What’s The Difference BetweenMistakes and Errors?Mistakes are when students produce incorrectlanguage although they know the correct form.Errors are when students produce incorrectlanguage because they don’t know the correct form.Students can usually correct their mistakes but bydefinition they can’t correct their errors.
Self Correction vs Peer CorrectionThere are essentially three basic formsof :error correction1. Self-correctionPeer correction2.Teacher correction3.
Important Questions1.Should learners’ errors be corrected?2.When should learners’ errors be corrected?3.Which errors should be corrected?4.How should errors be corrected?5.Who should do the correcting?
Speaking and ReadingTypes of Corrective Feedback:1.Explicite correction.Clearly indicating that’s thestudent’s utterance was incorrect.The teacherprovides the correct form.e.g: the coyote , the bison and the ….cr…crane.Andthe crane.we say crane.(phonological error(
2.Recast.Without directly indicating that the student’sutterance was incorrect. The teacher implicitlyreformulate the student’s error or provide thecorrection.e.g:”Maple sap?”Maple sap, good.(grammaticalerror(3.Clarification request.By using phrases like”Excuse me ?” or “I don’t understand” the teacherindicates that the message has not been understoodor that the student’s utterance contained some kindof mistake and that a repetition or a reformulation isrequired.e.g:”Can ,can I made a card on the …. for my littlebrother on the computer?” Pardon.
4.Metalinguistic clues.Without providing the correctform. The teacher poses questions or providescomments or informations related to the formationof the student’s utterance.e.g:”Uhm,the,the elephant.The elephant growls.”Dowe say the elephant?(Multiple errors)5.Elicitation.The teacher directly elicits the correctform from the student by asking questions.e.g:”Well , there is a stream of perfume that doesn’tsmell very nice.”So, a stream of perfume we call thata….?”
6.Repetition. The teacher repeats the student’serrors and adjust intonation to draw student’sattention to it.e.g:”The….the giraffe?”The giraffe?”
Why doesn’t my teacher correct all my mistakeswhen I am speaking or reading?‘t correct all your mistakes:Good reasons why teachers donClass timeSlip upsRelevanceConcentration/ distractionsFluencyExpanding your languageNatural learning styleSaving mistakes for laterIntroducing new language insteadNegative reactionsConfidence boosting
WritingError correction is often done by the teacher providing corrections for mistakesmade by students.However it is probably more effective for students tocorrect their own mistakes.In order to do this,students and the teacher shouldhave a common shorthand for correcting mistakes.Correcting writing mistakes with a correction key:T=TenseP=PonctuationWO=Word orderPrep=PrepositionWW=Wrong wordGR=GrammarY(upside down)=Word missingSP=Spelling
ConclusionI have brought up a highly-debated, complex issue, but I would venture to guessthat many language educators would agree with the following simple maxim:Do not correct students when the objective is communication, but be sure tocorrect the structures being practiced when activities have a grammar focus.For example, when a student is making an oral presentation in English to theclass, do not interrupt his or her speech with error corrections. When the taskobjective is to develop students communicative skills, halting their work cannegatively affect fluency and confidence. You may, however, jot down anysalient errors and tell him later, either orally in a student-teacher conference orin writing, using an evaluation form. For instance, during students role playsor other speaking activities, I often walk around the room listening for andnoting errors. (Try to collect one example from each student). I put them on theboard anonymously and have the students correct them as a class. If, however,your students are practicing a specific language structure (orally or in writtenform), you should always monitor and correct that structure. For example, ifstudents are making predictions using the English future tense, you can ignoreother mistakes but you should indicate and have them correct future tenseerrors. In these circumstances, I find that self and peer-correction areparticularly effective..