes dependence? <ul><li>Low uncertainty avoidance facilitates the initiation phase - risk taking and minimal controls </li></ul><ul><li>High uncertainty avoidance facilitates implementation stage - tight planning and controls </li></ul>
    26. 26. Convergence of cultures so far? <ul><li>Evidence says NO </li></ul><ul><ul><li>even if you only look at the rich countries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>People use the new media to strengthen their cultural identity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>immigrants, researchers, family members, hobbyists, extremists... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>living together apart </li></ul></ul>

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