E2 e india_work_background


Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

E2 e india_work_background

  1. 1. Child Domestic Work in India
  2. 2. Child Domestic Workers are: <ul><li>Child Domestic Workers are children who work within homes outside of their own family, doing domestic chores for a wage in cash or kind. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>12.6 million children work in India (Indian Government) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UNICEF estimates there are 35 million child labourers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20-40% of child labour is domestic work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are approximately 50,000 child domestic workers in Kolkata </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>86% of child domestic workers in Kolkata are girls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Child domestic workers can be as young as 10 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most children leave their homes in rural areas to work as domestic helpers in urban areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Child Domestic Workers carry out a number of household chores including: c leaning, cooking, and running errands for their employer </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Why do children become domestic workers? <ul><li>Poverty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Source of income </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large families – ‘one less mouth to feed’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education is too expensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repayment of parental debt </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lack of alternatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Families are unable to make enough money from agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lack of health and educational opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Social inequality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle classes demand domestic workers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cultural and personal attitudes to children and work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parental attitudes of female education </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Absence of law enforcement preventing domestic work </li></ul>
  4. 4. How do they find their work? <ul><li>Family: most children find work through their relatives </li></ul><ul><li>Placement agencies: 1 in 3 children </li></ul><ul><li>Child recruiters approach families and list the ‘advantages’ of sending a child into service </li></ul><ul><li>Recruiters then pass on the child to placement agencies who find the work </li></ul><ul><li>Agents find children domestic work at the cost of one month’s wage </li></ul><ul><li>1 in 3 children have to give their salary to the agents </li></ul><ul><li>Many children do not know the name of the placement agency </li></ul><ul><li>1 in 3 families do not know where their daughters are working </li></ul><ul><li>In Sandkda village with 150 families, 70 children have been sent to work </li></ul><ul><li>In Ajgara village with 300 families, 105 children have been sent to work </li></ul>
  5. 5. Working Conditions: <ul><li>Working hours: </li></ul><ul><li>Child domestic workers on average work 15 hours a day </li></ul><ul><li>Most children get less than one hour break a day </li></ul><ul><li>Child domestic workers are isolated from other children </li></ul><ul><li>Half of child domestic workers do not get any holiday </li></ul><ul><li>Half of child domestic workers do not want a similar job </li></ul><ul><li>Half of child domestic workers need permission to have food. Children often have a poor diet and are more likely to be ill than when they were at home </li></ul><ul><li>Salary: </li></ul><ul><li>Half of child domestic workers earn less than £12 a month (Rs. 1000-1500) and 77% have not had a wage increase in the last 1-2 years </li></ul><ul><li>Child domestic workers face all kinds of abuse – physical, emotional and sexual. </li></ul><ul><li>Over two thirds of child domestic workers faced physical abuse </li></ul><ul><li>86% of child domestic workers faced emotional abuse </li></ul><ul><li>One in four children has/had to experience sexual abuse at work </li></ul>
  6. 6. ‘ There in the employer’s house I had to work a lot, from washing utensils, to fetching water and cooking; I also had to wash two cars there. They never gave me proper food- I only used to get two pieces of burnt bread and left over vegetables. I had to wake up at 4am. Whenever I said to them that I needed to sleep they used to say ‘didn’t you work in the agricultural field? So, why are you tired?’. I used to cry but they never loved me. I worked there for 6 months. Once I broke one glass and I was severely beaten by them.’ Former Child Domestic Worker, Usha, 15, Midnapore
  7. 7. <ul><li>‘ I used to work at a place where I had to take my master’s son to tuition classes and bring him back home. Then I had to wash utensils, cook vegetables, sweep and mop the floors, and then buy things from the market. After doing all these I used to come home in the evening’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mumtaz, 13 </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>‘ When I used to work, sometimes I would make mistakes. Then my master would scold me a lot, and at times hit me also’ </li></ul><ul><li> Akhil, 14 </li></ul>
  9. 9. Are there any positive aspects of child domestic labourers? <ul><li>It provides an income for the poorest families: </li></ul><ul><li>‘ My family, consisting of my father, mother, two younger brothers and my granny, were literally going without food and basic necessities, and so I decided to quit my studies and look for a job’ </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Protima, aged 15 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Some domestic workers may learn new skills: </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Earlier this year I started domestic work at another family’s house and I still work there. They are very nice people and I call them Uncle and Aunt. They have a daughter, Firdaus and a son, Arshad. Both have completed their education. Arshad works in a show room and Firdaus teaches young children. She helps me with my English. She loves all of us a lot’ </li></ul><ul><li>Jahida, aged 16 </li></ul><ul><li>Culture and tradition: </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic work is seen as the best option for teaching girls the skills they will need as adults </li></ul>
  10. 10. What is being done? <ul><li>Government response: </li></ul><ul><li>2006: 14 has been made the minimum age for employment and work in all occupations including domestic work </li></ul>
  11. 11. What does Save the Children do? <ul><li>To make sure boys and girls are protected against harmful work, Save the Children has two roles: </li></ul><ul><li>• To support direct interventions to prevent harmful work or improve the lives of working children </li></ul><ul><li>To influence those who have a duty to children to fulfill their obligations. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Where does Save the Children work? <ul><li>West Bengal </li></ul><ul><li>(Kolkata and source districts-East Midnapur, North and south 24 Paraganas) </li></ul><ul><li>Maharashtra (Thane and Mumbai city) </li></ul><ul><li>Jharkhand (Source districts- Gumla, Simdega, Ranchi) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Save the Children and Child Domestic Labour: <ul><li>Save the Children works in four areas: </li></ul><ul><li>Where the children come from (source): </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Anti-trafficking committees’ have been set up to disrupt the supply of children </li></ul><ul><li>Educating parents about the risks to their children and the importance of education </li></ul><ul><li>Barring recruiters </li></ul><ul><li>Urging the police to enforce the law </li></ul><ul><li>Where the children work: </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage child workers to go to informal education ‘drop-in centres’ </li></ul><ul><li>Educate employers to encourage them to be ‘child friendly’ </li></ul><ul><li>Public opinion </li></ul><ul><li>Change public acceptance of chid domestic work through the media </li></ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><li>Research is conducted to understand the causes and consequences of child domestic work </li></ul>
  14. 14. What are the challenges? <ul><li>Child Domestic Workers are difficult to protect as they are in private homes </li></ul><ul><li>There is little accurate data on the number of children involved in domestic work and the extent of violence. </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic work is culturally acceptable. Parents often believe domestic work provides better prospects for their children </li></ul><ul><li>Because of the booming economy the demand for domestic help has risen </li></ul><ul><li>There are few job alternatives in source areas </li></ul>
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.