Error Correction in aError Correction in aCommunicative ClassCommunicative ClassKatherine C. FitzSimonsKatherine C. FitzSimonsEnglish Language FellowEnglish Language FellowGuayaquil, Ecuador 2008-2009Guayaquil, Ecuador 2008-200909 4664 358 celular09 4664 358 email@example.com@yahoo.com
Do you agree with thisstatement?““We learn by makingWe learn by makingmistakes.”mistakes.”
Creating an Environment inWhich Mistakes are OK If you believe that we learn byIf you believe that we learn bymaking mistakes then it ismaking mistakes then it iscritical to create a classroomcritical to create a classroomenvironment in which mistakesenvironment in which mistakesare OK.are OK.
Error CorrectionError Correction Errors are natural and normal.Errors are natural and normal. Errors should not make a studentErrors should not make a studentfeel bad, sad, nervous, or stupid.feel bad, sad, nervous, or stupid. Before students can be ready for anBefore students can be ready for anexam they need to understand theirexam they need to understand theirerrors and how to correct them.errors and how to correct them. However,However, not all errors need to benot all errors need to becorrectedcorrected for successfulfor successful real worldcommunication.communication.
Warm-up:Warm-up:What kind of corrector are you?What kind of corrector are you? In groups, read dialogues 1-6In groups, read dialogues 1-6from the handout ¨from the handout ¨SampleSampleCorrection TechniquesCorrection Techniques¨.¨. Think aboutThink about whowho corrected thecorrected thestudents in the dialogues,students in the dialogues,whenwhen,, wherewhere andand howhow theytheywere corrected.were corrected.
What techniques did the teacherWhat techniques did the teacheruse in dialogues 1-6?use in dialogues 1-6? Gets answer fromGets answer fromanother studentanother student Gets answer fromGets answer fromsame studentsame student Says answer wasSays answer waswrongwrong Provides model ofProvides model ofcorrect answercorrect answer Indicates error withIndicates error withrising intonationrising intonation Says what was wrongSays what was wrong Asks students toAsks students torepeat correct answerrepeat correct answer Uses gestures orUses gestures orfacial expressions tofacial expressions toindicate wrongindicate wrongansweranswer Asks for the ruleAsks for the rule Provides correctProvides correctlanguage naturally inlanguage naturally inpassingpassing
Your Opinion:Your Opinion: Why do students make errors?Why do students make errors?
Why do students make errors?Why do students make errors? They are practicing a new language.They are practicing a new language. They are nervous or forget.They are nervous or forget. Teachers focus too much on readingTeachers focus too much on readingand writing so speaking and listeningand writing so speaking and listeningare difficult.are difficult. There are differences between theThere are differences between themother tongue and the newmother tongue and the newlanguage.language. No one speaks perfectly.No one speaks perfectly.
Your Opinion:Your Opinion: Should errors be corrected?Should errors be corrected?
Why correct errors?Why correct errors? Students want to be understood.Students want to be understood. Students expect to be correctedStudents expect to be correctedby the teacher.by the teacher. Students want to improve andStudents want to improve andfeel confident.feel confident. Students don´t know they areStudents don´t know they aremaking mistakes.making mistakes. Students want to complete tasksStudents want to complete taskssuccessfully.successfully.
Your Opinion:Your Opinion: Which errors require correction?Which errors require correction?
Which errors should beWhich errors should becorrected?corrected? Errors that detract fromErrors that detract fromsuccessful completion of a task.successful completion of a task. Errors that affect students´Errors that affect students´ability to be understood.ability to be understood. Repeated errors.Repeated errors. Shared errors.Shared errors.NOTE: Mistakes are different from errorsNOTE: Mistakes are different from errorsbecause they are not repeated often. Thebecause they are not repeated often. Thestudent knows the rule but simply forgets itstudent knows the rule but simply forgets ittemporarily.temporarily.
Your Opinion:Your Opinion: When should error correctionWhen should error correctionhappen?happen?
When to correct errors?When to correct errors? ImmediateImmediate—At the exact—At the exactmoment of productionmoment of production DelayedDelayed—Note the error and—Note the error andcorrect it later (at the end of thecorrect it later (at the end of thestudent´s speech, task, lesson,student´s speech, task, lesson,day)day) NeverNever—No correction—No correction
Activity: When to correctActivity: When to correct Read the handout ¨Read the handout ¨CorrectionCorrectionTechniques: SummaryTechniques: Summary¨.¨. Discuss with a partnerDiscuss with a partner WHENWHEN totocorrect the student in eachcorrect the student in eachsituation and put ansituation and put an XX in the boxin the boxImmediateImmediate,, DelayedDelayed, or, or NoNoCorrectionCorrection..
Your Opinion:Your Opinion: Where can we correct errors?Where can we correct errors?
When to correct errors?When to correct errors? InIn PublicPublic—Make one student´s—Make one student´serror a lesson for allerror a lesson for all IndividuallyIndividually—Working only with—Working only withthe student who made the errorthe student who made the error
Activity: Where to correctActivity: Where to correct Read the handout ¨Read the handout ¨CorrectionCorrectionTechniques: SummaryTechniques: Summary¨ again.¨ again. Discuss with a partnerDiscuss with a partner WHEREWHEREto correct the student in eachto correct the student in eachsituation and put ansituation and put an XX in the boxin the boxforfor IndividualIndividual oror PublicPublic..
More information about whenMore information about whento correct errorsto correct errorsError correction depends on manyError correction depends on manyfactors including:factors including: Learner sensitivityLearner sensitivity Learner situationLearner situation Learning purpose (fluency orLearning purpose (fluency oraccuracy)accuracy) Task type (reading, writing,Task type (reading, writing,speaking, listening, individual,speaking, listening, individual,group work…)group work…)
Your Opinion:Your Opinion: Who can correct errors?Who can correct errors?
Who can correct errors?Who can correct errors? Self-correctionSelf-correction—The student—The studentcorrects himselfcorrects himself Peer correctionPeer correction—The group—The grouphelps to correct another studenthelps to correct another student Teacher correctionTeacher correction—The—Theteacher demonstrates theteacher demonstrates thecorrect formcorrect formWhich type is the best? Why?Which type is the best? Why?
Activity: Who can correctActivity: Who can correct Read the handout ¨Read the handout ¨CorrectionCorrectionTechniques: SummaryTechniques: Summary¨ once¨ oncemore.more. Discuss with a partnerDiscuss with a partner WHOWHOcan correct the student in eachcan correct the student in eachsituation and put ansituation and put an XX in the boxin the boxforfor Self-correctionSelf-correction,, PeerPeercorrectioncorrection, or, or TeacherTeachercorrectioncorrection..
Your Opinion:Your Opinion: How should corrective feedbackHow should corrective feedbackbe carried out?be carried out?
How should errors beHow should errors becorrected?corrected? For repeated or shared errors, theFor repeated or shared errors, theteacher needs toteacher needs to provide a modelprovide a model ofofthe correct language.the correct language. Grammar errors may require aGrammar errors may require areview of rulesreview of rules andand extra practice.extra practice. Pronunciation errors may requirePronunciation errors may requiremoremore minimal pairminimal pair oror sentencesentencestress practice.stress practice. All error correction should be doneAll error correction should be donewithwith sensitivitysensitivity to avoidto avoidembarrassment and fear.embarrassment and fear.
Role of the Teacher inRole of the Teacher inCommunicative Error CorrectionCommunicative Error CorrectionThe teacher can be:The teacher can be:a)a) Reference BookReference Bookb)b) PartnerPartnerc)c) HelperHelperd)d) EnemyEnemye)e) Authority FigureAuthority FigureWhat do these terms mean?What do these terms mean?Which one is best? Why?Which one is best? Why?
Activity: The Teacher´s RoleActivity: The Teacher´s Role Read the handout ¨Read the handout ¨Teacher´sTeacher´sRoleRole¨.¨. Work in groups. Tell each otherWork in groups. Tell each otherwhich role you think the teacherwhich role you think the teacherplays in each situation.plays in each situation. Try to predict the student´sTry to predict the student´sreaction to each situation.reaction to each situation.
In conclusion…In conclusion… Several studies report thatSeveral studies report thatindirect feedback leads to eitherindirect feedback leads to eitherequal or greater levels ofequal or greater levels ofaccuracy than direct feedbackaccuracy than direct feedbackover time.over time.(Ferris et al., 2000; Ferris & Helt, 2000; Frantzen,(Ferris et al., 2000; Ferris & Helt, 2000; Frantzen,1995; Lalande, 1982; Lee, 1997; Robb et al., 1986).1995; Lalande, 1982; Lee, 1997; Robb et al., 1986).