06/13/13 Dr. Hanaa El-Baz 1Methodology L7Methodology L7LectureError Correction and feedback
06/13/13 Dr. Hanaa El-Baz 2Mistakes, Errors, and FeedbackMistakes, Errors, and Feedback--Mistakes --------- are slips which students can correctthemselves once the mistake has pointed out to them.They are not common among most students.--Errors ----- mistakes which students can not correctthemselves and which need explanation.--When responding to errors teachers should be seen asproviding feedback, helping students to reshape theirknowledge rather than telling students off becausethey are wrong.--Teachers’ reactions towards their students’ errors (youare not a bad teacher).
06/13/13 Dr. Hanaa El-Baz 3Causes or sources for the errors which mostCauses or sources for the errors which mostESL or EFL students make at various stages:ESL or EFL students make at various stages:1- (Interlingual transfer) L1 interference ----------Students who learn English as asecond language already have a deep knowledge of at least one language------there are confusions between the two languages. Fluent knowledge ofthe learners’ native language will help the teacher a lot.Examples ------ the sounds f and v in English and Arabic ------------- Ingrammar when the two languages use different systemsEx. She is a girl beautiful2- (Intraligual transfer )Over-generalization--------- Developmental errorsExamples--------she is nicer than him. Here the acquisition of more forcomparatives is over-generalized and mixed up with the rule that thestudent has learnt. The comparative adjectives are formed of an adjective+ er. Errors of this kind are part of a natural language acquisitionprocess.The early stages of language learning are characterized by apredominance of the interference (interlingual transfer) but oncelearners have begun to acquire parts of the new language system,more and more intralingual transfer is manifested.
06/13/13 Dr. Hanaa El-Baz 4Assessing student performanceAssessing student performanceTeachers can assess students’ performance through:1- tests-exams2- comments in and outside the class ------- oral comments,ex. Good and written comments ex. paragraph two isconfusing because the sequence of events is not clear.3- Marks and grades, if we want to give grades, we need todecide on what basis we are going to do this and be able todescribe this to the students.4- Reports, at the end of a term or year teachers write reportson their students’ performance
06/13/13 Dr. Hanaa El-Baz 55- Students assessing themselves, we can ask students at theend of an activity how well they think they have got on. Ortell them to add a written comment to a piece of writtenwork they have completed, giving their own assessment ofthat work.What do you think, can we use this technique in ourclassrooms ????????????Assessing student performanceAssessing student performancecont.cont.
06/13/13 Dr. Hanaa El-Baz 6Feedback during oral workFeedback during oral workFeedback -------- IS assessment + correctionThough feedback can be very helpful during oral work,teachers should not deal with all oral production in thesame way. Decisions about how to react to our students’performance will depend upon- The stage of the lesson- The activity ( communicative and non communicativeactivities).- The type of mistake made and- The particular student who is making the mistake
06/13/13 Dr. Hanaa El-Baz 7Accuracy and FluencyAccuracy and FluencyA distinction is often made between accuracy and fluency. Weneed to decide whether a particular activity in the class isdesigned to expect the students’ complete accuracy, as in thestudy of a piece of grammar or a pronunciation exercise. Or weare asking students to use the language as fluently as possible.-There is a need to make a clear difference between non-communicative and communicative activities. Whereas theformer are generally intended to ensure correctness, the latterare designed to improve language fluency.
06/13/13 Dr. Hanaa El-Baz 8- When students are involved in accuracy work, it is part of theteacher’s function to point out and correct the errors thatstudents are making.- During communicative activities, it is generally felt that teachersshould not interrupt students to point out a grammatical, lexical,or pronunciation errors.- Processing language for communication is the best way forprocessing language for acquisition. Teacher intervention insuch circumstances can raise stress levels and stop theacquisition process in its tracks.Accuracy and Fluency cont.Accuracy and Fluency cont.
06/13/13 Dr. Hanaa El-Baz 9Accuracy and Fluency cont.Accuracy and Fluency cont.-Nothing in language teaching is that simple, of course there aretimes during communicative activities when teachers may want tooffer corrections because students’ communication might be at risk,or because this might be just the right moment to draw students’attention to a certain problem.---Do we need to correct all students’ errors????????-Teachers will not react to absolutely every error that a studentmakes if this will de-motivate the student. There is a need to judgejust the right moment to correct. In communicative activities orfluency activities, it means deciding if and when to intervene at all.
06/13/13 Dr. Hanaa El-Baz 10Three techniques for correctingThree techniques for correctingstudents’ errorsstudents’ errors1- Self-correction2- Student-to-student correction3- Teacher-correctionCorrection is usually made up of two main stages:- 1-Teachers show students that a mistake has beenmade (showing incorrectness)- 2-teachers help students to do something about it
06/13/13 Dr. Hanaa El-Baz 11Three techniques for correctingThree techniques for correctingstudents’ errors cont.students’ errors cont.- Showing incorrectness techniques are useful for what we areassuming to be language mistakes rather than errors. Students areexpected to be able to correct themselves once the problem hasbeen pointed out. If not, there is a need to use alternativetechniques (student-to-student correction or teacher-correction)1- Self- correction --------there is a need to use any or some of thefollowing showing incorrectness techniques to help studentsrecognize that there is something wrong1- Repeating--------T. asks S. to repeat------say it again.2- Echoing-------T. repeats what the S. said pin-pointing the error3- statement or questions --------T. says that is not quite right. Ordo you think this answer is right?
06/13/13 Dr. Hanaa El-Baz 12Three techniques for correctingThree techniques for correctingstudents’ errors cont.students’ errors cont.4-Expressions ----facial expressions or gestures toindicate that something is wrong here.Be careful when using expressions and gestures??????5-Hinting---------a quick way to help students toactivate the rules they already know. Teacher mightsay the word ‘tense’ or countable and uncountable.This kind of hinting depends upon the fact that bothteacher and students are sharing a meta-language(linguistic terms) which, when whispered tostudents, will help them to correct themselves.
06/13/13 Dr. Hanaa El-Baz 13Three techniques for correctingThree techniques for correctingstudents’ errors cont.students’ errors cont.2- Student-to-student correction (getting it righttechniques)If student is unable to correct herself, sometimes we mightask students to correct each other. Student-to-studentcorrection works well in classes where there is acooperative atmosphere. However don’t forget allabout the first student who provides the wrong answer.You need to involve her in one way or another.
06/13/13 Dr. Hanaa El-Baz 14Three techniques for correctingThree techniques for correctingstudents’ errors cont.students’ errors cont.3-Teacher-correctionIf both self-correction and student-to-studentcorrection don’t work , there is a need tocorrect your student’s error yourself.Remember that your students may well bemore capable than you think. As teachers weoften feel a desire to rush in with the correctresponse before students have had enough timeto process information in their minds.ThanksThe end