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Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
Classroom management 2
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Classroom management 2

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  • Show Cartoon – don’t know what behavior to engage in
  • Transcript

    • 1. Classroom ManagementStrategies for ReadingTeachersChris Borgmeier, Ph.D.Portland State Universitycborgmei@pdx.edu(503)725-5469
    • 2. Agenda Introduction Behavior & Learning Setting up your Students for Success Defining & Teaching Behavioral Expectations Reinforcing Expected Behavior Effective Scanning and Monitoring Instructional variables related to Behavior Participation Student Success Responding to Misbehavior Review & Tools
    • 3. “There are no bad boys, thereis only bad environment,bad training, bad examples,and bad thinking”-Boys Town
    • 4. Development of Antisocial Behavior(Patterson, DeBaryshe & Ramsey, 1989)Poorparentaldiscipline&monitoringChildConductProblemsAcademicfailureRejectionbynormalpeergroupCommitmentto deviantpeer groupDelinquencyEarly Middle Late ChildhoodChildhood Childhood & AdolescenceBAD NEWS: LONG-TERM RISK INCREASES WITH EACH STAGEGOOD NEWS: WE CAN TAKE KIDS OFF THIS DEVELOPMENTAL PATHWAY
    • 5. Principles of Behavior ManagementAssumption of Behavioral Theory:People are constantly engaged in learning and everyexperience adds to a person’s knowledge base andinfluences his/her subsequent actionsTherefore, effective teachers1. Spend more time promoting responsible behaviorthen responding to irresponsible behavior2. Recognize that misbehavior occurs for a reason,& take this into account when determining how torespond to misbehavior
    • 6. Science of behavior has taught us thatstudents…. Are NOT born with “bad behaviors” Do NOT learn when presented contingent aversiveconsequences……..Do learn better ways of behaving by beingtaught directly & receiving consistent positivefeedback
    • 7. Reasons Student CommonlyMisbehave Student(s) don’t know expectations Student(s) don’t know how to exhibit expectedbehavior Student is unaware he/she is engaged in themisbehavior Misbehavior is providing student with desiredoutcome: Obtaining attention from adults/peers Escape from difficult task or non-desired activity
    • 8. Learned Responses Students who chronically engage in problembehavior have:Learned that it is a functional response for gettingwhat they want in many cases avoiding academic tasks they strugglewithOften do not have practiced alternative, moreappropriate behaviors to fall back on
    • 9. First, Do No HarmHelping v. Hindering Are we setting students up to misbehave? Every time a student engages in problembehavior, escalation, or a power struggle theyare further practicing that response As educators, we need to:Prevent students from practicing habits of problembehavior & escalationTeach more appropriate alternative behaviors
    • 10. Instructional Approach to Behavior Views students behavior as a teachingproblem, in which errors need to beeliminated and correct responses need tobe taught and strengthened
    • 11. Be Proactive! & less reactive We need to explicitly teach expected anddesired behavior, rather than take the risk, orexpect, that students “should know”, or they willfigure it out on their own Our tendency when students don’t followbehavioral expectations is to punish studentsrather then teach students… Would we punish a student for not reading a wordcorrectly?
    • 12. Focus on what we can Change We cannot prescribe medication We cannot change the students previous experiences We often cannot change the parenting practices in thehome Some venting is good, but too often it takes overleading to less productive meetings, instruction &supports for studentsThere is a LOT we can do in the classroom toChange student problem behaviorThis starts with student learning……
    • 13. Learning & Behavior:An instructionalapproach to behavior
    • 14. Understanding BehaviorABC If students are repeatedly engaging in abehavior, they are most likely doing it for areason, because it is paying off for the student Behavior is communication, students can learneither that (a) expected behavior or (b) problembehavior is the best way for them to get theirneeds met students will use which ever behavior works mosteffectively and most efficiently for them to attain theirdesired outcome
    • 15. ABC’s of Understanding ChronicBehavior Patterns What happens before (A or antecedent) thebehavior occurs? What is the behavior (B)? What happens after (C or consequence) thebehavior occurs?A  B  C
    • 16. AntecedentsWhat triggers the behavior? What happens immediately preceding theproblem/target behavior? What triggers the behavior, be specific... What activity? What peers? What tasks? Describe in detail If you wanted to set up the student to engage inthe problem behavior, what would you have do?
    • 17. Consequence Whatis the response to the behavior? What happens immediately following thebehavior? How do peers respond? How do the adults respond? What are the consequences for the student? How many times out of 10 do each of theseresponses occur following the problem behavior? What is the student gaining as a result ofengaging in the behavior? How is it paying off for the student?
    • 18. LearningA  B  CStudent Learns through repeatedexperience, that under these specificAntecedent conditions, if I engage in thisBehavior, I can expect this Consequence
    • 19. Learning & ABCA B CIn reading class,student is asked toread the wordaloud on the boardstudent tries, butreads slowly,struggles, andgets the wordwrongpeers laugh at thestudent and onestudents says,“That word is soeasy”What did the student learn?NEXT DAYStudent is askedto read the wordaloud on the boardWhathappenstoday???
    • 20. Reinforcing ConsequenceAB CIf the consequence is rewarding/desired, thesubject learns the behavior is functional forgetting what they wantBehavior Increases in the FutureRewarding orDesiredConsequence
    • 21. Punishing ConsequenceA  B  CIf the consequence is punishing/undesired, thesubject learns the behavior is not functional forgetting what they wantBehavior Decreases in the FuturePunishing orUndesiredConsequence
    • 22. Learning New SkillsA  B  CStudent Learns through repeatedexperience, that under these specificAntecedent conditions, if I engage in thisBehavior, I can expect this ConsequenceConsistentResponding is theKey!!!
    • 23. When Teaching New Skills Consistent Responding is Key when new skills(academic or behavioral) are first being learned1) Consistent praise and acknowledgment for correctbehavior2) Consistent error correction with practice performingthe correct response3) Frequent Review and PreCorrectionPraise and error correction should follow nearlyevery response during Acquisition of a NewSkill
    • 24. Reading Instruction -- ABC Antecedent Hold flashcard up w/ word CAT, “What word?” Behavior Student Response Say word correctly – “Cat” Say word incorrectly – “Car” Consequence “Nice job, this word is Cat.” “No, this word is Cat, we can sound it out c-a-t, cat.” Return to beginning and practice word again
    • 25. What are we teaching? When leading a class we’re always teachingsomething…. we often get into trouble from whatstudents are learning that we don’t know we’reteaching. We need to be aware of what we’re teaching thataren’t a part of our curriculum. Not just what comes out of our mouth, but what our actionsare teaching We must also be aware of what we are not teaching.
    • 26. What are we teaching? What are students learning when….They are sitting idly and not doing their workfor 3-5 minutes with no teacher responseThey are continually asked to completeassignments that they cannot be successfulwithThey are not provided opportunities topractices corrections to errors they aremaking – academically or behaviorally
    • 27. Setting up yourStudents for SuccessExplicitly TeachingExpected Behavior
    • 28. What the Research Says1. Teachers Set and Teach Clear Standards forClassroom Behavior and Apply Them Fairlyand Consistently2. Teachers Establish Smooth, EfficientClassroom Routines3. Teachers Interact with Students in Positive,Caring Ways4. Teachers Provide Incentives, Recognition, andRewards to Promote Excellence
    • 29. Defining BehavioralExpectations &Routines
    • 30. Plan Ahead(before school year & each day) Before we can teach, reinforce, andenforce anything in our classrooms... We must clearly define:1. fair behavioral expectations &2. effective behavioral routines
    • 31. Guidelines for Defining BehavioralExpectations Identify Classroom rules and expectations, useSchool Rules if applicable Limit # of Rules to 3-5 Rules should be broad enough to cover all potential problembehaviors Make rules positive Post them in your classroom Common Examples Be Safe, Be Responsible, Be Respectful State specific behavioral expectations as a subset of the mostappropriate Rule
    • 32. Why 3-5 Positively Stated Rules? Easier to learn and remember then a long list ofspecific behavioral expectations Positively stated rules can cue staff to respondto acknowledge positive, not only negativebehavior Posting rules creates a visual cue for studentsand staff to remind them of the rules As well as a tool for accountability
    • 33. Classroom/Behavioral Routines Those common activities that arecompleted by students with minimalassistance from the teacherCommon routines in reading groupsHow to enter class and get startedRaising hand to speak (how & when)How to work independentlyUnison responding (how & when)
    • 34. Defining Behavioral Routines Carefully plan routines to minimize problems This may require planning of the physical set up of theenvironment as well Examples: traffic patterns, accessibility of materials, routinefor turning in homework or independent work Be cautious not to inadvertently set up studentsto misbehave
    • 35. Teaching BehavioralExpectations &Routines
    • 36. Teaching Behavioral Expectations& Routines Establishing Behavioral Routines1. Explain2. Specify Student Behaviors3. Model Desired Behavior4. Lead - Student Practice – each individual studentshould get an opportunity to practice the routine5. Test/ Monitor6. Follow-up -- reinforce & review regularly
    • 37. Teaching a New SkillModel-Lead-Test Model (I do) – teacher or peer displaysskill performed correctly Lead (We do) – require student to practiceskill with coaching assistance Test (You do) – ask student to display theskill without teacher assistance & providespecific & immediate positive feedbackwhen the skill is performed correctly
    • 38. Teaching Behavior Match Intensity of instruction with Level of Need,which can vary according to: Developmental level Severity of disability Complexity of Behavior being taught Level of existing knowledge Strength of the habit of “doing it the wrong way” Most importantly, if they didn’t get it, teach itagain and provide frequent precorrection
    • 39. Teaching is necessary, butteaching alone is not enough We also need to provide:frequent opportunities to practice the behaviorfrequent reinforcement and acknowledgmentfor the desired behaviorfrequent review and practice of the skillprecorrection and reminders to cue theexpected behavior & develop the habiteffective error correction procedures
    • 40. Learning New SkillsA  B  CStudent Learns through repeatedexperience, that under these specificAntecedent conditions, if I engage in thisBehavior, I can expect this ConsequenceConsistentResponding is theKey!!!
    • 41. Activity – Teaching Behavior Teaching a Behavior or Routine Use the Teaching Behavior form Example routines to teach: How to sit appropriately at the table or during group Quiet voices Ask to go to the bathroom Turning in homework Entering the classroom Unison responding Attention Signal
    • 42. Effective Use ofReinforcement
    • 43. Phases of Learning/Teaching1. Acquisition – when the learner is first exposedto a new skill or knowledge and begins tomove it from short-term to long-term memory2. Fluency – learning begins to build speed &efficiency in use of the skill or knowledge3. Maintenance – student is able to use the skillor knowledge with a high rate of accuracy andat an appropriate rate
    • 44. When students are first learning anew skill (Acquisition Phase) Reward/acknowledge the expected behavioralmost every time it occurs Correct errors every time a non-desired behavioroccurs Continuous Reinforcement Schedule allows studentsto receive the maximum possible number ofopportunities for feedback about the accuracy ofresponse Paired with an effective error correction procedure,this should prevent the development of bad habits
    • 45. Fluency Stage We can begin to fade acknowledgement ofa newly taught skill once the student startsto provide a high percentage of accurateresponsesDo not fade too quickly -- gradual fading ofreinforcement is recommended over time asthe student continues to develop fluencyEventually the student will require littleteacher feedback
    • 46. Reinforcement Continuum &Phases of TeachingStages of Learning/TeachingAcquisition  Fluency  MaintenanceContinuous  Intermittent…………fading…Rates of Reinforcement & Corrective FeedbackContinuous Reinforcement – provide reinforcement orcorrective feedback on every occurrence of behavior
    • 47. Effective Reinforcement in Practice Immediate & frequent (don’t wait until the end) Tickets, point systems can be good for cuing teachers to providefrequent reinforcement Verbally label specific behaviors being reinforced Keep it genuine makes reinforcement a teaching strategy Reinforce all students, not just the best students More challenging students need even more reinforcement fordesired behavior then others Err on the side of too much reinforcement, rather thannot enough (at least 4:1) – but, keep it genuine
    • 48. Effective Reinforcement in Practice The most available reinforcer available ineffective classrooms is success onacademic tasks The most available punisher is academicfailure
    • 49. Active Supervision &Reinforcement: EffectiveScanning & Monitoring
    • 50. Create Consistency/ Fairness1. Develop & teach Expectations/Routines Have students explicitly practice appropriatebehaviors & routines Create consistent & effective routines2. Respond consistently to reward appropriate behavior (4:1 ratio) to inappropriate behavior w/ corrective feedback
    • 51. Structuring the ClassroomEnvironment Setting up the room for easymonitoring/accessibility to all students Structure classroom to allow for smoothtransitions
    • 52. Power of Proximity & Focusingon Appropriate Behavior Actively roaming around the room monitoring Pay attention to the behavior you want to see Calmly, quietly, & quickly approach & redirectstudents who are off-task Can often just point, or say quick two words Then walk away & continue to reinforce otherstudents Reduces chances of power struggle If no progress approach student privately Ask how student is doing & see if you can offersupport Give choices of things to do – not in the form of a ?
    • 53. Movement & Scanning Effective scanning and movement allows formore opportunities:1. To catch students engaged in positive behavior (4:1)2. Catch minor misbehavior early and preventescalation Use proximity and prompts to redirect student behavior3. Catch academic errors early during independentseat work to catch frustration early and preventpractice of misrules or errors
    • 54. 2 of your most powerful tools inmanaging behaviora) Proximityb) Reinforcement Remember in a classroom the mostfrequently available reinforcer isacademic success
    • 55. Good Instruction asa BehaviorManagement Tool
    • 56. Linking Behavior & Instruction Good instruction of academic content is the best andmost important Behavior Management tool you have Academic success is the most frequent reinforceravailable to students in the classroom Students should experience at least a 90% success rate To be successful students need 2 things:1. Effective Instruction with frequent review2. High rates of success with questions and assignments
    • 57. Good Instruction as a BehaviorManagement Tool Structure activities from time students enter untilthey leave classroom “idle hands (or idle time) = devil’s workbench” Have activities and a routine ready in advance forstudents who finish their work early Provide briskly-paced, interactive, engaginginstruction Must be interactive & engaging for ALL students, notjust the best students
    • 58. Linking Behavior & Instruction Avoiding Difficult Tasks is one of most commonfunctions of student problem behavior Responses Provide the most effective instruction Provide instruction/ activities to meet/match students’varying skill levels Collect data to Monitor student work and errorpatterns to identify what needs re-teaching Review, review, review Be active in scanning work to catch student errorsearly to prevent frustration and practice of misrules
    • 59. Good InstructionTeach effective & efficient Strategies Increasing task efficiency through effective strategiescan greatly increase likelihood and student tolerance todo assigned tasks This is where research based curriculum and strategiesare important Having students talk through strategies or watching their workcan help to ID ineffective or inefficient strategies Examples 14 x 7 v. 14+14+14+14+14+14+14 7+5 Take 2 from 7 Add 5 +5 = 10 Add 2 taken away previously = 12
    • 60. Interactive & Engaging Requires high levels of participation for allstudents in instruction/ classroom activitiesWays to get Everyone involved: Use Chorale Responding – clear signal w/ think timeto increase responding Be Careful of relying too much on volunteers When reading aloud do not always go sequentiallyaround the room Use a random selection technique (i.e. choose from popsiclesticks with student names on them) Ask clear questions to which students should be ableto experience a high rate of success based on theinstruction provided
    • 61. Teach Chorale Responding Read Each Word Together
    • 62. Managing Volume & Talking Identify your expectations Routines & Volume levels May use signs, signals or cues to identify differentrequirements &/or Volume Levels (5-Level system) Use an attention signal Explicitly teach expectation with practice Give students something to do
    • 63. Decreasing Talk Outs duringInstruction Teach & Practice Raising hands Most importantly – consistently enforceresponding to hand raising Differential reinforcement for blurting out answers v.raising hand For students who struggle with this, make sure youget to them quickly for raising their hand and reinforcethem verbally
    • 64. Independent Work Define & Teach Expectations & Routinesduring Independent Work High rates of reinforcement for earlypractice and independent workPractice at first with non-work activitiesMight want to link with a tangible reinforcer atfirst Provide independent work that studentscan be successful with independently(90% accurate)
    • 65. Independent Work Break long, multi-step tasks into smallerparts with opportunities for participationInstead of waiting 15 minutes to complete &present a multi-step task, break task intoportions & have students present progress onsmaller steps in 5 minute intervals Active Movement & Scanning w/ frequentReinforcement & Support if struggling
    • 66. Can Do v. Will Do Problem Skill Deficit v. Motivation ProblemFor skill deficits we can: Provide more instruction or support to alleviatespecific skill deficit or Provide the student with easier questions orassignments to increase participationFor motivation problems we can: Find incentives to motivate the student to engagein the academic task
    • 67. Preparing forMisbehavior
    • 68. Be prepared! Be proactive! Anticipate behaviors you will see and know howyou will respond List potential behaviors Identify what behaviors and expectations you canteach in advance to prevent anticipated problembehaviors and link with a reinforcement program earlyto develop habits List out how you will respond to problem behavior Identify Classroom Managed v. Office Managedbehaviors
    • 69. Teach & use an Attention Signal Qualities of a good attention signalMulti-sensory presentation Visual signal Auditory signalGive students a way to respond Provides an alternate behavior to engage in thatwill focus attention back to the teacher Helps to make the attention signal visible to allother students in classroom
    • 70. Responding toMisbehavior
    • 71. Immediate Responses toMisbehavior Responses to Misbehavior should interruptInstruction to the least degree possible Be careful not to escalate behavior into a Crisis Catch minor misbehaviors and address themearly before they escalate
    • 72. Problem Behavior v. Crisis Problem Behavior – situation with potentialto escalate into a crisisUse strategies for defusing the situation Crisis – situation has escalated out ofcontrolCall for back-upFollow emergency procedures
    • 73. Common assumptions that leadto Escalation1. I can’t let a student get away with that.What will the other students think?2. I need to establish authority3. I need to settle down agitated students4. I need to be in control
    • 74. Responses that Escalate(avoid these responses) getting in the student’s face discrediting the student nagging or preaching arguing engaging in power struggles tugging or grabbing the student cornering the student shouting or raising voice Continuing to ask a student to do somethingthey are refusing to do
    • 75. Prevention & Defusion Staff responses to problem behavior play asignificant role in defusing or escalating thesituation If we spend more time responding to andfocusing on misbehavior, then we do oninstruction and desired behavior, students willfollow our lead
    • 76. Responding to Minor Misbehavior Try to redirect minor misbehavior by refocusingon instructional tasks May not even address behavior, simply focus ondirective related instruction for individual student Might try to redirect the student by recognizingand labeling positive behavior of student sittingnext to the misbehaving student
    • 77. Responding to Misbehavior Respond Consistently, Calmly, Briefly &Return to InstructionGoal: pay more time & attention to positivebehaviorReduce Student EscalationReduce amount of missed instructional time
    • 78. Verbally Responding toMisbehavior Try to approach student individually and privately asmuch as possible position yourself close to the student and use a quiet, firm voice Specifically state the behavior of concern, link it withschool or classroom rule if possible If there is an opportunity to teach/ practice the desired behavior,do it – but try to limit interruption of instruction Follow verbal reprimands with reinforcement for thedesired behavior as soon as the student turns aroundbehavior Try to do this as soon as the student begins to engage in theappropriate behavior
    • 79. Adults tend to talk too much Particularly for younger students who arefrequently seeking attention If a students has a history of chronicmisbehavior, this single response isn’tgoing to fix them, but it could easily takethe whole class off task
    • 80. Adults tend to talk too much We want to teach the student moreappropriate behavior, but…Do not try to teach if the student is upset, or ifthey are still emotional about the incidentDiscuss the incident at a later time when thestudent is no longer emotionally involved No effective teaching will get done while thestudent is upset – adults talk too much whenstudents/kids engage in problem behavior
    • 81. Don’t get hooked in powerstruggles Power Struggles: take the focus away from instruction are likely to escalate the situation Do not debate with the student If you find yourself having the same conversation overand over with a student, it’s a good indication that itshouldn’t be taking up class time Response: “(student name), I know that you have aconcern right now, once I’m finished explaining thisassignment, I will come over to talk with you about it –thank you.”
    • 82. Review – what did you learn? Teaching Behavior & ExpectationsWith frequent opportunities to practice Review and precorrection Effective Reinforcement Effective Scanning and Monitoring Instruction & Classroom Management Responding to Misbehavior
    • 83. Classroom Management Checklist Use this the Checklist and Action Planningform as a review guide for setting up andstructuring your classroom and instruction You might have another person in yourroom conduct periodic observations toidentify strengths and areas forimprovement

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