1. Osteoarthritis By Dr. Ahmed Abdel-Ghani Orthopaedic surgeon Afif general hospital
2. <ul><ul><li>Definition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Osteoarthritis, sometimes called degenerative joint disease or osteoarthrosis, is the most common form of arthritis. Osteoarthritis occurs when cartilage in the joints wears down over time. </li></ul><ul><li>Osteoarthritis can affect any joint in the body, though it most commonly affects joints in hands, hips, knees and spine. Osteoarthritis typically affects just one joint, though in some cases, such as with finger arthritis, several joints can be affected. </li></ul><ul><li>Osteoarthritis gradually worsens with time, and no cure exists. But osteoarthritis treatments can relieve pain and help you to remain active. Taking steps to actively manage osteoarthritis may help patient gain control over his osteoarthritis pain. </li></ul>
4. Symptoms Osteoarthritis symptoms often develop slowly and worsen over time. Signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis include: · Pain in a joint during or after use, or after a period of inactivity · Tenderness in the joint when you apply light pressure · Stiffness in a joint, that may be most noticeable when patient wake up in the morning or after a period of inactivity · Loss of flexibility may make it difficult to use the joint · Grating sensation when moving the joint · Bone spurs , which appear as hard lumps, may form around the affected joint · Swelling in some cases Osteoarthritis symptoms most commonly affect the hands, hips, knees and spine. Unless one has been injured or placed unusual stress on a joint, it's uncommon for osteoarthritis symptoms to affect jaw, shoulder, elbows, wrists or ankles.
7. Causes Osteoarthritis occurs when the cartilage that cushions the ends of bones in the joints deteriorates over time. The smooth surface of the cartilage becomes rough, causing irritation. Eventually, if the cartilage wears down completely, patient may be left with bone rubbing on bone — causing the ends of the bones to become damaged and the joints to become painful. It isn't clear what causes osteoarthritis in most cases. Researchers suspect that it's a combination of factors, including being overweight, the aging process, joint injury or stress, heredity, and muscle weakness.
8. Risk factors Factors that increase risk of osteoarthritis include: · Older age. Osteoarthritis typically occurs in older adults. People under 40 rarely experience osteoarthritis. · Sex. Women are more likely to develop osteoarthritis, though it isn't clear why. · Bone deformities. Some people are born with malformed joints or defective cartilage, which can increase the risk of osteoarthritis. · Joint injuries. Injuries, such as those that occur when playing sports or from an accident, may increase the risk of osteoarthritis. · Obesity. Carrying more body weight places more stress on weight-bearing joints, such as knees. But obesity has also been linked to an increased risk of osteoarthritis in the hands, as well. · Other diseases that affect the bones and joints. Bone and joint diseases that increase the risk of osteoarthritis include gout, rheumatoid arthritis, Paget's disease of bone and septic arthritis.
9. When to seek medical advice If you have swelling or stiffness in your joints that lasts for more than two weeks, make an appointment with your doctor. If you're already taking medication for osteoarthritis, contact your doctor if you're experiencing side effects from arthritis medications. Tell your doctor if you experience side effects such as nausea, abdominal discomfort, black or tarry stools, constipation, or drowsiness.
10. Tests and diagnosis History & Clinical examination · X-rays. X-ray images of the affected joint may reveal a narrowing space within a joint, which indicates that the cartilage is breaking down. An X-ray may also show bone spurs around a joint. · Blood tests . Blood tests may help rule out other causes of joint pain, such as rheumatoid arthritis. · Joint fluid analysis. Examining and testing the synovial fluid can determine if pain is caused by gout or an infection. · A rthroscopy. In some cases,arthroscopy to see inside the joint in order to determine the cause of pain. During arthroscopy, small incisions are made around the joint and a tiny camera is inserted to see inside the joint.
12. Complications Osteoarthritis is a degenerative disease that worsens over time. As many as a third of people with osteoarthritis will eventually experience significant disability. Joint pain and stiffness may become severe enough to make getting through the day difficult, if not impossible. Some people are no longer able to work. When joint pain is this severe, doctors typically suggest joint replacement surgery. For those who aren't able to undergo surgery, pain medications and assistant devices can make daily tasks more manageable.
13. Treatment There's no known cure for osteoarthritis, but treatments can help to reduce pain and maintain joint movement so that patient can go about his daily tasks. While medications and joint replacement surgery are key components of treatment for osteoarthritis, doctor will likely recommend to try all other possible solutions before one can consider those options. Eventually the pain may become severe so that medications and eventually surgery may become necessary.
14. Initial treatment options for mild osteoarthritis For mild osteoarthritis pain that is bothersome, but not enough to have a great impact on daily activities, doctor may recommend : Rest. for 12 to 24 hours. Find activities that don't require use joint repetitively. Exercise. regular exercise, Stick to gentle exercises, such as walking, biking or swimming. Exercise can strengthen the muscles around joint, making it more stable. Weight reduction . Being overweight or obese increases the stress on weight-bearing joints,knees and hips. Even a small amount of weight loss can relieve some pressure and reduce pain. Heat and cold to manage pain . Heat also relieves stiffness and cold can relieve muscle spasms. Work with a physical therapist . Find ways to avoid stressing joints. Apply over-the-counter pain creams . Consider trying special splints, braces, shoe inserts or other medical devices that can help reduce pain. Chronic pain class . These classes teach skills that help to manage osteoarthritis pain. And patient will meet other people with osteoarthritis and learn their tips for reducing joint pain .
15. Treatment options for moderate osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis pain that persists despite initial treatment may require medications in addition to initial treatment options. In order to get the most from treatment, continue exercising when possible and rest when needed. If overweight, continue weight loss . Medications that may be useful for moderate arthritis include: · Acetaminophen. relieve pain, but doesn't reduce inflammation. It has been shown to be effective for people with osteoarthritis who have mild to moderate pain. · NSAIDs. can relieve pain and reduce inflammation. Ibuprofen, naproxen , and others. NSAIDs have risks of side effects that increase when used at high dosages for long-term treatment. Side effects may include gastric ulcers, cardiovascular problems, gastrointestinal bleeding, and liver and kidney damage. · Tramadol. is a centrally acting analgesic that has no anti-inflammatory effect, but can provide effective pain relief with fewer side effects - such as stomach ulcers and bleeding - than those of NSAIDs. However, tramadol may cause nausea and constipation. It's generally used for short-term treatment of acute flare-ups.
16. Treatment options for severe osteoarthritis If you've tried other treatments but your patient still experiencing severe pain and disability, you and your patient can discuss other treatments including: · Stronger painkillers. such as codeine and propoxyphene may provide relief from more severe osteoarthritis pain. These stronger medications carry a risk of dependence, · Cortisone shots. Injections of corticosteroid medications may relieve pain in joint. It isn't clear how or why corticosteroid injections work in people with osteoarthritis. too many corticosteroid injections may cause joint damage. · Visco-supplementation. Injections of hyaluronic acid derivatives may offer pain relief by providing some cushioning in the joint . Injections are typically given weekly over several weeks. Pain relief may last for a few months. Possible risks include infection, swelling and joint pain.
17. Surgery for osteoarthritis Surgery is generally reserved for severe osteoarthritis that isn't relieved by other treatments. Surgical treatments include: · Joint replacement. In joint replacement surgery (arthroplasty), surgeon removes damaged joint surfaces and replaces them with plastic and metal devices called prostheses. Joint replacement surgery can help patients resume an active, pain-free lifestyle. Joint replacement surgery carries a small risk of infection and bleeding. Artificial joints can wear or come loose, and may need to eventually be replaced. · Debridement , is most useful in cases with a locking sensation from a torn cartilage or loose debris Debridement is typically done arthroscopically, · Realigning bones. Surgery to realign bones may relieve pain. These types of procedures are typically used when joint replacement surgery isn't an option, such as in younger people with osteoarthritis. During a procedure called an osteotomy, the surgeon cuts across the bone either above or below the knee to realign the leg. · Fusing bones. Surgeons also can permanently fuse bones in a joint (arthrodesis) to increase stability and reduce pain. The fused joint, such as an ankle, can then bear weight without pain, but has no flexibility.