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Bash Scripting Workshop

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Transcript

  • 1. Bash Scripting Prepared by Ahmed Magdy Ezzeldin
  • 2. File System● / is not allowed in a file name● file extensions are not important● File and folder names are case sensitive● Names containing spaces are escaped by or ""● Hidden files start with .● Current directory alias . and parent directory alias ..● ls, ls -a, ls -l, cp, mv, rm, rm -rdf, ln, ln -sf
  • 3. Variable and Strings● Strings are enclosed in “” or just written with spaces escaped by VAR=”How are you” VAR=How are you VAR=HOW are you● Variables $VAR ${VAR} # e.g. ${FILE}.txt echo “my name is $NAME” echo “my name is “$NAME read VAR read VAR1 VAR2
  • 4. Math● echo $((1+1))● echo $[1+1]● echo `expr 1 + 1`● A=$((B*C))● let A+=1● echo "3.4+7/8-(5.94*3.14)" | bc
  • 5. File Ownership and Permissions● Group and Ownership chown, chgrp, ls -l chown user:group file sudo chown● Permissions of files and directories chmod 755 file chmod +x file chmod -x file (r)ead (w)rite e(x)ecute 4 2 1
  • 6. Users, su, sudo● su, sudo, visudo, /etc/sudoers, su user● sudo bash● /etc/passwd● ~/
  • 7. Processes and Subshells● ps, pgrep, top, jobs, fg, &, kill, signals● Sub-shells from : ● Loops ● $() ● Back ticks `` ● bash command● /proc● fuser
  • 8. Loops● While loop while read VAR; do echo $VAR; done● For each loop for VAR in {1..5}; do echo $VAR; done for VAR in 1 2 3 4 5; do echo $VAR; done for VAR in {0..10..2}; do echo $VAR; done for VAR in $(seq 0 2 10); do echo $VAR; done● For loop with counter for (( i=0; i<=10; i+=2 )); do echo $i; done
  • 9. if and switch case● If then, else, elif, fi if [ -d $F ]; then rm -rdf $F elif [ -f $F ]; then rm $F else echo “Unknown file type” fi● case, esac while read l; do case $l in 1) echo "One";; 2) echo "Two";; 3) echo "Three";; *) echo "Invalid"; break;; esac done
  • 10. I/O Redirection● >, >>, <, &>, 2&>, 2>, | echo “error” 1>&2 # redirect std_output to std_err some_error_producing_command 2>&1 some_command &>> log_file_errors_and_output some_command >> log_file_output_only some_command 2>> log_file_errors_only command | filter_command command < file command > file # truncates and writes into file command1 2>&1 | command2 command1 |& command2● Mute by redirecting to /dev/null file
  • 11. Named Pipes and Network and Signal Processing● Network exec 9<>/dev/tcp/google.com/80 echo -e "GET / HTTP/1.0nn" >&9 while read line <&9; do echo $line; done● Named Pipes mkfifo pipe while read l; do echo $l; done < pipe echo “hi” > pipe # on another terminal window● Signal Processing #!/bin/bash function handle_signal () { echo "Hi man I got the signal" } trap "handle_signal; exit" SIGINT sleep 100
  • 12. Cool Stuff and GUI● Install these: libnotify-bin, zenity, festival● date +%l oclock | festival –tts● zenity --list --hide-header --text="Are you coming today?" --checklist --column "" --column "" FALSE "Yes" FALSE "No" FALSE "May be"● zenity --calendar --date-format="%Y/%m/%d"● zenity --text="Select Hour" --title="Select Hour" --scale --min-value=0 --max- value=24 --value=17● zenity --text="Select Minutes" --title="Select Minutes" --scale --min-value=0 --max-value=59 --value=0● zenity --info --text="Did you know this info"● zenity --error --text="There is an error"● zenity --entry | festival --tts● zenity --file-selection● <progres command> | zenity --progress --auto-close● notify-send -t 10 "hi man" "details"
  • 13. Launchers ● When you drag a file or folder onto a launcher it is sent as $1 to the launcher script
  • 14. Example Codes● Bluetooth Obex-push NEW_FILE_NAME=`echo $1 | awk -vFS="/" {print $NF;}` ussp-push 00:22:65:89:22:E6@9 "$1" "$NEW_FILE_NAME"● Close the computer when your browser finishes downloading your_file while true; do sleep 5; if [ -z "`fuser ~/your_file`" ]; then break; fi; done; sudo init 0● Tell me the time whenever I lock my screen or unlock it● Simple spider using curl and wget● Log your time easily and report to a Redmine service● Think of more ...
  • 15. Thank you
  • 16. References http://www.linuxcommand.org/lts0040.php http://www.cyberciti.biz/faq/bash-for-loop/ http://linuxcommand.org/wss0160.php http://tldp.org/HOWTO/Bash-Prog-Intro-HOWTO-10.html http://wiki.bash-hackers.org/syntax/redirection http://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/online/pages/man5/proc.5.html