Show the examples of inappropriate rules to participants….have them work in pairs to create more effective statements.
See page 155 of First Days of School
Even if you plan to change your room arrangement during the school year, it’s a good idea to begin the year with the desks in rows facing the teacher.
The most effective classes are those where the students are self-disciplined, self-motivated, and self-responsible learners.
Maximize your proximity to students to minimize your problems.
Divide the participants into 2 groups….ask one group to define punishment and the other to define discipline Create a Venn diagram for recording responses
Example: There is a procedure for opening a lock on a locker. It’s usually 2 turns to the right, one turn to the left, and a final turn to the right. There is no penalty if the procedure is not followed. The lock just doesn’t open. Likewise, there is no reward if the procedure is followed. The lock simply opens. To do anything in life successfully, you simply follow the procedures. It is procedures that set the class up for achievement to take place.
Procedures are a way of life…. Examples: Telephone book: procedures for making long distance calls, foreign calls, contacting directory assistance, get service, etc. Airplane: how to use the seat belt, how to use the oxygen mask, where to find the life vest, how to find the aisle in case the cabin is filled with smoke Traffic light: who will turn, who will stop, who will go Wedding: after the ceremony, bride and groom exit first followed by the wedding party, then the parents in the first row, followed by each row from the front of the seating area These procedures demonstrate how people are to function in an acceptable and organized manner.
Many more…. See handout # _____
Tell the fire drill story. No matter what grade level you teach, all procedures must be rehearsed.
Refer to CHAMPs, Task 6, p.78
That’s not the time to discuss what should be done…..preparation is the KEY for teacher success.
(CHAMPs Task 7 p.93
(Distribute CHAMPs Activity Worksheet with sample)
Think-Pair-Share Activity: have participants brainstorm and share their strategies for dealing with angry students…what was effective???? What didn’t work????
E.G. The phone rings…Think the call is for you and it’s bad news…Feeling uneasy because of anticipated bad news…Avoid the bad news by not answering the phone…You remain uninformed regarding the unanswered phone call.
Distribute P-CfC form”
(Distribute Pre-Correction Checklist) Pre-Correction info…Colvin, G., Sugai, G., & Patchini g, B. (1993).
Discuss the two quotes….what are your thoughts…………..
Handouts KYCASE document July 2001 p5 Add examples power: control substitute T in class Create examples from audience or examples of behavior and let audience decide which area it fits from the list
Information adapted from the Tough Kid Series
Distribute Social Skills Survey
See handout #_____ and #_____
information obtained from, “Special Kids Problem Solver”
1Classroom ManagementStrategies for EffectiveInstructionKeith Lakes, Behavior ConsultantLisa Smith, Instruction/Behavior ConsultantUpper Cumberland Special Education Co-operativeOctober 2002
2Today’s AgendaWelcome and Opening ActivitiesThe Characteristics of an Effective TeacherEffective Behavior Management StrategiesOrganizing and Managing the LearningEnvironmentDesigning Lessons to Enhance StudentLearningClosing ActivitiesLunch is on your ownBreaks will be taken as needed
4Goals and Objectives…1. To identify the characteristics of effectiveteachers2. To understand why children misbehave andidentify effective strategies for dealing withstudent misbehavior3. To identify techniques for organizing andmanaging effective learning environments4. To identify characteristics of effective lessonplanning5. To identify resources and materials dealingwith positive and effective classroommanagement
5Presentation Techniques(Utilizing the Principles of Adult Learning Theory)DiscussionSmall and large group activitiesCooperative learning strategies (i.e., jigsaw,think-pair-share)Self-ReflectionQuestion and answer sessionsActive Learning Strategies (i.e., role play,scenarios, simulations)others
6Classroom management is……all of the things that a teacher does toorganize students, space, time andmaterials so that instruction in content andstudent learning can take place.Two major goals…1. To foster student involvement andcooperation in all classroom activities2. To establish a productive workingenvironment.-First Days of School, Wong
8Characteristics of a Well-Managed Classroom…Students are deeply involved with their workStudents know what is expected of them andare generally successfulThere is relatively little wasted time,confusion, or disruptionThe climate of the classroom is work-oriented, but relaxed and pleasant.
9A well-managed classroomis…A task oriented environmentA predictable environmentIs ready and waiting for students
10Brainstorming Activity…Think of as many responses to the followingstatement as you can…An effectiveteacher is…..
11A Dangerous Educator…Believes that this job is not aboutrelationshipsBelieves that this is just a job, and when theschool day is over, the work’s all done.Believes that he/she can handle any situation,alone.Believes that, “It was good enough for me, bygolly, it oughta’ be good enough for them.”Believes that all these kids need is “a goodwhippin’.”
12A Dangerous Educator…Believes that what he/she does outside ofhere has no bearingBelieves that anger shouldnt be part of thecurriculumNever makes time to just sit and listenBelieves that this kids have no right to bemadBelieves that he/she can’t make a differenceBelieves that punishment is more effectivethan discipline
13A Dangerous Educator…Thinks you shouldn’t smile until Thanksgiving.Believes that morality and values should onlybe taught at homeSees the act, not the young person behind it.Believes that strict adherence to the rules isthe most important goal of any child’s day.Forgets he/she is modeling.Is a “structure monster”.-Malcolm Smith
14The Effective Teacher…Establishes good control of theclassroomDoes things right, consistentlyAffects and touches livesExhibits positive expectations for ALLstudentsEstablishes good classroommanagement techniques
15The Effective Teacher…Designs lessons for student masteryWorks cooperatively and learns fromcolleaguesSeeks out a mentor who serves as arole modelGoes to professional meetings to learnHas a goal of striving foe excellence
16The Effective Teacher…Can explain the district’s, school’s, anddepartment or grade level’s curriculumRealizes that teaching is not a privatepracticeIs flexible and adaptableListens, listens, listensUnderstands the research process
17The Effective Teacher…Teaches with proven research-basedpracticesKnows the difference between aneffective teacher and an ineffective one
18In summary…An effective teacher…Has positive expectations for student successIs an extremely good classroom managerKnows how to design lessons for studentmastery
19Understanding OurStudentsDealing With Student Behavior inToday’s Classrooms
20This is not an easy time to workwith children and youth…One in six youths (age 10-17) has seen orknows someone who has been shot(Children’s Defense Fund)At least 160,000 students skip class eachday because they fear physical harm (NEA)In the last 10 years, the likelihood that a childunder 18 will be killed by guns rose almost250% (FBI Uniform Crime Reports)*
21Every U.S. school day, 6,250 teachers arethreatened with bodily injury (NEA)More than 150,000 school age children bringa gun to school each school day (Children’sDefense Fund)More than 50% of children in the U.S. fearviolent crime against themselves or a familymember (Newsweek)*
22Every 10 seconds a crime occurs in a U.S.school (Children’s Defense Fund)70% of those arrested for hate crimes areunder age 19 (U.S. News)*
23We can trace out-of-controlbehaviors to a variety of factors…The physical and emotional climate of thechilds home and neighborhoodThe amount of stability and consistency in thechild’s familyThe parenting styles of the child’s parentsThe power and influence of peers in a child’slife*
24the positive and negative role modelsavailable to the childThe child’s exposure to violent mediaThe child’s emotional and physical healthThe child’s own attitude toward his/her anger*
25The Changing FamilyIn the last two decades, there has been a200% growth in single parent households(U.S. Bureau of the Census)The number of moms leaving home for workeach morning has risen 65% in the past 20years (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics)Nearly 1 in 4 children in the U.S. are livingbelow the poverty level (Childrens DefenseFund)*
26More than half of all American children willwitness their parent’s divorce (U.S. Bureau ofthe Census)In the last 10 years, the estimated number ofchild abuse victims has risen by nearly 50%(National Committee for the Prevention ofChild Abuse)The average child has watched 8,000televised murders and 100,000 acts ofviolence before finishing elementary school(American Psychological Association)*
27Why Kids MisbehaveBasic has several “Functions”: Attention from peers or adults Attain power/control Revenge or Retaliation Feels Good/Play Fear of Failure Getting something (Sensory Input) Imitation
28Proactive Intervention StrategiesClassroom RulesClassroom SchedulePhysical SpaceAttention SignalBeginning and Ending RoutinesStudent WorkClassroom Management Plan adapted from the Tough Kid series, and CHAMPs
30The Rules for Rules:Keep the number to a minimum(approx. 5).Keep the wording simple.Have rules represent you basicexpectationsKeep the wording positive, if possible.Make your rules specific.Make your rules describe behavior thatis observable.
31Classroom Rules, cont.Make your rules describe behavior thatis measurable.Assign consequences to breaking therules.Always include a “compliance rule”.Keep the rules posted.Consider having rules recited daily forfirst two weeks then periodically..
32Examples…Inappropriate Rules: Be responsible Pay attention Do your best Be kind to others Respect authority Be politePreferred Rules: Keep hands, feet,and objects toyourself. Raise your hand andwait for permission tospeak. Sit in your seatunless you havepermission to leaveit. Walk, don’t run, at alltimes in theclassroom.
33ConsequencesThe best consequences are reasonable andlogicalA reasonable consequence is one that followslogically from the behavior rather than onethat is arbitrarily imposedThe best logical consequences teach thestudents to choose between acceptable andunacceptable actions.
34Activity….For the following types of student behavior,develop both an example of a logicalconsequence AND an illogicalconsequence… Chews gum Turns in sloppy paper Walks in the classroom noisily Passes paper in incorrectly Arrives late Does not bring textbook Does not bring pencil or pen
35Possible CorrectiveConsequencesProximity managementVerbal reprimand/WarningTime owed after classIn-class time-outParental contactRestitutionPrincipal Notification FormDisciplinary ReferralIt should be noted that prior to enacting correctiveconsequences, positive reinforcement strategiesshould be utilized.
37Classroom SchedulesAvoid “Down Time”Approximately 70% of the school day isgeared for academic engagement. (5.2 hrs.)Begin each activity on-time.“The best behavior plans are excellentacademic lesson plans.” – source unknown
38Classroom SchedulesBudget your academic time Example: 1 hr. allotment 5 min. Teacher-directed review 10 min. Introduction of new concepts 10 min. Guided practice, working onassignment 25 min. Independent/Cooperative work 10 min. Teacher-directed corrections
40Physical SpaceArrange desks to optimize the mostcommon types of instructional tasks youwill have students engaged in. Desks in Rows, Front to Back Desks in Row, Side to Side Desks in Clusters Desks in U-Shape
41Physical Space, cont.Make sure you have access to all parts of theroom.Feel free to assign seats, and change at will.Minimize the disruptions caused by hightraffic areas in the class.Arrange to devote some of your bulletinboard/display space to student work.
42Physical Space, cont.If needed, arrange for a “Time-Out”space in your classroom that is asunobtrusive as possible.Desks do not have to be in traditionalrows, but all chairs should face forwardso that all eyes are focused on theteacher
43Students Who CauseBehavioral Problems:Aggressive (the hyperactive, agitated,unruly student)Resistant (the student who won’t work)Distractible (the student who can’tconcentrate)Dependent (the student who wants helpall the time)
44Location for Students whocause behavioral problems:Separate—disruptive students;maybe aggressive and resistantstudentsNearby—disruptive students;maybe distractible, dependent, andresistant
45Prepare the Work Area…Arrange work areas and seats so that youcan easily see and monitor all the studentsand areas no matter where you are in theroomBe sure that students will be able to see youas well as frequently used areas of theclassroomKeep traffic areas clearKeep access to storage areas, bookcases,cabinets, and doors clearLearn the emergency proceduresMake sure you have enough chairs for the
46Prepare the Work Area…Be sure to have all necessary materials ineasily accessible areasTest any equipment to make sure that itworks BEFORE you use itUse materials such as tote bags, boxes,coffee cans, dishpans, etc. to store materialsthat students will need.Arrange work areas where students can gofor reading and math groups, science, labareas, project work, learning centers, andindependent study. (Remember, you may notneed these areas on the first days of school.
47Prepare the Student Area…Plan areas for student belongings Coats Binders Backpacks Books Lunchboxes Lost and found items others
48Prepare the Wall Space…Cover one or more bulletin boards withcolored paper and trim, and leave it bare forthe purpose of displaying student work andartifacts.Display your discipline plan in a prominentplace.Post procedures, assigned duties, calendar,clock, emergency information, schedules,menus, charts, maps, decorations, birthdays,and student work.Have a consistent place for listing the day’s orweek’s assignments
49Prepare the Wall Space…Post a large example of the properheading or style for papers to be donein classPost examples of tests students willtake, assignments they will turn in, andpapers they will writeDisplay the feature topic, theme,chapter, or skill for the day or thecurrent unit
50Prepare the bookcases…Do not place the bookcases or display wallwhere they obstruct any lines of visionsRotate materials on the shelves, and leaveout only those items that you are willing toallow students to handleDo not place books or other loose materialsnear an exit where they can easily disappearor where they may hide emergencyinformation
51Prepare the Teaching Materials…Let students know what materials you want them tobring from home. Have a place and a procedureready for the storage of these materials.Have a seating plan prepared.Have basic materials readyFind and organize containers for materials.Store seldom used materials out of the wayPlace electronic media where there are electricaloutlets and where the students will not trip over thewires; have extension cords, adapter plugs, andbatteriesObtain a supply of the forms that are used for dailyschool routinesOrganize, file, inventory
52Prepare Yourself and YourArea…Do not create a barrier betweenyourself and the students.Place your desk away from the door sothat no one can take things from yourdesk and quickly walk out.Communicate to your students thateverything in and on you desk is to betreated as personal property and offlimits to them
53Prepare Yourself and YourArea…Keep your personal belongings in asafe locationHave emergency materials handy Personal items Extra lunch moneyObtain the materials that you needbefore you need them
54Teachers who areready maximizestudent learning andminimize studentmisbehavior.
56Attention SignalDecide upon a signal you can use toget students’ attention.Teach students to respond to the signalby focusing on you and maintainingcomplete silence.
57Example: The “Hand Raise”Say: “Class, your attention please.”At the same time, swing right arm in a circularmotion from the 9:00 position to the 12:00position.This prompts all students to stop, look at youand raise hand.
58Advantages to Hand RaiseIt can be given from any location in theroom.It can be used outside the classroom.It has both a visual and auditorycomponent.It has the “ripple effect”.
61PunishmentWhy Do We Punish? Because it works Punishment is effective for approximately 95%of our students It’s quick Punishment produces a rapid (but oftentemporary) suppression of behavior It requires lower level thinking skills.
62Discipline vs. PunishmentD: strives to replace an unwanted behaviorwith a desirable behaviorP: takes away a behavior by force, butreplaces it with nothing*
63Discipline vs. PunishmentD: Is firm and consistent, but peacefulP: inflicts harm in the name of good*
64Discipline vs. PunishmentD: Positive behavioral change isexpectedP: The worst is expected, and the worstis often received*
65Discipline vs. PunishmentD: May may the youth angry at fist, butcalls for self-evaluation and changerather than self-degradationP: Agitates and often causes angerand resentment on the part of the child(which may have caused the behaviorin the first place)*
66Discipline vs. PunishmentD: Takes time and energy butconsequences are logical andencourage restitutionP: Is immediate and high-impact but ishardly ever logical*
67Discipline vs. PunishmentD: Allows child to rebuild self-esteemP: Damages fragile self-esteem*
68Discipline vs. PunishmentD: Disciplinarian is in control of his/herown emotionsP: Allows anger to be releasedphysically by punisher, allowing fordangerous loss of control on adult’spart*
69Discipline vs. PunishmentD: Is not threatening, dangerous orabusiveP: Can be physically and emotionallydangerous*
70Discipline vs. PunishmentD: Allows for reflection and restitutionP: Does not allow the child to make upfor his/her behavior*
71Discipline vs. PunishmentD: is caring but takes time and planningP: is often “off the cuff” and emotionallycharged*
72Important Aspects of a Well-Disciplined Classroom…DisciplineProceduresRoutinesEffective teachers introduce rules,procedures, and routines on the veryfirst day of school and continue to teachand reinforce them throughout theschool year.
73The number one problem inthe classroom is notdiscipline; it is the lack ofprocedures and routines.
74Discipline vs. Procedures…Discipline: Concerns how students BEHAVEProcedures: Concerns how things are DONEDiscipline: HAS penalties and rewardsProcedures: Have NO penalties or rewardsA procedure is simply a method orprocess for how things are to be donein a classroom.
75Students must know from the verybeginning how they are expected tobehave and work in a classroomenvironment.DISCIPLINE dictates how students areto behavePROCEDURES and ROUTINES dictatehow students are to work
76Procedures…Are statements of student expectations necessary toparticipate successfully in classroom activities, to learn,and to function effectively in the school environmentAllow many different activities to take place efficientlyduring the school day, often several at the same time, witha minimum of wasted time and confusionIncrease on-task time and greatly reduce classroomdisruptionsTell a student how things operate in the classroom, thusreducing discipline problems
77A PROCEDURE ishow you wantsomething doneIt is theresponsibility of thethe teacher tocommunicateeffectivelyA ROUTINE is whatthe student doesautomaticallywithout prompting orsupervisionBecomes a habit,practice, or customfor the student
78A smooth-running class isthe responsibility of theteacher, and it is the resultof the teacher’s ability toteach procedures.
79Procedures answer questionssuch as…What to do when the bell ringsWhat to do when the pencil breaksWhat to do when you hear an emergencyalert signalWhat to do when you finish your work earlyWhat to do when you have a questionWhat to do when you need to go to therestroomHow to enter the classroomWhere to put completed work
80Activity…Choose one of the items from handout#____Develop a set of procedures for the itemof your choiceDisplayGallery Walk
81Three Steps to Teach Procedures…1. EXPLAIN. State, explain, model, anddemonstrate the procedure.2. REHEARSE. Practice the procedure underyour supervision.3. REINFORCE. Reteach, rehearse, practice,and reinforce the classroom procedure untilit becomes a student habit or routine.
82Discipline with the Body…notthe Mouth…1. EXCUSE yourself from what you are doing2. RELAX. Take a slow relaxing breath and CALMLYapproach the student with a meaningful look.3. FACE the student directly and CALMLY wait for aresponse.4. If there is no response, WHISPER the student’sfirst name and follow with what you want thestudent to do, ending with “please”. RELAX andWAIT.
836. If backtalk occurs, relax, wait and KEEP QUIET. Ifthe student wants to talk back, keep the firstprinciple of dealing with backtalk in mind:IT TAKES ONE FOOL TO TALK BACK.IT TAKES TWO FOOLS TO MAKE ACONVERSTAION OUT OF IT.7. When the student responds with the appropriatebehavior say, “Thank you,” and leave with anaffirmative SMILE. If a student goes so far as toearn an office referral, you can deliver it just as wellRELAXED. After all, ruining your composureand peace of mind does not enhanceclassroom management.-Adapted from Fred Jones, Positive ClassroomDiscipline and Positive Classroom Instruction
84Beginning and EndingRoutines…Entering Class Goal: Students will feel welcome and willimmediately go to their seats and start on aproductive task. Greet the students at the door. Have a task prepared for students to work onas they sit down. Do your “housekeeping”. Keep tasks short (3-5 min.) When you’ve finished, address the task.
85Beginning and EndingRoutine, cont.Ending Routine Goal: Your procedures for ending theday/class will: Ensure that students will not leave theclassroom before they have organized theirown materials and completed any necessaryclean-up tasks. Ensure the you have enough time to givestudents both positive and corrective feedback,and to set a positive tone for ending the class.
86Beginning and EndingRoutines, cont.Dismissal Goal: Students will not leave the classroom untilthey are dismissed by you (not the bell). Explain that the bell is a signal for you. Excuse the class when things are reasonably quiet andall “wrap up” activities are completed. General Rule: Dismiss primary students by rows Dismiss older students by class
87Student WorkDesign efficient procedures for assigning,monitoring, and collecting student work.5 Major Areas of Managing Student Work: Assigning Class Work and Homework Managing Independent Work Periods Collecting Completed Work Keeping Records and Providing Feedback Dealing with Late/Missing Assignments
88Ponder This…You don’t build your football team onthe day of the game.You don’t drill a well when you getthirsty.And you don’t discuss procedures oncean emergency has begun.
90Classroom ManagementPlan…8 Components:1) Level of Classroom Structure – based onrisk factors of your students.2) Guidelines for Success – attitudes, traits,or behaviors to help achieve success.3) Rules – specific, observable, andmeasurable behavioral objectives4) Teaching Expectations – What, how, andwhen expectations will be taught
91Classroom ManagementPlan…5) Monitoring – How you will monitor theprogress of the expectations.6) Encouragement Procedures – How youwill encourage students to demonstratemotivated and responsible behavior.7) Correction Procedures – How you willrespond to irresponsible behavior.8) Managing Student Work – Whatprocedures and systems you will use tomanage student work.
93For Every Activity…Make sure students know yourbehavioral expectation.Consider the CHAMPs level ofstructure:
94CHAMPs…Conversation: Under what circumstances, ifat all, can the students talk to each otherduring the activity. Can students engage in conversations with eachother during this activity? If yes, about what? How many students can be involved in a singleconversation? How long can the conversation last?
95CHAMPs, cont.Help – How do students get theirquestions answered during the activity? How do they get your attention? If students have to wait for help, whatshould they go while they wait?
96CHAMPs, cont.Activity – What is the activity? What is your expected “end product”? This will likely change daily, according toyour lesson plans.
97CHAMPs, cont.Movement – Under what circumstance,if at all, can students move about duringthe activity? If yes, for what? Pencil Restroom Drink Hand in/pick up materials Other… Do they need permission from you?
98CHAMPs, cont.Participation – What does appropriatestudent work behavior during theactivity look/sound like? What behaviors show that students areparticipating fully and responsibly? What behaviors show that a student in notparticipating?
101Angry StudentsGoal: To help channel and direct thestudent to constructive outcomes. Assist the child in learning acceptableways of expressing this emotion.Caution!! Caution should be taken to avoidrepressing or destroying the feeling ofanger.
102AngerAnger may be… A defense to avoid painful feelings Associated with failure Associated with low self-esteem Associated with feelings of isolation Related to feelings of anxiety over wherethe child has no control
103Anger vs. SadnessChild – anger and sadness closelyrelated. Expresses sadness as anger.Adult – expresses sadness as sadness.
104Angry Child Interventions1) Catch the child being good. Tellwhat behaviors please you. Respond to positive efforts and reinforcegood behavior. “Thanks for sitting in your seat quietly.” “You worked hard on that project, and I admireyou effort.”
105Angry Child Interventions2) Deliberately ignore inappropriatebehavior that can be tolerated. Tell child what you are doing. If attention seeking, it will get worse beforebetter. Be consistent
106Angry Child Interventions3) Provide physical outlets and otheralternatives. Pre-plan opportunities for child to releasestored energy Consider meaningful work
107Angry Child Interventions4) Manipulate the surroundings. Look for triggers both inside/outside yourclass. Re-examine your rules. Consider the child’s physical space.
108Angry Child Interventions5) Use closeness and touching. Move physically closer to the child Consider gently placing your hand on thechild’s shoulder Works best with younger children
109Angry Child Interventions6) Express interest in the child’sactivities. Develop the relationship Teachers are often the best therapists
110Angry Child Interventions7) Ease tension through humor. Attempt to “joke” the child out of anepisode. This will help “save face”. Be careful to distinguish between humorand teasing. If sarcastic tone, child may become moreangry.
111Angry Child Interventions8) Explain situations to the child. Assist the child in understanding whatsituations can contribute to their anger Assist the child in learning appropriatealternative responses. Allow for practice/role play
112When An Explosion isPending…The Crisis Cycle: StimulusThoughtsFeelings ActionConsequence
113The Curve of ExplosionStimulus- initiates the process.Period of Escalation- child calls on availablecoping skills. Anger will resolve or escalate Begins to think less and feel more Try to get child to talk Use Active Listening skills Monitor your Para-Verbal Communication Assume a Calm Demeanor
114The Curve of Explosion, cont.Do’s DO use positive expectations. DO use “I” statements. DO reflect the emotion you hear. DO use non-verbal affirmation. DO try to direct the youth into a problemsolving mode.
115The Curve of Explosion, cont.Don’ts Don’t lead with the rules. Don’t lead with the consequences. Don’t begin statements with the word,“You”. Don’t ask “Why” questions.
116The Curve of Explosion, cont.Out of Control- behavior is driven byemotion. Thought process is repressed. Avoid threats of disciplinary sanctions. All youth to “vent” safely. Physical restraint may be required.
117The Curve of Explosion, cont.Period of De-escalation. Thought processes begin to stabilize. Emotional control is re-established. Student may be tired. Student may request to be left alone.
119Pre-Corrections“Thank you for not smoking.”Serves as a gentle reminder ofexpectations.Gives students an opportunity tomentally prepare before an activity.Always respond to sincere efforts tocomply.
120Classroom Behavior Modificationusing: “Pre-Correction for Classroom”Seven steps: “1) Identify the context and the likely problembehavior. 2) Specify the expected behaviors. 3) Systematically modify the context. 4) Conduct behavioral rehearsals. 5) Provide strong reinforcement for expectedbehaviors. 6) Prompt expected behaviors. 7) Monitor the plan.
121Pre-Correction Scenario1) Context – students entering classroomimmediately after recess. Predictable behavior – students shouting,laughing, and pushing before complyingwith teacher direction.2) Expected Behavior – Entering theroom quietly, go to desks, begin task,keep hands to self.
122Pre-Correction Scenario, cont.3) Context modification – Teacher meetsstudents at door, has them wait andthen go to desk to begin entry tasks.4) Behavior rehearsal – Teacher remindsstudents just before recess of expectedbehaviors. Asks “student” to tell whatare expected behaviors.
123Pre-Correction Scenario, cont.5) Strong reinforcement – Students aretold that if they cooperate with teacherrequests, they will have additionalbreak and 5 extra minutes for recess.6) Prompts – Teacher gives signals at thedoor to be quiet and points to activityon Chalkboard. Teacher says “ssshh”to noisy students and praises studentswho are beginning work.
124Pre-Correction Scenario, cont.7) Monitoring plan – Teacher uses awatch to measure how long it takes forall students begin their tasksimmediately (within 10 seconds).
1255 Steps to Correction1) List Previous Positive Behavior. “Elizabeth, yesterday you did such a good jobstaying in your seat and paying attention. I reallyappreciate how you behaved.”2) State Current Behavior. “However, today Elizabeth, you’ve been out ofyour seat, disrupting class several times.”
1265 Steps to Correction, cont.3) State Expectations. “Elizabeth, what I expect from you is, for you to goto your seat, sit in your seat, pay attention, andonly talk to your neighbors when I give youpermission.”4) Child Repeats. “You want me to go to my seat, sit down, listen,and keep my mouth shut.”
1275 Steps to Correction, cont.5) Praise Any Efforts. Acknowledge any compliance Be positive Be sincere Be encouraging You need a positive relationship with thestudent to use this effectively.
128If you want it…teach it. Ifyou expect to maintain it,encourage it, acknowledge it,and reinforce it. source unknown
129Post-CorrectionAdapted from the “Life Space Interview”model, Fritz Redl.Allows the child an opportunity to process andlearn from the experience.Should be done by the adult who witnessedthe incident.Should be done within 24 hours. (As soon asboth parties are calm)
1305 Steps to Post-Correction1) Youth’s Perception- Adult should: Listen Refrain from judgments and corrections Ask questions which help student withdescription Attempt to find out what student was trying toachieve
1315 Steps to Post-Correction,cont.2)Adult’s Perception- Discuss what parts of incident you see same anddifferently Provide reality base3)Connection Incident to Pattern of behavior Assist student in seeing a behavior pattern he/shehas developed
1325 Steps to Post-Correction,cont.4) Explore Alternative Behaviors- Prompts may be used Important to let student find options5) Develop A Plan- May use behavior contract Assure student of adult commitment Discuss consequences for next incident
133“Always say what you mean,and mean what you say…butdon’t say it in a mean way.” Nicholas Long
135“No improvement will occur ininstruction until the classroomclimate improves.”“Classrooms have personalitiesjust like people.”-63 Ways of Improving Classroom Instruction(Gary Phillips and Maurice Gibbons)
136Classroom EnvironmentPolsky’s Diamond – Dr. Howard Polsky The Five Ranks of Social Power: Leaders LieutenantsMembers Status Seekers Scapegoats
137Polsky’s Diamond, cont.The Social Interaction with-in diamondis prompted by the need for 3 things….1)Power – influence over one’s own life2)Affiliation – belonging3)Achievement – status
138….so their behaviors look like: Social functions of Behavior: Attention Seeking (adult/peer) Power/control Fear of failure/frustration Imitation Other functions of Behavior: Getting something (sensory input) Revenge or retaliation Avoidance (person/activity, demands or requests) Feels Good/Play
139Social Skills…How do “Tough Kids” meet these needs? Behavioral Excesses- Aggression Arguing Hitting Fighting Shouting Teasing Blaming Provoking Behavioral Deficits- Using self-control Cooperating Problem Solving Helping Sharing Making good decisions
140Need for Social SkillsIn order to assist the child in meetingthe 3 needs, effective social skillsinstruction should be employed.Social Skills: Basic skills needed tosuccessfully interact with adults andpeers.
1416 Components of anEffective Social Skills Program1) Rationale2) Modeling3) Concept Teaching4) Role Playing/Behavior Rehearsaland Practice5) Coaching6) Contingent Reinforcement
142Social Skill TopicsBasic Social Skills: Body Basics- (FEVER) Face person Eye contact Voice volume/tone/rate Expression should match Relaxed posture Starting, Joining, and Maintaining a Conversation With Adults With Peers
143Social Skills Topics, cont.Basic Social Skills: Recognizing and Expressing Feelings Playing Cooperatively Solving Problems Using Self-Control Solving Arguments Dealing with Teasing Dealing with Being Left Out Accepting “NO” Following Directions
144Social Skill Topics, cont.Intermediate to Advanced Skills: Accepting negative feedback Learning how to say “NO”. Assertiveness Resisting peer pressure Resisting teasing Managing anger etc.
145Social Skills AssessmentSocial Skills Survey Can be completed by student May be determined by age/maturity Can be completed by teacher Can be completed by parent Average and rank scores Deliver necessary Social Skills Instruction
152The Correct Question…DON’T ASK: “What am I going to covertomorrow?”DO ASK: “What are my students going tolearn, achieve, and accomplish tomorrow?”The role of the teacher is not to cover.The role of the teacher is toUNCOVER.
153Learning has nothing to do with whatthe teacher COVERS.Learning ahs to do with what thestudent ACCOMPLISHES.
154What is a lesson plan?Teacher’s guideDesign for the learning of the studentSeries of student centered learningFocused on what the student needs toknow and be able to doCovers one day or several daysAllows for the teachable moment
155Experienced Teacher Standards1. Demonstrates Professional Leadership2. Demonstrates Knowledge of Content3. Designs/Plans Instruction4. Creates and Maintains Learning Climate5. Implements/Manages Instruction6. Assesses and communicates LearningResults7. Collaborates withColleagues/Parents/Others8. Engages in Professional Development
156Performance CriteriaStandard 3Focuses instruction on one or more of KY’slearning goals and academic expectationsDevelops instruction that requires students toapply knowledge, skills, and thinkingprocessesIntegrates skills, thinking processes, andcontent across disciplinesCreates/utilizes learning experiences thatchallenge, motivate, and actively involve thelearnerCreates and uses learning experiences thatare developmentally appropriate for learners
157Performance CriteriaStandard 3Develops and incorporates strategies thataddress physical, social, and cultural diversityand that show sensitivity to othersArranges the physical classroom to supportthe types of teaching and learning to occurIncludes creative and appropriate use oftechnology to improve student learningDevelops and implements appropriateassessment processes
158Performance CriteriaStandard 3Secures/uses a variety of appropriate schooland community resources to support learningDevelops/incorporates learning experiencesthat encourage students to be adaptable,flexible, resourceful, and creativeUses knowledge required from past teachingexperiences to anticipate instructionalchallenges
159Thinking About LessonPlanningWho Am I Planning For?What Am I Supposed To Do?
160Two Types of Assignments…Ineffective Assignments: The teacher tells the class what is to be covered Chapter 7; Moby Dick; long division; ecosystemsEffective Assignments: The teacher tells the students what they are tohave accomplished or mastered at the end of thelesson Teach with the end in mind
161Creating Effective Assignments…Think what you want the students toaccomplishWrite each step as a single sentence.Write in simple languageDuplicate the list of steps and give it to thestudents
162Effective Assignments…Must have structure and be preciseStructure The assignment must have a consistent andfamiliar format that the students can recognize astheir assignment The assignment must be posted daily in aconsistent location BEFORE students enter theroomPreciseness The assignment must state clearly and simplywhat the students are to ACCOMPLISH
163To teach for learning, use words, especiallyverbs, that show learning has taken place.Bloom’s Taxonomy Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis evaluation
164If the classroom is a fishbowl…PiranhaCatfishGoldfish
165Piranha…..Are usually the “trouble-makers”Can be passive aggressive or overtlyaggressiveHave negative attitudeHave attendance problemsAre “at risk”Etc., etc., etc……
166Catfish…..Go with the flowAre usually good-natured, but havelimited motivationAre social beingsTend to cooperate; follow MOST rulesPerform to the average or just enoughto stay out of trouble with mom/dadEtc., etc., etc……
167Goldfish…..Are in the top 10-15% of their classAre “teacher pleasers”Are highly motivated to perform wellShow enthusiasm for learningMay be “over achievers” and /or highachieversEtc., etc., etc…….
168Pre-Planning Strategies1. Determine the learning styles of yourstudents2. Determine reading levels/skills of students3. Inventory access to technology4. Connect writing to what is being taught5. Focus on academic expectations and corecontent6. Establish a variety of instructional strategies
169Essential QuestionsWhat do I want all students to know and beable to do at the end of this lesson?What will I do to cause this learning tohappen?What will students do to facilitate thislearning?How will I assess to find out if this learninghappened?What will I do for those who show throughassessment that the learning did not takeplace?
170Think-Pair-Share“Best Practices” in Lesson PlanningSome Guiding PrinciplesAdapted From: 63 Ways of Teaching or LearningAnything by Gary Phillips and Maurice Gibbons
174The Unmotivated Student…Problems often emerge during lateelementary or middle school.Often initiated by early academic problem.Begins to see school as a place of “drudgery”.Will most often become discipline problem.At risk of becoming a “drop out”.
175Unmotivated Student, cont.Factors That Influence Motivation: Fear of Failure – “Better to look bad, thanstupid”. Safer not to try. Lack of Meaning – May not see relevanceto assignments. Emotional Distress – Anxiety/Depressionfrom influences at home. Learning Disability – Give up in frustration.
176Unmotivated Student, cont. Lack of Challenge Desire for Attention – look helpless toteacher Peer Concern – not cool to like school Low Expectation – no encouragement fromhome Expression of Anger – due to pressurefrom parents
177Unmotivated StudentInterventionsAssess the origin,(records, teachers, etc)Talk with the Student Privately – develop therelationship.Provide a Warm, Accepting ClimateStay Close to the StudentIntroduce the Lesson with EnthusiasmGive Clear Direction and FeedbackPresent Tasks in Manageable DosesOrchestrate the Student’s SuccessHighlight the Student’s Talents
178Unmotivated StudentInterventions, cont. Vary Your Teaching Style Relate Instruction to Student’s Interests Make Instruction Relevant to Real World Provide Hands-on Activities Apply “Meaningful Work”…CHAMPs Allow Student Some Control over What and HowHe Learns Praise Student’s Efforts and Accomplishments If Student is Too Cool, consider incentives,rewards, group recognition ( spark somecompetition) Challenge the Student
179HYPERACTIVITY…Constant movementEasily distractedLack of controlVerbalDoes not attend to cuesProvide structured highactivity tasksAllow for controlmovementReward on-taskbehaviorsUse color codes forrecognitions ofbehaviors
180INATTENTION…PassiveMinimal problem-solving skillsDependent learnerViews ability versuseffort as a problemFocus attention on keyelements of activityDevelop and mentalmap with studentFacilitate routinesuccessHelp the student self-monitor performance
181IMPULSIVITY…Speaks before thinkingout answersCannot monitorbehaviorImpatient with repetitionAvoids anxietyProvide short andspecific directionsReflective evaluationDevelop problem-solvingModel expectedbehaviorsAllow behavior outlets
182DISRUPTIVE BEHAVIOR…Refuses to do workDefy authorityIntimidates otherstudentsDistract teachingthrough verbal orphysical meansReinforce positivebehaviorUse high interestpersonally relevantmaterialProvide shortsuccesses
184Descriptors of the Ideal Classroom thatReflects Excellent Instruction in the Areaof Behavior ManagementThe classroom is organized in a manner thatencourages order, participation, independence, andcontinuous learningThere is a small number of meaningful rulesStudents understand and enforce rulesThe teacher is constantly teaching independentbehavior management skillsThe teacher spends an appropriate amount of time atthe beginning of the school year establishing theculture and climate for positive acceptable behaviorStudent’s demonstrating appropriate behaviorsconstantly receive positive reinforcement
185Descriptors of the Ideal Classroom thatReflects Excellent Instruction in the Areaof Behavior ManagementThe teacher handles inappropriate behavior in a firm,fair, consistent, and caring mannerThe teacher’s interactions with students are positiveand reinforce the importance of student successThe teacher has several motivators that reinforce andshape student positive behaviorsClassroom instruction is well organized, meaningful,and allows for student differences (individual andgroup)Classroom management strategies are appropriate tothe environment and needs of the students
186Descriptors of the Ideal Classroom thatReflects Excellent Instruction in the Areaof Behavior ManagementThere is an established communication betweenhome and schoolStudents receive constant positive reinforcement fordoing good work and encouragement to do betterStudent work is displayed throughout the classroomand behavior and learning reinforcers are visiblethroughout the room
187Descriptors of a Teacher Who isSuccessful at Behavior Instruction andReinforcementThe teacher has the ability to KNOWand effectively RELATE to his/herstudents Establishes rapport and trust Separates unacceptable behavior fromstudent as a person Knows total student in and out of school Knows student’s interests/likes/dislikes
188Descriptors of a Teacher Who isSuccessful at Behavior Instruction andReinforcementThe teacher has practical and currentKNOWLEDGE of behaviormanagement strategies Classroom design Classroom management Establishing baseline data Developing a behavior plan
189Descriptors of a Teacher Who isSuccessful at Behavior Instruction andReinforcementThe teacher APPLIES behaviormanagement strategies in a FLEXIBLEand TIMELY manner Ability to quickly analyze situation andappropriately apply techniques Has good timing-when and where to reactand respond
190Descriptors of a Teacher Who isSuccessful at Behavior Instruction andReinforcementThe teacher is CONSISTNET, has goodFOLLOW-THROGUH, and FOLLOW-UP WITH STUDENTS Is clear and predictable from day 1 Communicates expectations often Can re-establish respect after encounters constantly reinforces expected behavior
191Teachers who are successful at behaviorinstruction and reinforcement…Have a keen AWARENESS of the classroomATTEND to more than one matter at a timeTrain students to follow established classroomPROCEDURES/ROUTINES without disturbing othersPACE their instruction without unnecessary delaysUse a variety of techniques to keep studentsINTERESTED and INVOLVEDUse various techniques to check studentINVOLOVEMNT, LEARNING, and ATTENTIONUse EFFECTIVE TECHNIQUES with individual studentsthat guide other student’s behavior
192Word Wall Activity…In your group, discuss the term(s) that youhave chosen.Think about what we have discussed aboutthis item today.Share: Your thoughts and A factual statement