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Human trafficking prevention_control

Human trafficking prevention_control






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    Human trafficking prevention_control Human trafficking prevention_control Presentation Transcript

    • DEFINITION • Slavery may have been abolished in most countries in the 1800s, but it still exists in the world today in different forms. • United Nations Convention on Transnational Organized Crime, Protocol on Trafficking: “… the purchasing, transfer, harbouring or receiving of persons by threatening, use of force, fraud, abuse of power or position for the purpose of exploitation…” • Sexual, Labour, forced Marriage, Organ Transplant, Camel Jockey
    • CAUSES 12 million African slaves Globalisation moved to America in 400 Years Communication 30 million trafficked Poverty Women in South East Asia in the last 10 years Migration Profits $8 Billion Status of Women Risks Less
    • Main Origins of Trafficking M
    • Main Destinations of Trafficking Main Destinations of Trafficking
    • Main Origins in South Asia
    • Main Destinations in South Asia
    • HUMAN TRAFFICKING NEPAL into India = 200,000 est. International 11,000 per year trafficking BANGLADESH into India = 300,000 est. Source areas INDIA: Est. 2-3 million people trafficked Intra-INDIA Internal trafficking = 90% trafficking with of trafficked in India people At any one time up to 20,000 girls are being transported within India for trafficking The boundaries and names shown, and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations.
    • Profile of trafficking victims Boys Women 3% 54% Girls 17% Children Men 24% 2%
    • Type Type of exploitation of exploitation Labor Expl. 23% Sexual Expl. 77%
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    • • Vishal Jeet v Union of India 1990 - Asked governments to set up advisory committees to make suggestions for the eradication of child prostitution - Asked the central government to evolve schemes to ensure proper care and protection to victim girls and children (Gaurav Jain v Union of India 1997) • Prerna v State of Maharashtra 2000 - No Magistrate can exercise jurisdiction over any person under 18. - The Magistrate must transfer the case to the Juvenile Justice Board if the person is a juvenile in conflict with the law, or to the Child Welfare Committee if he is a child in need of care and protection
    • • Sakshi v Union of India 2004 - Expanded use of in camera trial to cases other than rape - Victims and witnesses to be kept away from accused during trial by use of screen etc - Questions in cross on behalf of accused relating to incident must be given in writing to the trial judge • Zahira v State of Gujarat 2004 - Victim and Witness protection • CEHAT v Union of India 2003 - Was instrumental in bringing into focus the issue of female foeticide - Monitored the poor implementation of the Pre-Natal Diagonostic Techniques (PNDT) Act 1994
    • • Delhi Domestic Working Women's Forum v Union of India 1994 - Legal Representation for victims of rape from police station itself - Compensation through Criminal Injuries Compensation Board - Anonymity of Victims be maintained • State of Punjab v Gurmit Singh 1996 - In Camera trials are mandatory in rape cases • Balwant Singh v State of Punjab 1987 - Mere absence of injury does not prove that no resistance was offered by the rape victim State of Andhra Pradesh v Gangula Satya Murthy 1996 - Courts to focus on the broader probabilities of a rape case and not be swayed by minor contradictions or insignificant discripancies
    • Cases under ITPA Crime in India 2004, NCRB
    • Cases under ITPA 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Year
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    • CONFINEMENT FLAT: where “madam” keeps 10-15 girls
    • dicators of Instability The Fails States Inds Rankin 27 91.8 Colombia FFM 28 90.3 Kirgrzstan 29 89.8 Malawi 30 89.7 Burkina Faso 31 89.5 Egypt 32 89.2 Indonesia 105.9 33 88.6 Syria 104.6 Haiti 33 88.6 Kenya 1031 Pa 35 88.5 Bosnia and Herzegovina The Failed States Index 'AmM 36 88.4 Cameroon By. FOREIGN POLICY & the Fiord for Peace 37 88.3 Angola 37 88.3 Togo '.1.D i_ i r e '21111_15 39 87.9 Bhutan 39 87.9 Laos 41 81.8 Mauritania 42 87.7 Tajikistan 43 87.1 Russia 44 87.0 Niger 45 86.1 Turkmenistan 46 85.4 Guinea-Bissau 1 94.5 Uganda 47 85.0 Cambodia 22 94.4 Nigeria 41 85.0 Dominican Republic 22 94.4 Uzbekistan 49 84.6 Papua New Guinea 24 92.9 Rwanda 50 84.5 Belarus 25 92.4 Sri Lanka 51 84.3 Guatemala 26 91.9 Ethiopia 52 84.0 Equatorial Guinea 27 91.8 Colombia 52 84.0 Iran 54 83.9 Eritrea 55 83.8 Serbia and Montenegro 56 82.9 Bolivia 57 82.5 China 57 82.5 Moldova 59 82.4 Nicaragua 60 82.2 Georgia
    • Highly skilled workers Migrant remittances L Th United States 11999 370.000 persons), lap:m 122X): 1).0001 and Canada For developing countries. migrant remittances continue to be a major sour. 'I (2000: 86001 experienced the largest annual inflows of highly skilled workers national income. Worldwide, India (USD 11.5 billions, Mexico (USD 6.5 billi'ni among the world's high-income countries. Th United Kingdom (2000: ?9.000i. and Egypt 1USD 3.7 billion received the largest amounts of m o ray from ttxit Australia (1999-2000: 30.000). and Gemany 12000-2001: 11.800) folbw•e . diaspora However, due to its often informal character, the total volume f reninances is difficult to establish Over the last 20 years, annual official reniuan.c flows to many African countries surpassed inflows of Official Dcvelopmcnt Assistance and Foreign Direct Investment. For example. as a prvponion of tou: financial inflows, remittances amounted to66% in Morocco.51% in Egypt anJ Tunisia 35% in Cape Verde. 305E in Nigeria, and 27'r in Fl nin and Burkina Ea,, 100'•5 79.5 SO'S C CCA ■ roe. a3cat 295 a•. app 21P` , Irregular migration H''� fd ' Irregular migration ontinu, s to be a complex plenomenon on which accurate and e r hab) data are not readily available. Some 700.000 to 2 million w'one n and children are estimated to be trafficked across international borders each year. Approximately S ou r ce s and Derlrritkax 500.000 persons enter the United States, Canada. Australia and New Zealand illegally every year. Estimates of persons entering countries of the Euri>Fean Union by 10M-20)?1 Wcel! M:gr,tiv V.r.'J..11awgieg.Migr.v t C)idkelerao1Rer7.oeresprPeopdeon zhe.Vase 10x.1 World NEIraeca Report Series, vol 2 , Geneva irregular means vary from 120.000 to 500.000 annually. People smuggling is a very OECD (@jLaaization for Economic Coeperatim and Dewloprie rt:. • 20021 SOPEMI - Treads in lucrative business generating billions of USD in revenues every year. The fees paid to lwernavonal.IElgaeoe Coerisa'.s Rey rrug Sssem on.U:grano n. Annual Ftepm 20Q . OECD. migrant smugglers increase proportionally to th distance covered between country of Puss origin anddestirtmfion. Populuiea Reference Bare an (]OO2) .1erereaiatal.Uigraron: Fxerg she (talleerc 57(1). W usialton D C UnitedNueom.20M1 Aciswes f:te tkire d ,YaimsStarQQisDrsQavt MItaorra araaf.1lrlrata•K. United Nations Statistics £ts h m. Vie. Yore United Nations COS 1 1rateranvoeal3Fgrame tout- Wall.t4vd thitd Natims Populmic Di, Lnon. Foreign labour force 1k. York Wotld Brsk.10021 NAL5 World Des'elopseeetlidirsor& World Bank,Wuhinjtcc D C Among OECD countries. the highest numb rs of foreign workers in 1999 tae re found in the United States 116.68 milionl. Germany 13.57 minion t. Australia 0.37 million). France 1 1.53 million), and th United Kingdom 11.1 minion). The proportion of The Migraban Poky leaves Series is prepared by: foreign workers in ale labour force is highest in Luxembourg 157.31.f t. Australia mprp 24.6';:1. Switzerland 1 18.l'0•1, th United States 1 Il7%1. Austria 1 10.02`,1. IOM - Mgration Policy end Research Programme 1 R rmanv ; 4.2. 5'i- 1.:usJ Franc ; 5. t' <. 1. :2 rc•_x dr : Mor_Icm. !' P 21. CH.:':: ene.a 1 4 Su:ver.=e Tel -... 22 ' : :. FSL '�� o: s4 F.r ail IPRPdprai.:m �.,. l:xrrr
    • Facts and Figures on International Migration No country of the world remains unaffected by international migration flows. They are :dl either countries of origin. transit or destination for migrants, or all three simultaneously. 1010 Intemabonal Organization for Migration Lke other flows. whether financial, commer ci al, or flows of information or ideas, the rising tide of people crossing frontiers is among the most ratable indicators of the intensity of globalization International migrants Migrant stocks by world region Migration Policy At th start of th 2I1 cvatur, . one out of every 35 persoas In total nunthrs. Europe 156.1 millions. Asia 4 7 ntil:t.m) an.] worldwide is an international migrant. The total number of Borth America (40.8 millions at ilia regions with tt, largest Is su es international migrants is estimated at Borne 175 million prrscros migrant stocks in 2000. The African migrant stock amount.-, to It, _2 V. : r,f.r_ir_,r. of the world popula ti on 1. Some 48% of all international million parsons. representing 2.1% of th total population The migrants are women (Xer the last 35 years. th number of migrant stock in Latin A nt rica and the Caribtean totals 5.9 aulli• m international atigrants has mom than doubled people. representing I.I`4 of the population ();eania•P.t,rlr, topped the, list of world regions with th Lsrgest prop�.ni n of migrants as compared to th total population : 1; 1 :', ,[I %,,J h-. • International migrants Rnth America 113%). and Europe (7.7 % ) M :ac 60 • Migrant stocks by world E '•0 r region 40 I roc • Migrant stocks by 20 I r country GC s ITS • 065 2000 0 0 • Immigration and emigration countries Migrant stocks by country • Highly skilled workers The United States 05 nillionl and tit Russian Federation 1 13.3 millions top th list of th I5 countries with the largest Immigration and emigration countries international migrant stocks in 2000. This list includes • Irregular migration countries from all world regions: Germany (7.3 mullion). While all of the 10 major emigration countries between I'n-t and Ukraine 16.9 nilhont. France 16.3 millions. India 16.3 nulhont. 1995 sire to be found in the developing world. not all of tit lo • Foreign labour force Canada (5.8 nulliont. Saudi Arabia 15.3 million). Australia t4.7 major immigration countries were deseloped countries. (her this nilhont. Pakistan (4.2 million). United Kingdom 15.0 nilhon). period the leading net immigration countries were the, United • Migrant remittances Kazakhi-an (3.0 millions. Cite d'Ivoire 12 3 millions. Iran 123 States ( 16.7 million immigrants. the Russian Federation 41 millions. Israel (2.3 million). nilhont. Saudi Arabia ( 3.4 nillionl and India 13.3 millions. Mcxi, tr.0 nullsonemierants). Hanslad,sh 14.1 millions. and Afghani;tan 4 1 niiiii ,n i were the maut enug aion .ounine