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    Effective presentation Effective presentation Document Transcript

    • Effective Presentations W Instructor’s Edition IE EVPR Australia • Canada • Mexico • Singapore Spain • United Kingdom • United StatesNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • Effective Presentations VP and GM of Courseware: Michael Springer W Series Product Managers: Caryl Bahner-Guhin, Charles G. Blum, and Adam A. Wilcox Developmental Editor: Jim OShea Project Editor: Nancy Lamm Series Designer: Adam A. Wilcox Cover Designer: Steve Deschene COPYRIGHT © 2002 Course Technology, a division of Thomson Learning. Thomson Learning is a trademark used IE herein under license. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this work may be reproduced, transcribed, or used in any form or by any meansgraphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, taping, Web distribution, or information storage and retrieval systemswithout the prior written permission of the publisher. For more information contact: Course Technology 25 Thomson Place Boston, MA 02210 Or find us on the Web at: www.course.com For permission to use material from this text or product, contact us by EV • Web: www.thomsonrights.com • Phone: 1-800-730-2214 • Fax: 1-800-730-2215 Trademarks Course ILT is a trademark of Course Technology. Some of the product names and company names used in this book have been used for identification purposes only and may be trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective manufacturers and sellers. Disclaimer Course Technology reserves the right to revise this publication and make changes from time to time in its content without notice. ISBN 0-619-07545-7 Printed in the United States of AmericaPR 1 2 3 4 5 PM 05 04 03 02NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • Contents W Introduction iii Topic A: About the manual............................................................................... iv Topic B: Setting student expectations ............................................................. viii Topic C: Classroom setup..................................................................................x Topic D: Support............................................................................................... xi Fundamentals of presentation 1-1 Topic A: Effective presentations...................................................................... 1-2 Topic B: Planning a presentation..................................................................... 1-7 Unit summary: Fundamentals of presentation................................................. 1-11 IE Audience analysis and supporting material 2-1 Topic A: Audience analysis ............................................................................. 2-2 Topic B: Supporting materials......................................................................... 2-4 Unit summary: Audience analysis and supporting material............................ 2-11 Building presentations 3-1 Topic A: Build presentations ........................................................................... 3-2 Topic B: Develop an introduction ................................................................... 3-4 Topic C: Organize the body of the presentation .............................................. 3-8 EV Topic D: Effective conclusion ........................................................................ 3-12 Unit summary: Building presentations............................................................ 3-16 Presentation mechanics 4-1 Topic A: Visual aids ........................................................................................ 4-2 Topic B: Understand visual aids...................................................................... 4-9 Unit summary: Presentation mechanics .......................................................... 4-14 Presentation process 5-1 Topic A: Extemporaneous speaking ................................................................ 5-2 Topic B: Preparation for speaking ................................................................... 5-5 Topic C: Deliver a presentation ...................................................................... 5-13 Topic D: Nonverbal communication............................................................... 5-17 Unit summary: Presentation process ............................................................... 5-23PR Question-and-answer session 6-1 Topic A: Handle questions effectively............................................................. 6-2 Topic B: Handle challenging questions ........................................................... 6-5 Unit summary: Question-and-answer session .................................................. 6-9 Fundamentals of persuasion 7-1 Topic A: Understand persuasion...................................................................... 7-2 Topic B: Organize a persuasive presentation.................................................. 7-11 Topic C: Methods of persuasion..................................................................... 7-17 Unit summary: Fundamentals of persuasion ................................................... 7-24 Course summary S-1 Topic A: Course summary ............................................................................... S-2NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • ii Effective Presentations Topic B: Continued learning after class .......................................................... S-4 Glossary G-5 Index I-1 W IE EVPRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • iii Effective Presentations W Introduction IE After reading this introduction, you will know how to: A Use Course Technology ILT manuals in general. B Use prerequisites, a target student description, course objectives, and a skills inventory to set students’ expectations properly for the course. EV C Get support for setting up and teaching this course.PRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • iv Effective PresentationsTopic A: About the manual Course Technology ILT philosophy W Our goal at Course Technology is to make you, the instructor, as successful as possible. To that end, our manuals facilitate students’ learning by providing structured interaction with the subject itself. While we provide text to help you explain difficult concepts, the hands-on activities are the focus of our courses. Leading the students through these activities will teach the concepts effectively. We believe strongly in the instructor-led classroom. For many students, having a thinking, feeling instructor in front of them will always be the most comfortable way to learn. Because the students’ focus should be on you, our manuals are designed and written to facilitate your interaction with the students, and not to call attention to IE manuals themselves. We believe in the basic approach of setting expectations, then teaching, and providing summary and review afterwards. For this reason, lessons begin with objectives and end with summaries. We also provide overall course objectives and a course summary to provide both an introduction to and closure on the entire course. Our goal is your success. We encourage your feedback in helping us continually to improve our manuals to meet your needs. Manual components EV The manuals contain these major components: • Table of contents • Introduction • Units • Course summary • Reference • Index Each element is described below. Table of contents The table of contents acts as a learning roadmap for you and the students.PR Introduction The introduction contains information about our training philosophy and our manual components, features, and conventions. It contains descriptions of the target student, objectives, and setup for the course. The introduction also contains support information.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • Introduction v Units Units are the largest structural component of the actual course content. A unit begins with a title page that lists objectives for each major subdivision, or topic, within the unit. Within each topic, conceptual and explanatory information alternates with hands-on activities. Units conclude with a summary comprising one paragraph for each topic, and an independent practice activity that gives students an opportunity to practice the skills W they’ve learned. The conceptual information takes the form of text paragraphs, exhibits, lists, and tables. The activities are structured in two columns, one telling students what to do, the other providing explanations, descriptions, and graphics. Throughout a unit, instructor notes are found in the left margin. Course summary This section provides a text summary of the entire course. It is useful for providing IE closure at the end of the course. The course summary also indicates the next course in this series, if there is one, and lists additional resources students might find useful as they continue to learn about the subject. Reference The reference is an at-a-glance job aid summarizing some of the main ideas of the subject. Index EV The index enables you and the students to find information quickly about a particular topic or concept in the course.PRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • vi Effective Presentations Manual conventions We’ve tried to keep the number of elements and the types of formatting to a minimum in the manuals. We think this aids in clarity and makes the manuals more classically elegant looking. But there are some conventions and icons you should know about. W Convention/Icon / Description Italic text In conceptual text, indicates a new term or feature. Bold text In unit summaries, indicates a key term or concept. In an independent practice activity, indicates an explicit item that is selected, chosen, or typed by students.Instructor notes. In the left margin, provide tips, hints, and warnings for the instructor. IE Next to an instructor note, indicates a warning for the Warnings prepareinstructors for potential instructor.classroom managementproblems. Next to an instructor note, indicates a tip the instructor can Tips give extra share with students.information the instructorcan share with students. Next to an instructor note, indicates a setup the instructor Setup instructor EV can use before delivering a step or activity.notes give a context forinstructors to share withstudents.PRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • Introduction vii Hands-on activities The hands-on activities are the most important parts of our manuals. They usually are divided into two columns, with a questions or concepts on the left and answers and explanations on the right. To the far left, instructor notes provide tips, warnings, setups, and other information for the instructor only. Here’s a sample: W Do it! A-1: Steps for brainstorming Exercises 1 Sequence the steps for brainstorming. Begin generating ideas. Select the purpose. Select the purpose. Organize for the session. IE Organize for the session. Review the rules. Ask questions and clarify ideas. Begin generating ideas. Ask questions and clarify ideas. Review the rules. PowerPoint presentations EV To assist in your presentation and provide students with a visual focus, there is a PowerPoint presentation file to accompany each unit. Each presentation begins with a list of unit objectives and finishes with a unit summary slide. Display the slide show from the instructors station as you present the course materials. A copy of PowerPoint Viewer is included so you do not need to have PowerPoint software installed.PRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • viii Effective PresentationsTopic B: Setting student expectations Properly setting students’ expectations is essential to your success. This topic will help you do that by providing: • A description of the target student at whom the course is aimed W • A list of the objectives for the course • A skills assessment for the course Target student The typical students of this course will be managers, supervisors, or team leaders who need to learn how to create and deliver effective presentations. IE Course objectives You should share these overall course objectives with your students at the beginning of the day. This will give the students an idea about what to expect, and will also help you identify students who might be misplaced. Students are considered misplaced when they lack the prerequisite knowledge or when they already know most of the subject matter to be covered. After completing this course, students will know how to: • Identify and use effective presentations, use different types of presentations, plan a presentation, and determine primary and secondary objectives. EV • Analyze the audience, determine the supporting material, and learn about different types of supporting material. • Build a presentation, develop an introduction, capture the audience attention, organize the body of the presentation, use transitions, and conclude the presentation. • Incorporate visual aids, understand the types of visual aids, display, and create visual aids. • Use a presentation process, prepare before speaking in a presentation, deliver a presentation, and use nonverbal communication aids. • Handle the questions effectively, approach the question-and-answer session, responsibilities during a session, and handle challenging questions. • Persuade a presentation, understand the goals of persuasion, organize aPR persuasive presentation, and use the methods of persuasion.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • Introduction ix Skills inventory Use the following form to gauge students’ skill level entering the class (students have copies in the introductions of their student manuals). For each skill listed, have students rate their familiarity from 1 to 5, with five being the most familiar. Emphasize that this is not a test. Rather, it is intended to provide students with an idea of where they’re W starting from at the beginning of class. If a student is wholly unfamiliar with all the skills, he or she might not be ready for the class. A student who seems to understand all of the skills, on the other hand, might need to move on to the next course in the series. Skill 1 2 3 4 5 Fundamentals of effective presentation Different types of presentations IE Determine primary and secondary objectives Audience analysis and supporting material Building presentations Develop an introduction Organize the body of the presentation EV Use transitions Incorporate visual aids Types of visual aids Display and create visual aids Use presentation process Prepare before speaking Deliver a presentationPR Use nonverbal communication aids Question-and-answer session Handle challenging questions Persuade a presentation Methods of persuasionNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • x Effective PresentationsTopic C: Classroom setup In addition to a manual, each student should be provided with a pad and pens or pencils for jotting down notes questions. Students should have a comfortable place to sit and ample table space to spread out their materials. W Student computer requirements If you wish to use the PowerPoint presentation, you’ll need the following: • A Pentium-class or better computer • A keyboard and a mouse • Windows 98, NT, 2000, or XP • A minimum of 32MB of memory or more, depending on your operating system IE • CD-ROM drive • A Super-VGA monitor • An overhead monitor projector • PowerPoint 2000 or later, or PowerPoint Viewer Classroom requirements • Transparencies (Around 30.) • Marker EV • Printouts of Feedback form.doc depending on the number of students. • Three slips of paper having “Hostile,” “Rambling individuals,” and “Individuals with personal agendas” written on them. Note: Provide students with transparencies and markers whenever students create or deliver a presentation.PRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • Introduction xi Topic D: Support Your success is our primary concern. If you need help setting up this class or teaching a particular unit, topic, or activity, please don’t hesitate to get in touch with us. Please have the name of the course available when you call, and be as specific as possible W about the kind of help you need. Phone support You can call for support 24 hours a day at (888) 672-7500. If you do not connect to a live operator, you can leave a message, and we pledge to return your call within 24 hours (except on Saturday and Sunday). Web-based support IE The Course ILT Web site provides several instructor’s tools for each course, including course outlines and answers to frequently asked questions. To download these files, go to www.courseilt.com/instructor_tools.html. EVPRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • xii Effective Presentations W IE EVPRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 1–1 Unit 1 Fundamentals of presentation W Unit time: 40 minutes Complete this unit, and you’ll know how to: A Identify and use effective presentations. IE B Plan a presentation and determine primary and secondary objectives. EVPRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 1–2 Effective PresentationsTopic A: Effective presentationsExplanation Effective presentations provide the opportunity to communicate important, specific information in a succinct manner that is beneficial to the audience members. To create this benefit, the information or processes described in the presentation must be W presented in a manner that allows the audience to understand and use them. Effective presentations, as shown in Exhibit 1-1, are comprised of several elements, including support materials, presentation skills, and relevant content. It is important that all irrelevant content is eliminated from the presentation so the listener is not overloaded with data. IE EV Exhibit 1-1: Effective presentation Reasons for making presentations There are a number of reasons why people might make presentations. The presentation is required or expected in their position, it is the best method of conveying the information they need to share, they have a passion for the topic, or they want to use a presentation to emphasize their own knowledge and abilities.PR Advantages of effective presentations Effective presentations are valuable because they allow a presenter the opportunity to communicate a great deal of information in a small amount of time. They are also important because the quality of the presentation given will affect the presenters credibility, as well as his or her ability to influence other people.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • Fundamentals of presentation 1 –3 Do it! A-1: Understanding effective presentations Exercises 1 Which of the following is the reason why presentations are valuable? A Presentations allow the presenter the opportunity to communicate a great deal W of information in a small amount of time B Presentations allow the speaker to emphasize his or her own knowledge and abilities C Presentations are the best way to convey information D Presentations provide the opportunity to demonstrate rhetoric skills Show the presentation 2 From the two presentations shown by the instructor, identify which one is the named “First” followed by most effective and give reasons why. IE the “Second” presentation. Ask students which presentation effectively The first presentation is an effective presentation. presents the information. This is because it communicates important, specific information in a succinct manner that is useful to the audience. Different types of presentations Explanation There are six types of presentations that are given regularly. EV • Informative: Informative presentations are given to convey information to the audience. Informative presentations might provide details about an object or event of some type or explain concepts or processes. For example, this type of presentation might be used to explain the idea for a new advertising campaign or provide details about a new customer. Informative presentations can also be used to share information with another department, acquaint employees, or orient new employees. • Instructional: Instructional presentations teach or demonstrate how to use new equipment or processes. Because audience members probably will need to be able to use the equipment and processes on their own, these presentations require a high level of detail and audience participation. Instructional presentations might be used to train employees or teach customers how to use some type of equipment.PR • Problem-solving: A problem-solving presentation, as shown in Exhibit 1-2, is used to identify possible solutions to eliminate a problem. For example, a presentation might be given to help a company determine how to solve a communication breakdown among departments. For a problem solving presentation, the presenter would provide the audience with all the essential information about the problem, determine its causes, and suggest the solution that would be best for the company.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 1–4 Effective Presentations W Exhibit 1-2: Problem-solving presentation IE • Decision-making: A presentation used to obtain a decision will require describing all of the possible alternatives. For this style of presentation, the presenter might compile a list of the pros and cons of each alternative to help facilitate the process. It is beneficial in these presentations for the presenter to make a list of the companys needs and then show the audience how or whether the alternatives meet these needs. For example, a decision-making presentation could be used to help human resources executives make a decision about the type of medical plan the company should provide for its employees. • Persuasive: Although all presentations are persuasive to some extent, a true EV persuasive presentation requires the presenter to change the minds of the audience members. The presenter should influence the audience to agree with him or her and, in some cases, influence the audience to act on this belief. Persuasive presentations might be used to sell a new product to a new or existing customer or to persuade management to increase the budget for a project. • Reporting: Reporting presentations usually are used to update people, frequently the management group, about something. They often are used to report on the progress of a project with which the audience is familiar. For example, a reporting presentation might brief management on the implementation progress of a new distribution system.PRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • Fundamentals of presentation 1 –5 Do it! A-2: Understanding different types of presentations Exercises 1 Identify which of the following are types of presentations. A Instructional presentations W B Effective presentations C Background presentations D Decision-making presentations 2 When should you use an When you need to convey information to your informative presentation? audience. 3 When should you use an When you want to teach or demonstrate any idea IE instructional presentation? or concept. 4 Which of the following is required of a decision-making presentation? A Asking for any and all suggestions B Describing all of the possible alternatives C Deciding who will make the final decision D Brainstorming EV 5 Identify the type of presentation. Sharing the business progress of Reporting the last quarter with the senior management Sharing your company’s mission Informative with the new recruits Providing product training to new Instructional recruits in your company Launching a new product Persuasive Sharing the available methods of Problem-solvingPR fixing a defect in a new product Sharing alternate strategies of Decision-making marketing a new car with the senior managementNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 1–6 Effective PresentationsAfter students have 6 Acme Electronics is a successful TV manufacturing company that producesidentified their answer, attractive TV models at competitive prices. However, management has discoveredfacilitate a discussion thatfocuses on what type of that the sale of Model 528C is declining. Upon investigation, they find that a highpresentation the students number of these sets have needed repairs within the warranty period. A correctivethink is best suited for the action team (CAT) is assembled to determine and eliminate the causes of thedefined situation and ask W problem, to reduce the warranty cost, and to increase the reliability of Modelthem the reasons for it. 528C. You have to share the findings of the CAT team by giving a presentation to the senior management. Which type of presentation would you use and why? A Informative B Instructional C Problem-solving D Decision-making IE E Persuasive F Reporting A problem-solving presentation is used to identify possible solutions to eliminate a problem. EVPRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • Fundamentals of presentation 1 –7 Topic B: Planning a presentation Explanation There are three aspects for planning a presentation: 1 Gathering information: The presenter can use this to learn about the audience and decide the specific information he or she wants to include in the W presentation. By doing so, a specific focus for the presentation will be created, making it more effective. 2 Building the presentation: This concentrates on organizing the information in a manner that will facilitate the audiences understanding and retention of the presentation. 3 Coordinating presentation mechanics: This involves understanding how the environment in which the presentation will be delivered affects the presentations success. In addition, coordinating presentation mechanics includes deciding how IE to prepare effective visual aids and use them appropriately. Presentation objectives It is important to establish presentation objectives because they’ll provide focus and will be used to make the message of your presentation clear. In addition, concentrating on accomplishing specific objectives can reduce the amount of time you need to prepare your presentation. By knowing exactly what you want to accomplish, you can search for and select specific information that will support your presentation, thereby eliminating the reading of extra information that you’ll not use in the presentation. EV Although it is not necessary to share your objectives with the audience, by establishing them your audience will learn more from your presentation. By providing the information needed to accomplish your goals, you’ll make the presentation material more focused and easier for the audience to understand. Establishing objectives can also help determine whether your presentation has been successful. Do it! B-1: Establishing objectives Exercises 1 Select the advantages of establishing presentation objectives. A To provide focus and to make the message of your presentation clearPR B To share objectives with the audience C To reduce the time you need to prepare for a presentation 2 Select the three aspects of planning a presentation. A Follow your outline, explain objectives, and answer questions B Evaluate your audience, plan the presentation, and rehearse the presentation C Gather information, build the presentation, and coordinate presentation mechanics D Choose presentation type, research, and writeNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 1–8 Effective PresentationsHave students discuss 3 You have to give a presentation on the change in sales data since the last year.their answers. What are the benefits of the three key aspects in planning the presentation? Gather information Learn about the audience and anticipate audience expectations W Build the presentation Organize the text and structure for the presentation Coordinate presentation Arrange the overhead projectors and the mechanics supporting materials that are required Determining objectives IEExplanation There are three items that you should examine to determine your presentation objectives: • Reason: You need to determine your primary reason for giving the presentation. Knowing whether you are instructing, informing, persuading, solving a problem, making a decision, or reporting to your audience will dictate the type and amount of information you’ll need to incorporate in your presentation. • Results: You should decide what specific results you want to accomplish with the presentation. Most likely, you’ll have both short-term and long-term goals for the presentation. The long-term goal is your overall goal of which the presentation will only be a part. The short-term goal is the result you can EV accomplish through this presentation alone. Completing the statement I want to (short-term goal) so that (long-term goal) happens will help you determine both objectives. • Audience response: You also need to establish objectives about the way you want the audience to respond to your presentation. Specifically, determine whether you want them to think or feel differently about the topic, or if you want them to take a particular action.Do it! B-2: Determining objectives ExerciseAsk several students to 1 From your own experiences, identify a situation that would require you to create ashare their examples. presentation. Now using that example, determine the presentation objectives andPR write the reason, result, and response that you would like to elicit from the audience. Write your answers below.Share this example or one Example: You want employees to be aware ofof your own if time their work in the organization.permits. • Reason: All employees to be equally trained • Result: Customer satisfaction • Response elicited: Employees gaining confidenceNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • Fundamentals of presentation 1 –9 Realistic objectives Explanation In order for your presentation to be successful, it is important to make your objectives realistic. Constraints W To be sure your objectives are realistic, make them appropriate in respect to these constraints: 1 What you are able to accomplish, as shown in Exhibit 1-3. IE EV Exhibit 1-3: What do you accomplish 2 What your audience is able to accomplish. You need to make your objectives appropriate for the amount of time you are given to prepare the presentation, as well as the amount of time you’ll have to present. Keep in mind that it is better to cover only part of the information and cover it well than to present too much information inadequately. Poorly presenting too much information will confuse your audience. You’ll also need to consider the resources that will be available to you while preparing the presentation, such as available funds and personnel, especially if either resource will be needed to conduct research or to prepare your visual aids. To make your objectives realistic, you should consider the knowledge and authority level of your audience. Without the necessary levels of knowledge and authority, yourPR audience might not be able to accomplish the desired results. Your audience might not have the required knowledge for you to cover the topic at an advanced level, or they might not have the authority needed to implement a change you want to adopt. If either of these situations is true for your audience, you might want to give the presentation simply to familiarize your audience with the topic. In this case, the primary reason you are giving the presentation might change. If so, you’ll need to prepare the presentation accordingly.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 1–10 Effective Presentations Secondary objectives You can establish secondary objectives if you find it helpful. These objectives might be goals that accompany the primary objective; they often are used to help you accomplish the primary objective. For example, while trying to persuade your audience to purchase a new piece of equipment, you might want to start by educating them about the new W equipment.Do it! B-3: Making realistic objectives Exercises 1 What are the various constraints that should be considered while preparing a presentation?Discuss with students the Time to present IEimportance of consideringthese constraints. Resources available for the presentation Knowledge and authority level of the audience 2 Do you need secondary Yes. You need secondary objectives to help you objectives? Why? accomplish the primary objective.Divide the class into two 3 MCorp is planning to release a new cosmetic product in the open market. Beforegroups to complete this the release, the senior manager wants to present the business plan to thetask. After they finish, aska student from each group employees. What primary objectives should this presentation have? EVto share. What is the target segment for the product?These are questions youcan ask students to help Who are the key competitors?identify the primaryobjectives. What is our unique selling proposition? Based on the primary objects, list some possible secondary objectives.These questions will help What is the average age of the customer?identify the secondaryobjectives. What is the average income of the customer? What is the marital status of the customer?PR Do customers want a guarantee with the product? What is the competitor market share? What attracts customers to the competitors?NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • Fundamentals of presentation 1–11 Unit summary: Fundamentals of presentation Topic A In this unit, you learned how to identify and use effective presentations as a communication tool. You also learned about the six different types of presentations that commonly are used. W Topic B Then, you learned the three aspects necessary for planning a presentation. You also learned how to establish and determine objectives for the presentation. Then, you learned how to make realistic objectives. Finally, you learned how to introduce secondary objectives. Independent practice activity 1 What makes a presentation effective? IE A presentation is effective when you communicate information in a clear and succinct manner. Effective presentations contain several elements, including support materials, presentation skills, and relevant content. You need to eliminate all irrelevant content from the presentation, so that the listener is not overloaded with data. 2 Why do people give presentations? People give presentations for several reasons. It is the best method to convey the information they need to share, or they might have a passion for a topic, or they might simply want to emphasize their knowledge and abilities. 3 What is a problem-solving presentation? EV A problem-solving presentation identifies possible solutions to eliminate a problem. If you make a problem solving presentation, you need to provide the audience with essential information about the problem, determine its causes, and suggest an appropriate solution. 4 When can you use a reporting presentation? You can use a reporting presentation when you have to give someone an update on a situation. Reporting presentations often are used to report the progress of a project the audience is familiar with. 5 What is the main goal when you give a persuasive presentation? The goal of a persuasive presentation is to change the minds of audience members. Depending on the situation, you might influence the audience to agree with your point of view or you might attempt convincing the audience to adopt some action plan.PR 6 Gathering information is used by the presenter to learn about the audience, and a specific focus for the presentation will be created. True or false? TrueNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 1–12 Effective Presentations W IE EVPRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 2–1 Unit 2 Audience analysis and supporting material W Unit time: 50 minutes Complete this unit, and you’ll know how to: A Analyze the audience and identify the benefits of audience analysis. IE B Determine the supporting material and the types of supporting material. EVPRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 2–2 Effective PresentationsTopic A: Audience analysisExplanation Audience analysis is the process of determining the audience’s needs, so you can give a beneficial presentation. You should determine the reason people will attend your presentation; it might be a requirement, or they might be interested in the topic. It is also W helpful to determine your audiences attitudes, interests, and level of knowledge. The level of knowledge your audience has about the topic will determine the manner in which you present your information. You should avoid boring your audience with information they already know or confusing them with complex information. You should also know if you need to define any terminology for them. In addition, it is important to know your audiences expectations of your presentation, such as what they are hoping to learn. In addition, you might want to find out their age, gender, political membership, religious affiliation, or any other demographic IE information so you can cater your presentation to them. Benefits of audience analysis Besides accommodating the audience, audience analysis will help you determine what types of information you’ll need to incorporate into your presentation to make it successful. Knowing who your audience is will help you select information that will effectively influence them. In addition, you’ll be able to address appropriately any serious concerns your audience might have. For example, if you know that the audience already possesses a negative EV attitude toward your topic, you would present it in a different manner than if you did not know about their attitude. In this situation, you might want to open the presentation with some reasons why the audience should listen to what you have to say. Ways to analyze the audience When possible, you should always try to complete your audience analysis before preparing your presentation. Of course, there might be times when you cannot obtain the information you need ahead of time. There are methods of audience analysis to accommodate both of these situations: • Talk to the audience during preparation • Collect information about the audience Talk to the audience during preparationPR It is always a good idea to talk to the target audience while preparing the presentation, that way you can ask about their expectations regarding the information you will be sharing. However, if you cannot speak with audience members prior to the presentation, you can talk with them at the outset of it. Before opening your presentation, take time to ask some questions to get to know your audience. A good way to do so is to ask some questions and have your audience respond by raising their hands. Audiences are usually more comfortable raising their hands than shouting out in a presentation environment.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • Audience analysis and supporting material 2 –3 Collect information about the audience If you cannot talk to individuals who will be in the audience, you can still learn about them. Talking to other people who have presented for the same audience can give you insight into the audiences attitudes, level of knowledge, and interests. Other ways of gaining information about your audience include looking at examples of their work or W talking to their colleagues. Obviously, you cannot make major adjustments to your presentation at this point, but you can make small ones. For example, if you are using a story in your presentation, you could prepare two stories. After talking with your audience, select the one you feel will be most effective. Do it! A-1: Analyzing the audience Exercises IE Play the movie on the 1 Watch the movie clip and then answer the following slide by clicking on it. What does Marcus want to know Marcus wants to know about the audience. by asking about Dana’s expectations of the presentation? List ways you can use to analyze By talking to them during the preparation or by the audience. collecting information about the audience beforehand. EV Tell students that there 2 State some of the best practices • Ask the audience about their expectations. are numerous ways of used to talk to the audience during talking to the audience • Ask some questions to get to know them. during a presentation. a presentation. Don’t restrict them to those mentioned here. 3 Build a presentation based on the details the instructor provides. Divide the class into two You are a salesperson from a sunglasses groups. Brief each group Exercise for Group A separately about the company. You need to make a presentation to sell exercise. Ask them to these sunglasses. create a presentation during the next 10 Exercise for Group B You are a salesperson from a sunglasses minutes. Then, have one company. You need to make a presentation to sell member from each team these sunglasses. Snow mountaineers comprise present it. the audience.PR Ensure that both Discuss how knowing the groups do not discuss audience will help bring focus to each other’s exercises. the presentation. Ask other students in the audience to identify the differences between the two presentations.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 2–4 Effective PresentationsTopic B: Supporting materialsExplanation Supporting materials are the specific pieces of information that develop the topic of your presentation and support your ideas or claims. Supporting materials function to make presentations effective in four ways: W • Facilitate understanding: Supporting materials clarify ideas by providing specific information. • Maintain attention: Supporting materials, especially stories, are interesting for audience members. • Improve retention: Supporting materials, such as repetition and stories, promote memorization. • Prove claims: Supporting materials provide proof that your claims are true. IE Determining the supporting material Before selecting supporting materials to include in your presentation, you should review your objectives. Then, select materials that’ll accomplish these objectives. Think about what information you need to include, so your audience will accept the presentation’s message. EV Exhibit 2-1: Determining supporting material You should consider how the types of supporting materials you select would affect your audience. Then, determine which supporting materials would convey information that is best suited for your audience and for your presentation topic. For example, it might bePR more effective for your particular audience to see statistics represented in a visual display than to hear a story about an individual who represents the statistics. After you have chosen all supporting materials, you should re-examine each item to justify including it in the presentation and make sure it is relevant to your objectives. Each supporting material should be specific and easy to understand, because information that is not clear will confuse and frustrate your audience. The number of supporting materials you include depends on how much time is available for you to prepare and to deliver the presentation. You should refer to your objectives and determine how much information you must cover to accomplish them. In presentations, it is better to leave your audience wanting to hear more than overwhelming them with so much information that they lose interest.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • Audience analysis and supporting material 2 –5 Try to incorporate a variety of supporting materials to maximize audience interest. In addition, to increase the credibility of your supporting materials, you should cite the source of the information. This is especially important when using statistics and factual data. Do it! B-1: Selecting supporting materials W Question Answer 1 What is the importance of • Facilitate understanding supporting materials? • Maintain attention • Improve retention • Prove claims IE 2 How do you determine which You should review your objectives and supporting materials to include? accordingly select the supporting materials that will accomplish the objectives. 3 How do you determine how many The number of supporting materials you include supporting materials to include? in your presentation depends on how much time is available for you to prepare and deliver the presentation. Types of supporting material EV Explanation There are six categories of supporting materials you can use to develop your presentation: • Examples • Testimony • Statistics • Analogies • Retention aids • Visual aids Examples Examples are a highly effective supporting material that can be short illustrations of aPR point you are making or longer, more descriptive narrations. Examples can also be stories about real or hypothetical situations. Examples are effective supporting materials for several reasons. Examples are easy to listen to, and they maintain audience interest. They also help the audience remember your presentation because stories are naturally easy to remember. In addition, examples make a strong connection with audiences. Audiences find examples interesting because they often can relate to them and are curious to know what a storys outcome will be.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 2–6 Effective Presentations Testimony Testimony uses knowledge from other people to make your presentation stronger. There are two types of testimony that can be used in a presentation: • Expert testimony is taken from individuals that are recognized as authorities on the topic and is best suited to provide credibility to your claims. W • Lay testimony is taken from individuals who are not recognized authorities, but have some valuable experience with the topic. Lay testimony provides first-hand insight and can be emotionally influential. When using testimony, you might quote individuals or paraphrase what they said. In general, you should use a quotation when the sources exact words are important, because they are more powerful than a paraphrased version. Quotations are usually concise and compelling. If you only want to express the overall idea provided by a source, you should paraphrase the persons words. Paraphrasing is especially effective when a quote is lengthy. IE You should apply the following guidelines when using testimony: • Retain integrity: Be sure you do not change the meaning of what was said. • Use unbiased sources: Only use sources that are impartial. • Use qualified sources: Determine whether the source is in a position to know about the topic. • Use representative testimony: Be sure testimony is not misleading. • Identify the source: Tell your audience the sources name and qualifications. EVDo it! B-2: Understanding the types of supporting material Exercises 1 What are the types of supporting • Examples material? • Testimony • Statistics • Analogies • Retention aids • Visual aids 2 Which of the following is a type of testimony?PR A Client testimony B Authority testimony C Amateur testimony D Lay testimonyNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • Audience analysis and supporting material 2 –7 3 You have to make an effective presentation on “Smoking is injurious to health” using two types of supporting materials, an example and a testimony. Explain how youll use them in your presentation and the benefit of using them. Share these examples Examples You can show a visual aid of a comparison with students and between a smoker and a nonsmoker climbing a W encourage them to come mountain. up with their own. Testimony You can give a recorded statement of a chain smoker thatll discourage people from smoking. Statistics Explanation Statistics provide strong evidence for the claims you make in your presentation. IE However, you must be careful when using statistics. Statistics can be misinterpreted easily, so you should carefully evaluate any statistics you plan to use. Examine whether they really measure what they claim to measure and be sure that the source is unbiased. EV Exhibit 2-2: Statistics In addition, you should take care in the way you present statistics; the numbers do not always make an impact. Help your audience understand the statistics by interpreting them. One way to interpret statistics is to explain them through an analogy. For example, you could describe a large amount of money in terms of paper bills stacked to a height measured in building stories or by describing the purchasing power of that amount of money.PR Another effective way to interpret statistics is to display them through visual aids. You could use a pie chart or graph so the audience can see the statistics visually.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 2–8 Effective Presentations AnalogiesExplanation Analogies are beneficial supporting materials because they provide familiarity for the audience. When new ideas and concepts are explained in a familiar context, audience members are more likely to understand and accept them. There are two types of analogies that can be used in presentations: W • Figurative analogies draw comparisons between items that are fundamentally different. These analogies usually are used to improve understanding by comparing an unfamiliar concept to a familiar one. For example, a companys organizational structure might be compared to the parts of a tree to help employees understand the responsibilities of each department and their relationships with other departments. • Literal analogies make comparisons between items that are essentially the same. This type of analogy can be used to increase understanding, but it also might be used to provide proof. For example, comparisons between two copiers could be IE made to determine which one is better. Retention aids There are four elements that will improve the audiences retention of information: • Repetition is important, because audiences probably will not remember information after hearing it just once. In fact, it might take hearing a piece of information ten times before people learn it. Reiteration can be done with the same or different wording. • Humor enhances memory by relaxing your audience, making them more open EV to the information you are presenting. Any humor you decide to incorporate in your presentation should be relevant to the topic. • Participation helps in attaining a fuller understanding of the topic. Other methods of improving retention include asking the audience questions, letting them share their ideas, or having them complete a worksheet. • Association used in acronyms or mnemonic devices also aids in retention. For example, the acronym SMART can help you remember the characteristics of effective goals: specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-based. Visual aids Visual aids are effective supporting materials, because they communicate some forms of information faster and more effectively than words could. Furthermore, visual aids canPR improve your credibility. Carefully planned, well-made visual aids will show that you thoroughly have prepared for the presentation and that you care about your topic. In addition, visual aids add interest for the audience. They can improve audience members understanding and retention of the information presented. Visual aids can also help your audience follow the flow of your presentation. For example, a graph that illustrates the number of sales for a product line over the past five years clearly would show the audience how sales have risen or plummeted.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • Audience analysis and supporting material 2 –9 Do it! B-3: Exploring retention and visual aids Exercises Ask students to close their 1 You have to solve the following puzzle: Imagine if you were driving a bus that books and take a pen and had 30 people and then the bus stopped at the bus stop and 8 people got off and 12 a paper. Read aloud the W puzzle only once. After got on, at the next stop 17 got off and 11 got on, at the next stop 2 got off and 6 you finish reading the got on. Who is driving the bus? puzzle, ask one or two students to give the Why do you think repetition is Because the audience is not likely to remember answer. Your main focus the information after hearing it only once. important? should be on how well the students understood the puzzle. 2 Read the following scene. Nathan (Account Executive) is sitting at his desk. He looks up as Nicholas (District Manager) enters. Nicholas is carrying some papers Discuss that if the puzzle with the following information: 30 percent of people go to school, 50 percent of had been repeated it people learn from home, 20 percent of people don’t bother taking classes. IE would have been easy to give the answer. Nathan. (Shows the papers to Nicholas asking him) Well, I think that covers all The answer for the puzzle that I have to present. Don’t you? is "You are driving the bus." Nicholas: (standing to leave) Yes, I feel much better about this report now. Ask a few students to (observing the graph) Hey, what’s your graph for? share their thoughts. EV Ask students to identify reasons why the graph Take a few minutes to think why Nathan was using graphs and what are the would be included in the benefits of using graphs. presentation and what information is needed to The graph here helps the audience understand interpret it. the statistics by interpreting them through visual aid.PRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 2–10 Effective PresentationsAsk students to list the 3 Create a presentation on “How to brush your teeth?”key supporting materialstheyll include in their What type of supporting material Visual aids are used in this presentation.presentation. Ask two orthree students to give the is used in this presentation?presentation. WClick the embedded objectto show students thepresentation “Brush yourteeth”.Discuss the use of thesupporting materials. IE EVPRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • Audience analysis and supporting material 2–11 Unit summary: Audience analysis and supporting material Topic A In this unit, you learned how to analyze the audience before giving a presentation. W Next, you learned about the benefits of audience analysis. Topic B Then, you learned how to determine and select supporting material. Finally, you learned about the different types of supporting material. Independent practice activity You meet Phyllis Bannon, Icon International’s East Coast Vice President of Marketing, and Bruce Madison, Icon’s Director of Information Services, to gather information for the presentation about Icon’s Worldwide Network Solution (IWNS). As a member of IE the marketing team, you need to decide what types of information to include in the presentation for the industry journalists. 1 Who is the audience for this presentation? This presentation is for industry journalists. Journalists write about telecommunication products every day and are quite knowledgeable. You need to keep the technology aspects of the presentation basic because you are using new technology for the marketplace. 2 What is the main goal of audience analysis? The main goal of audience analysis is to present the IWNS information to the journalists in a EV positive light so that they’ll write a favorable article about it in their trade publications. 3 What are the supporting materials that’ll help to convey your message? Charts and graphs will communicate your message because they’ll be helpful to present the statistical data. 4 Phyllis says, “If the Duckland Corporation had been using the IWNS system, then their plans would have been stolen. This story was in the newspaper several times last week.” Bruce comments on this, “That was a big story. If I remember correctly, they had the plans for their new product line stolen from what they thought was a secure Internet site. It sure cost them millions in future revenue.” Is this example beneficial, why? Yes, we can use the Duckland story as a good example. To make connection with the audience we can say this problem would not have occurred if they had been using the IWNS system.PR 5 Will handouts given to journalists during a tour be helpful? Yes. They can help the journalist to read about the relevant information.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 2–12 Effective Presentations W IE EVPRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 3–1 Unit 3 Building presentations W Unit time: 70 minutes Complete this unit, and you’ll know how to: A Build a presentation. IE B Develop an introduction and capture the attention of the audience. C Organize the body of the presentation and use transitions. D Conclude the presentation. EVPRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 3–2 Effective PresentationsTopic A: Build presentationsExplanation Organization is extremely important in a presentation because the audience cannot follow your work if they become confused. Therefore, it is the responsibility of the presenter to help the audience understand the presentation from beginning to end. W Importance of organizing the presentation The way in which you organize your presentation directly influences your audiences ability to understand the message you are trying to communicate. In order for an audience to understand your presentation, they must be able to follow the chain of reasoning that leads to your final conclusion. If the audience cannot understand your presentation, they’ll probably doubt your credibility. Without credibility, you’ll be unable to make a strong impact on the audience, and you might not achieve your IE objectives. In addition, knowing that your presentation is organized clearly will help you feel more confident when presenting so you can deliver your presentation more fluently. Response from a presentation There are two points in a presentation that generate high levels of attention and retention in the audience: the beginning and ending. When you begin a presentation, the audience will have some natural curiosity about you and your topic. If your opening is strong your audience will become interested in your topic, but if the opening is weak, they might decide not to listen. EV After you begin your presentation, the audiences level of interest will drop naturally. The size of this decline depends greatly on your presentations organization. If the presentation makes sense, and you use stimulating supporting materials, you can increase the audiences levels of attention and retention. The end of your presentation usually will increase audience interest, but this part of the presentation also depends on organization. If your audience is confused and does not realize you are reaching the conclusion, the levels of attention and retention will not increase. However, if the audience has followed your presentation and you emphasize the conclusion, their level of interest will increase. Organize a presentation A presentation should consist of three major parts:PR • The introduction is the first impression you’ll give the audience, so you’ll want to be prepared for it. The introduction provides you an opportunity to introduce your topic and show the audience why they should listen to your presentation. • The body of the presentation will absorb most of the time you have for presenting, because it includes most of your supporting materials, as well as all your main points. The main points will be the important ideas you want to express to your audience. Each one should be a single idea that is different from, but related to, the other main points. • The conclusion is your last chance to make your message clear. It is an opportunity to summarize what you have covered in the presentation and make a lasting impression.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • Building presentations 3 –3 Do it! A-1: Building the presentation Exercises Show students the 1 View the slide shown by the instructor. Pick any one of the topics displayed and “Building” slide and ask write a brief article. Share your thoughts on how you collected and organized your them to write an article on W any one topic. thoughts to build the article. Give three to four minutes to complete and then ask a few students to share their thoughts. Your main focus should be on how they organized the article. IE EV The main idea behind this discussion is to show how you connected your thoughts and built an article. You can also build a presentation by joining its different parts. Ask two students to share 2 Discuss the three most important parts of writing a letter. their viewpoints. Now show them the slide Stress that the structure that applies to an article “Organizing” to explain the also applies to the creation of a presentation.PR major parts of organizing a letter.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 3–4 Effective PresentationsTopic B: Develop an introductionExplanation To develop an introduction there are three essential functions: • Capture attention W • Establish credibility • Preview topic and main points Capture attention Many of the audience members might be preoccupied with distractions outside the room, in the room, or they might be thinking about other things. Therefore, your introduction will need to break this preoccupation. After you have their full attention, you’ll need to focus on maintaining it. To keep the IE audience interested in the rest of your presentation, you should provide them with sufficient reason to listen. You can do so by telling them why the topic is important, relating the topic to them, and telling them what they’ll learn from the presentation. Establish credibility It is important to establish your credibility in the introduction of your presentation because the audience will be more likely to listen to your message if they feel you are qualified to speak on the topic. Therefore, you need to share with the audience the knowledge, personal experience, or professional experience you have that is relevant to the topic. EV To share your qualifications, you should list them and relate them to your topic. You’ll want to appear confident, but not arrogant. It is possible that you might not have first- hand experience with the topic. If your knowledge comes from research you have done or from interviews you have conducted, you should share these sources with your audience. Preview topic and main points The last function your introduction should serve is to give the audience a preview of the topic and main points. As you introduce your topic, you can provide any background information the audience will need to understand the presentation, such as definitions. Previewing the main points gives the audience a sense of the presentations organization. If they know what to listen for and what to expect, they’ll be able to follow along better.PRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • Building presentations 3 –5 Do it! B-1: Developing the introduction Exercises Ask some students to 1 You have seen your instructor teaching this class by giving a presentation. List share their viewpoints. five methods that were used to capture your attention. Write their thoughts on a W transparency and then connect them to the next 2 Why is organizing a presentation Because it affects the level of credibility and topic. important? confidence of the presenter. Audience attention Explanation There are several methods you can use to gain the audience’s attention during the introduction. You should use the method that works best for you, your topic, and your IE audience. Use one or any combination of these common methods: • Question • Story • Quotation • Startling statement • Audience reference Question Asking questions that relate to the topic and the audience members is an effective way EV to arouse interest in your presentation. You can ask one question or a set of questions that pull the audience deeper into the topic. After asking a question, it is helpful to pause for a moment, so the audience has time to think about their own answers to the question. You should then answer each question fully, so the audience is not left wondering what the answers are and will be able to focus on what you are saying. Story Telling a story in your introduction adds a human element to your topic. Sharing your experiences or the experiences of others helps the audience relate to your topic. People naturally are interested in stories, and occasionally, the audience members might have had similar experiences themselves.PR Quotation Quotations provide an interesting way to open a presentation. You can select a quotation from a famous author, politician, philosopher, or an expert in the field of your topic. Quotations can also come from people who are not experts, as long as they have first- hand experience with the topic and something important to say that will be meaningful for the audience. If you choose to use a quotation in your introduction, be sure to select one that is short, is easily understood, relates to the topic, and will be interesting for the audience. A quotation that is lengthy, complicated, or not easily connected to the topic quickly will lose the audiences attention.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 3–6 Effective Presentations Startling statement A startling statement is an effective opening, because it quickly grabs the audiences attention and makes them want to hear more about your topic. The statement could be a surprising statistic, an unusual experience, or a vivid description of some growing problem. W It is essential that your statement be relevant to the topic. If you use an irrelevant statement just for shock value, you might confuse or offend your audience and lose their attention. Audience reference Referring to the audience is an effective means of capturing their attention. If you show the audience members what they’ll gain from listening to the presentation, they’ll be more likely to pay attention. IE You can grasp the audiences attention by telling them how the topic relates to their lives or even by making a promise of what they’ll learn by the end of the presentation. Of course, you must fulfill this promise. Audience members appreciate their time being used wisely and will be interested in information that will benefit them.Do it! B-2: Capturing the attention of the audience ExercisesAsk students to share 1 What is the purpose of sharing a quotation during a presentation’s introduction?their answers and askthem to provide reasons. A Establish the speaker’s credibility EV B Capture the audience’s attention C Preview the topic D Create concern for the topicPlay the movie on the 2 Watch the movie clip and then answer the following:slide by clicking on it.Ask students what are In your opinion, are questions the Yes, they capture the attention of the audiencesome of the other ways to best way to open a presentation? and make them listen to the presenter.capture the audience’sattention. Is a pause at the end of a question Yes, it is good practice because it gives the good practice? audience time to think about the question.PRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • Building presentations 3 –7 Divide the class into four 3 Avenue Cosmetics is a successful cosmetic manufacturing company that has groups: Group A, Group launched a new lipstick for women. The sales manager wants his sales B, Group C, and Group D. representative to give a presentation to different dealers regarding the details of the product in an effort to encourage sales. While preparing the presentation, the Explain the exercises to the groups sales manager has to cover the following points: W separately. The name of the product Brief Group A that they have to capture the A picture of the product audience’s attention by asking questions, Group B by telling a story, Group C The appearance of the product, its color, and its size by referring to the audience, and Group D by The estimated market price of the product giving a quotation or a startling statement. Features to be highlighted IE Make sure that students do not discuss Location of the availability of the product their exercises amongst each other. Ask one member from each team to give the presentation. The other students should note how each presenter captured the audience’s attention. EV Discuss how each presentation captured the audience’s attention.PRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 3–8 Effective PresentationsTopic C: Organize the body of the presentationExplanation To select your main points, start by putting all the information you gathered for your presentation into categories. Sometimes, you’ll notice categories naturally emerging, such as three steps in a process or three causes for a problem. The categories will be the W basis for your main points. You should use two to five categories that do not overlap. Information that does not fit in any of the categories might need to be excluded. After you have established the categories, it is helpful to label them with terms or phrases that are easy to remember. These phrases will become the main points that you list in the introduction, talk about in the body, and review in the conclusion. Organizing main points To increase audience understanding, the body of the presentation should be organized IE clearly and logically. The main points can be arranged in a number of ways: • Problem-solution organization • Chronological organization • Cause-effect organization • Spatial organization • Topical organization Problem-solution organization EV Use problem-solution organization to discuss a problem in one main point and provide solutions to the problem in the second main point. You can focus your presentation on the seriousness of a problem and spend more time on the first main point, or you can emphasize the solutions and spend more time discussing the second main point. This pattern is very effective if you want to persuade the audience to use your solution, but it is equally effective if you want to educate your audience about a particular problem. Chronological organization Chronological organization presents the main points in the order in which they naturally occur. This organizational pattern works best for a series of events or for completing steps in a process. Typically, this pattern is used to move forward through time. However, if you want to focus on the history of your topic, starting with the most recent event and working backward in time would also be effective.PRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • Building presentations 3 –9 Cause-effect organization Cause-effect organization demonstrates the relationship between two events, wherein the occurrence of one event results in the other event. With this organization pattern, only two main points will be needed; one represents the cause and the other represents the effect. W The order you use for these two points depends on whether the events have happened yet. If the effect has occurred already, you should probably talk about it first and then discuss the cause. Whereas, in a situation where the effect has not yet happened, it would be more effective to discuss the cause and then what effect might occur as a result. Spatial organization Spatial organization is used to arrange your main points according to space or location. Each main point in the presentation would relate to a new location and the audience IE would mentally follow you from location to location. For example, imagine that a Human Resources representative at Company X wants to give an orientation to new employees. In this presentation, he or she wants to describe the different divisions of Company X and inform the employees where these divisions are located. Such a presentation might include these main points: Building A houses the Payroll Division, Building B houses the Information Services Division, and Building C houses the Telecommunications Division. Topical organization EV When your main points do not lend themselves to a specific order, you should use topical organization. With a topical organization pattern you can use main points that are categories or parts of the topic, also known as subtopics. Topical organization frequently is used with informative presentations. When this pattern is used for a persuasive presentation, each subtopic usually represents a reason why the audience should agree with the presenters view of the topic. Do it! C-1: Organizing the body of the presentation Exercises 1 Topical organization arranges the main points in the order in which they naturally occur. True or False? A TruePR B FalseNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 3–10 Effective Presentations 2 Read the following scene. Mary (Reg. Vice President of Sales) is sitting at her desk working. Caroline (District Manager) enters. Caroline: (cautious) Mary, do you still have time to get together with me today to talk about my presentation? W Mary: (friendly) Yes, I was just finishing up. What can I help you with? Caroline: (a little frustrated) I’m trying to decide how I should organize the body of my presentation. I want it to be easy for the audience to follow along. Mary: (helpful) What are the main points you want to make in the body of your presentation? Caroline: (explaining) I mostly want to discuss the problems customers have been IE experiencing and how our product can eliminate those problems. Mary: (suggesting) Oh, you want to use problem-solution organization. Ive had a lot of success organizing presentations this way. You could talk about all the problems in the first main point and then reveal the solution to those problems in the second main point. Now, discuss the following: Why can’t you use chronological Because in this situation there is no order in organization here? which the problem naturally occurs. EVHave students share their 3 Give an example of a presentation Public speeches. (The speech is organizedexamples and the reason that uses topical organization. according to aspects or subtopics of the subject.why it is topical. Each topic identified in the analysis becomes one of the major ideas of the speech.) 4 With medical presentations, a It is a cause-effect organization because the speaker discusses the symptoms action here is from cause to effect. The symptoms and causes of a disease. What and the causes are discussed first and the effects method of organization should be might occur later. used? 5 When using a cause-effect If the effect has occurred already, you should talk organization, what should be about the effect first and then discuss the cause.PR discussed first, the cause or the However, if the effect has not yet occurred, it effect? would be more effective to discuss the cause and then what might occur as a result.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • Building presentations 3–11 Transitions Explanation Transitions are used to tell the audience that you have finished discussing one idea and are moving on to the next. You should use transitions between all your main points because they help your audience follow the organization or flow of your presentation. Transitions can be simple phrases, or they might include a review and preview. One of W the clearest ways to transition between your main points is to summarize the point you have just covered and then preview the next point. This method provides a clear indication to the audience that you are moving ahead in the presentation. You can also repeat your main points again, which will help ensure that the audience remembers the message of your presentation. Do it! C-2: Using transitions Exercises IE As an example of a 1 Give an example of a transition. transition, tell students that they’ve learned how 2 What are transitions and why Transitions are used to indicate to the audience to organize a presentation and now they’ll move on should you use them? that you have finished discussing one idea and to the next topic, which is are moving on to the next. concluding the presentation. 3 Read the following scene. Mary (Reg. Vice President of Sales) and Nathan (Account Executive) are sitting in Mary’s office. Ask a student to explain the message that this enactment conveyed. Nathan: (neutral) Mary, I wanted to thank you for looking over my presentation EV outline for the Peterson project. I really want to make sure I do a good job. Mary: (taking out the outline) Sure, no problem. I think it looks good. My only concern is that there aren’t any transitions included here. You’ll want to be sure to use them because they help your audience follow the flow of your presentation. Nathan: (interested) Oh that sounds good. What do I need to include in the transition? Mary: (explaining) A good way to transition between your main points is to review one point and introduce the next one. I usually say something like, (making up an example) ‘Now that I’ve explained the potential problems, I’ll show you how to avoid them.’PRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 3–12 Effective PresentationsTopic D: Effective conclusionExplanation The main purpose of the conclusion is to provide closure to the presentation. Functions of the conclusion W Because it is the last opportunity you have to influence the audience, it is essential that you bring the presentation to a concise, strong, and well-prepared close. To do so, your conclusion must perform these important functions: • Signal the conclusion • Encourage action • Summarize • Appeal for action IE • Close the presentation Signal the conclusion As you bring your presentation to a close, you should provide some indication to the audience that you are approaching the end. You can use phrases such as, In conclusion, In closing, or any other phrase that indicates that you are ending the presentation. These phrases not only help the audience follow along, but they’ll raise the audiences attention and retention levels as they realize you are concluding your presentation. EV Do not use phrases that indicate you are out of time or information, such as My time is up or That is all I have to say. These phrases are abrupt and do nothing to increase interest. After you have indicated that you are concluding, take advantage of your audiences renewed attention by summarizing your main points. This review is beneficial because it will improve the audiences level of retention by allowing them to hear the main points one last time. In addition, the review provides a measure of closure by reinforcing your preview of main points in the introduction. Encourage action If your presentation is persuasive, you’ll want to use this part of the conclusion to make your last appeal for action. You should emphasize what steps you want your audience to complete.PR On the other hand, if your presentation is informative or instructional, use this section to highlight what the audience has learned or the changes you wanted to make in the way the audience feels or thinks about your topic. Summarize After you have indicated that you are concluding your presentation, review the main points you have talked about and restate your proposition. Remind the audience why the issue should be important to them and how it will affect them.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • Building presentations 3–13 Appeal for action If your presentation does not ask your audience to take a specific action, you can close the presentation by reminding them of the importance of the issue. However, if your presentation asks them to take action to enact a policy, you want to use this part of the conclusion to make your last appeal for action. W Review the steps you want your audience to complete. Provide them with any information that will help them take the desired steps. For instance, if you want the audience to contact a specific person or department, give them the address or phone number at which the person or department can be reached. Do it! D-1: Creating the conclusion Exercises 1 Select the choice that best completes the sentence. IE A review provides a measure of by reinforcing your preview of main points in the introduction. A exposure B closure C conclusion D retention 2 Read the following examples and identify the functions used to close a EV presentation. So let me recap what I’ve said. Summarize In conclusion, I therefore suggest Signal for conclusion the following strategy. At the end, my recommendations Encourage action are. Do you have any questions? Signal for conclusion The importance of the session is? Appeal for actionPRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 3–14 Effective Presentations Closing the presentationExplanation The last function of your conclusion is to provide a strong, lasting impression of your presentation. You should end in some manner that encompasses what you wanted the audience to take away from the presentation. There are several approaches you can take to close your presentation effectively: W • Question. In a persuasive presentation, a question could call for the audience to take action. For informative presentations, a question could simply give the audience something to think about. For example, a presentation for customer service representatives could end with this question: Isnt upholding our companys reputation for superior service worth the extra time and effort? • Story. A memorable story that illustrates your message will improve audience retention; when they think of the story, they’ll think of your message. Telling one half of a story in the introduction and the remaining half in the conclusion is an effective way to bring your presentation full circle. IE • Quotation. Quotations are a common way of ending presentations. The most effective quotations for a conclusion are short and clearly relevant. They should capture the point you are trying to make. • Dramatic statement. A dramatic statement that directly is related to your topic will leave the audience with a strong impression of your presentation, and it can help inspire the audience to take any course of action you have recommended. EVPRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • Building presentations 3–15 Do it! D-2: Closing the presentation Exercises 1 What is the purpose of asking a question in a presentation’s conclusion? A Summarize the topic W B Signal the conclusion C Close the presentation D Encourage action Divide the class into four 2 Read through the presentation shown and prepare a conclusion by using the ways groups. Assign each assigned to you by the instructor. group a different way to conclude the presentation. IE Show the presentation “Time management” and ask them to start the activity. Do not show them the last slide. Give students five minutes to work, and then have one student from each group present their conclusion. Group A Question EV Group B Story Group C Quotation Group D Dramatic statement After the presentations, What type of conclusion is used in It is a dramatic statement. show students the last the last slide? slide of the “Time management” presentation.PRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 3–16 Effective PresentationsUnit summary: Building presentationsTopic A In this unit, you learned how to build a presentation.Topic B Next, you learned how to develop an introduction by establishing credibility and W previewing topics and main points. Then, you learned how to capture the attention of the audience.Topic C You also learned how to organize the body of the presentation. Then, you learned about the importance of organizing the body of the presentation and how to use transitions.Topic D Finally, you learned the different methods of concluding your presentation. Independent practice activity IE Consider a situation in which you’ll meet with Nicholas Richter and Caroline Harris, the two District Managers of Icon International. All of you will discuss how to organize the presentation for Icon’s Worldwide Network Solution (IWNS). Nicholas and Caroline are familiar with the new product line and will give you advice on how to organize your presentation. Earlier in the week, you sent a memo to both informing them about the points you plan to cover during the presentation. It is critical that the journalists are positively influenced by this presentation so that they will write favorable articles about IWNS. This presentation will have a direct impact on future IWNS sales. 1 Identify the best way to build this presentation from the following. EV A The presenter introduces himself or herself, then start discussing the dynamics of IWNS. B Because only one hour is allotted for this presentation, the presenter should jump right into the benefits of IWNS. C The presenter should start the presentation with a strong opening to grab the audience’s attention. D IWNS, has a lot of benefits, so the presenter should start the presentation by highlighting them. 2 Choose the best way the presenter should start the introduction of the presentation from the following. A The journalists are professionals, so the presenter is sure they’ll be prepared toPR listen to the presentation. B The presenter starts the introduction by telling the story about the plans being stolen from Duckland Corporation’s Web site. C The presenter could start the presentation by using a quote from the testimony from some clients who have tested the IWNS. D The presenter can start out by introducing himself or herself, then explain what he or she does at Icon International. Quotations provide an interesting way to open a presentationNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • Building presentations 3–17 3 Before moving on to the body of the presentation, you need to establish the credibility of the presenter. How do you plan to accomplish this? A The presenter will be a qualified person who talks about IWNS. B The presenter will state his or her professional experience with IWNS. W C The presenter will explain to the audience his or her level of knowledge about IWNS. D The presenter will just explain that he or she knows a lot about IWNS. 4 Select the best way to show the body of the presentation. A For the body of the presentation, include information supporting the main points. B Talk about Icon’s Worldwide Network Solution for the body of the presentation. IE C The presenter shows the benefits of the IWNS to the industry journalists. D The body of the presentation will focus on convincing the journalists that IWNS is the best telecommunication system. The body of the presentation will absorb most of the time you have for presenting, because it includes most of your supporting materials, as well as all your main points. 5 Which among the following will be the best method for discussing IWNS? A Problem-solving organization EV B Chronological organization C Cause-effect organization D Spatial organization E Topical organization Chronological organization presents the main points in the order in which they naturally occur. 6 Select the best way in which you can make the transition between discussing the implementation of IWNS and the benefit of IWNS from the following. A The presenter says, “Now, I’d like to show you that the benefit of IWNS outweigh its cost….”PR B The presenter says, “IWNS offers a state-of-the-art implementation process to our customers….” C The presenter uses the phrase, “Next, I’d like to tell you about….” D The presenter says, “Now, I’m going to tell you about the benefits of the IWNS.”NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 3–18 Effective Presentations 7 Choose the best way to conclude the presentation. A By signaling the conclusion B By summarizing the main points of the presentation 8 Identify the best way to signal the conclusion from the following. W A The presenter will tell the audience that their time is up. B Because, the presentation is supposed to last only an hour, the audience will know when the presentation’s wrapping up. C The presenter will start with, “ In conclusion, the IWNS…” D The presenter will start with, “In closing, the IWNS offers…” IE EVPRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 4–1 Unit 4 Presentation mechanics W Unit time: 60 minutes Complete this unit, and you’ll know how to: A Incorporate visual aids and understand the types of visual aids. IE B Display and create visual aids. EVPRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 4–2 Effective PresentationsTopic A: Visual aidsExplanation For the success of your presentation, you should consider the environment. Always try to view the facility sometime during the early stages of your preparation process because the facility itself can affect your preparation, as well as the delivery of it. W Introduction to visual aids There are a number of elements that are important to consider: • Equipment. Find out what equipment is available to you. If it does not meet your needs, you might need to bring equipment with you or alter your presentation. • Visibility. You must be able to make eye contact with your audience, and it is important that they clearly can see you and your visual aids. To ensure visibility, IE you might need to change the seating arrangement for the audience. • Acoustics. If your audience cannot hear you clearly, your presentation will not be effective. Therefore, depending on the size of the room, you might want to consider using a microphone. • Audience comfort. Eliminate any elements that will distract your audience. An extremely cold room or bright light from the windows will not help your audience concentrate on the presentation. Advantages of visual aids EV The use of visual aids in a presentation creates benefits for the audience members, as well as the presenter. There are four ways visual aids improve presentations: • Increased clarity • Increased interest • Increased retention • Increased credibility Increased clarity One of the most important benefits of visual aids is that they make a presentation easier for the audience to understand. Visual aids can be helpful in clearly displaying statistics, percentages, processes, and abstract ideas. For example, a line graph would be helpful in showing an increase or decrease in the number of sales of a particular product over aPR span of years. In addition, visual aids can be used to help the audience comprehend your ideas. If your presentation is very complex, you could use a visual aid that outlines the structure of your speech to help the audience follow along.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • Presentation mechanics 4 –3 Increased interest Visually displaying some of the information in your presentation is more interesting for the audience. Therefore, they’ll pay more attention. Providing a visual aid for the audience to look at adds variety to a presentation. Increased retention W Visual images tend to be easier to remember than verbal messages. Therefore, using verbal and visual messages together makes a more lasting impression on the audience. In addition, your audiences level of retention will increase because visual aids add clarity and interest to your presentation. Increased credibility Audience members often view presenters who use visual aids as more credible than presenters who do not incorporate visual aids into their presentations. A presenter who IE uses visual aids often appears prepared and professional. This benefit can help you have a more persuasive impact on your audience. Incorporating visual aids Explanation There are several parts of a presentation that can be improved through the use of visual aids: the introduction, the preview of topic and main points, and the conclusion. In the introduction of your presentation, a visual aid can help you capture the audiences attention. Using a visual aid that lists your main points will help the audience more clearly understand the structure of your presentation. Visual aids can also improve the EV conclusion by making a lasting visual image or by showing a summary of the important points of the presentation. In addition, you should use visual aids to represent any essential information in the body of your presentation. Do it! A-1: Introducing visual aids Exercises 1 It is a best practice to view the presentation environment well in advance. True or False? A True B FalsePR It is best to view the presentation environment during the early stages of development because you’ll be familiar with the facilities provided. This will ensure that you have enough time to take corrective steps, if required. Ask students to share 2 If you were asked to create a presentation on “Tips to sleep well” would you use their thoughts. visual aids? Give examples. Show them the “Sleep well” presentation. Discuss why visual aids are effective.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 4–4 Effective Presentations 3 Do visual aids help to increase your attention and interest in a presentation? Give reasons. A Yes B No W • Represent essential information • Help audience stay focused Types of visual aidsExplanation There are many types of visual aids that can benefit your presentation, such as: • Objects and models IE • Photographs • Tables • Diagrams • Charts • Graphs Objects and models Objects are helpful when you need to show the audience what something looks like, EV how it functions, or how to operate it. However, if the real object is too costly, too fragile or unavailable, models are a good alternative. Depending on the object you want to display, the model might be the same size, larger, or smaller than the real object. In addition, cross-section models can be used when you need to display the inside of the object. Photographs Photographs in a presentation can provide examples of real people in real situations. This human element will add interest and will make the topic more relevant to the audience. Photographs of places and things also add realism to your presentation. They can be used when an object or a model is not available. If you use photographs, you’ll need to enlarge them, so the audience will be able to view them clearly from a distance. Posters might also be used instead of photographs.PR Tables Tables are visual aids consisting only of text. Tables are useful for organizing words or numbers in a manner that is easy for the audience to understand. The information in tables frequently is arranged in rows and columns to help categorize the information. However, the information might also be arranged as a list.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • Presentation mechanics 4 –5 Information in a list can be arranged in different sequences. The list might show ascending, descending, or chronological order. Lists can be used to present information you want the audience to write down, such as your main points. Whether you use rows and columns or a list in your table, the information shown should be limited to short phrases, so the table is easy to read. You should use color to W highlight certain items in a list or to identify the rows or the columns in a table with categories. It is important not to use too much color or add too much detail, so that the table does not appear cluttered. Diagrams Diagrams, such as maps and drawings, use graphics or a combination of text and graphics to communicate information to the audience. Maps can be used to show a location, to describe a specific area, or to show a travel route. They can enhance a presentation but they should only include the details you IE want to communicate. A map showing too much information would be difficult for the audience to read. Drawings can be used to show how something looks or operates. For example, drawings can show the outer design of a building or its floor plan before the building even exists. Drawings can also be used to demonstrate how something works when you cannot show the object itself or a model of it. In addition, a drawing can be used to show the inner workings of an object, which can be helpful if a cross-section model is not available. Charts EV Charts convey information about the relationship between items using a combination of text and graphics. Some charts might illustrate different processes for completing a project, or they might show the time needed to complete activities necessary for finishing a project. More common types of charts include flowcharts and organizational charts. Flowcharts show the successive steps needed to complete a process, or they might depict a series of events. In a flowchart, each step or event is represented with a geometric shape. Arrows leading to the next step or event accompany the shapes. These arrows and shapes create paths that guide the audience through the process or series of events. Organizational charts show the hierarchy of positions within an organization. These charts might show the positions responsibilities and company divisions. Typically, boxes represent the positions, while lines connecting the boxes show the relationshipsPR between the positions.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 4–6 Effective Presentations Graphs Graphs are beneficial for translating statistics, showing trends and patterns, and comparing sets of numbers. There are several common types of graphs: • Bar graph: This shows specific values at specific times, as shown in Exhibit 4-1. Bar graphs might be created horizontally or vertically. You can use paired or W clustered bars to examine more than one item at each point in time. For example, you could illustrate the level of sales of two products over time. When using bar graphs, you should not show more than five bars or sets of bars. Another good practice is to color code paired or clustered bars to make them easier to identify. IE Exhibit 4-1: The bar graph • Line graph: This illustrates patterns or trends over time, as shown in Exhibit 4-2. Because the line graph is easy for your audience to understand, you can display multiple sets of data by showing several lines. The lines allow the audience to make comparisons between the sets of data. To differentiate the lines, you should make them different colors or styles. For example, the lines can be solid EV or made of dashes or dots. Exhibit 4-2: The line graph • Pie graph: This depicts parts of a whole, as shown in Exhibit 4-3. It can show distribution patterns and percentages. You should limit the number of slices you use in a pie graph; five to eight sections should be the maximum. Usually, the largest section starts at the twelve oclock position and the other sectionsPR follow in order of largest to smallest.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • Presentation mechanics 4 –7 W Exhibit 4-3: The pie graph Do it! A-2: Using different types of visual aids IE Exercises 1 You are the Marketing director of Icon’s International Division that deals in multiple products. Dana, the Marketing head, wants to show the sales distribution of your product in the last quarter. Ask students to identify What would be the best visual aid Pie chart would be best way to show the statistics the best way to present for Dana to present this? because it can show the distribution pattern and this and the reasons why. percentages. EV Tell students to draw a pie Now make a pie chart on how you chart on the paper spend a 24-hour day on a provided. weekend. Steps that you’ll follow are: List the tasks according to the hours spent. Divide the hour identified for a task by 24. For example, if 11 hours are spent on a particular task, you’ll find the percentage by Show the slide “Pie chart.” using the formula 11/24 * 100. Tell students that their piePR chart should resemble this Draw a circle and mark the one. regions accordingly. 2 Which visual aid shows patterns or trends over time? A Pie graph B Flowchart C Bar graph D Line graphNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 4–8 Effective Presentations 3 Interpret the following graph and answer the questions that follow. W IE What type of graph is it? This is a bar graph What is the student’s favorite Visiting friends activity? According to the above graph, Using the computer which is the least favorite activity? Which are the two activities Playing sports and earning money favored by an equal number of EV people? How many students said that their 120 students favorite activity after school is sports?Ask students what is Based on your bar graph do more Like to be around people.easier, answering these students like to be around peoplequestions using the graphor using the same or alone?information in paragraphform. Ask them to support The above bar graph showed specific values,their answers. which makes it easier to depict.PRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • Presentation mechanics 4 –9 Topic B: Understand visual aids Explanation There are many ways in which you can display your visual aids: • Whiteboards and flipcharts W • Overhead transparencies • Slides • Video • Computer-based presentation • Handouts Whiteboards and flipcharts Whiteboards and flipcharts, as shown in Exhibit 4-4, provide a spontaneous feel to IE presentations because the presenter can write on them during the presentation. Both methods are helpful for use in training or brainstorming sessions. In the case of flipcharts, information that has been prepared ahead of time can be revealed as you turn the pages. You might prepare flipcharts and whiteboards before hand or you can write on them throughout the presentation. However, a combination of these methods might be the most effective. You could prepare most of your visual aids beforehand, and then add text or symbols while you present to emphasize the existing visual aids. EVPR Exhibit 4-4: Whiteboard and flipchart It is important to remember that when you write on flipcharts and whiteboards, you’ll be unable to maintain eye contact with the audience. If you continually have your back turned to the audience, they’ll probably become impatient and lose interest.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 4–10 Effective Presentations Overhead transparencies Overhead transparencies are beneficial because they can be prepared easily ahead of time, and they offer the presenter the opportunity to add information during the presentation as well. Transparencies also allow the presenter to face the audience while he or she writes on the visual aid. W Overhead projectors are easy to use. They do not require the lights in the room to be darkened, unlike other methods of visual display. In addition, the order of the transparencies easily can be adjusted if your presentation is running too long and you need to skip ahead. Keep in mind that it is important to space out your use of transparencies. If you use too many transparencies, you’ll have to stay near the projector to change them. Delivering your entire presentation from behind the overhead projector will not allow you to communicate effectively with the audience. IE Slides Using slides in your presentation can be very effective. Slides of either computer- generated visual images or photographs give your presentation a professional look, and they are interesting for the audience. Most slide projectors can be operated by a small remote control, so you can have some freedom of movement. Slides are also flexible when preparing your presentation, because you can add, remove, or rearrange slides easily. Slides do have some drawbacks. While you are delivering your presentation, they offer no flexibility. If you need to skip ahead or readdress an issue, there is no way to change EV the slide order. You simply have to advance through the slides you wish to skip. In addition, you’ll probably need to darken the room, which impedes your ability to make eye contact with the audience. Video Video adds another element to your presentation because it provides a visual aid with audio and moving images. Video material is easy to find and you can create your own to fit your presentation exactly. Using video will require you to place extra attention on the equipment you use. You’ll need to be sure the facility in which you are presenting has the necessary equipment; if not, you might need to bring it with you. One monitor is sufficient for a relatively small audience, but for larger groups, you’ll need several monitors or a projection screen. You should also be careful not to include too much video. The main focus of the presentationPR should remain on you and your topic, not the video.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • Presentation mechanics 4–11 Computer-based aids Use sophisticated computer-based presentations to incorporate many types of media into your presentation. For example, you can include audio, video, and photographs, and you can add special effects to your charts, graphs, and diagrams. This multimedia display will help you keep the audiences attention. W However, there are several drawbacks to computer-based presentations. For example, you’ll need the appropriate hardware and software to prepare the visual aids and display them at the presentation. Handouts Handouts are a good way to display your visual aids because the audience members will be able to examine them closely and take the information with them. Handouts are also beneficial because they can be used with an audience of almost any size. Your handout should be well prepared because it will make a distinct impression on the audience. You IE should format the handout so that it is attractive, concise, and easy to read. You might distribute handouts at the beginning or end of your presentation. Both of these methods have benefits and drawbacks. Providing handouts at the beginning might increase the audiences levels of understanding and attention, but they might read the handout and stop listening to you. Providing handouts at the end might prevent distraction, but the audience might become preoccupied with taking notes during the presentation if your topic is complex. Use the method that is more appropriate for the information you’ll include on the handout. Do it! B-1: Displaying visual aids EV Exercises Show students some of 1 What methods has the instructor • Overhead transparencies these visual aids. used to display visual aids? • Slides • Computer-based presentations • Handouts Students might have 2 Which of the following visual aids are most flexible during a presentation? different answers. A Computer-based aids Ask students to explain their answers. B Whiteboards and flipcharts C SlidesPR D HandoutsNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 4–12 Effective Presentations 3 Read the following scene. Dana (Product Manager) is preparing for a presentation in the conference room. The conference room has a whiteboard and an overhead projector. She is using an overhead projector to display the slides on the screen. Nicholas (District Manager) and Carla (Account Executive) are sitting at the conference table. W Dana: (neutral) This is the way I’ll be projecting the contents of my slides on the screen. Carla: (agreeing) The presentation looks great but I have only one question. You are using the complete screen to display your presentation. What if someone asks a question or has a comment to make. How would you capture that? Nicholas: (agreeing) Yes, I agree. (to Carla) You need a mechanism to collect the ideas from the audience quickly as you go through the presentation. IE Now, answer the following:Ask students how the use What can Dana do to make sure She can use the whiteboard to collect ideasof a whiteboard can be she captures ideas from the offered by the audience.beneficial in such a case. audience during the presentation? 4 Do you think the handouts are effective during a class? Give reasons. A Yes EV B No Because the students are able to examine them closely. Create visual aidsExplanation You should follow specific guidelines when creating visual aids: • Keep it simple: A visual aid will be ineffective if you include too much detail. Always keep the design simple to ensure that it is easy to read, and make sure the visual aid communicates the correct message. • Make it large enough: You do not want to put time and effort into a visual aid that the audience cannot see clearly. Be sure the visual aid is appropriate, for thePR room and audience size. • Use keywords and phrases: Using only small amounts of text will help ensure that your overall design is simple. Audiences can grasp the information faster if it is provided in small amounts. • Use color appropriately: Color is beneficial for almost all visual aids. Besides adding interest, color can clarify your visual aids by highlighting and organizing information.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • Presentation mechanics 4–13 Practice visual aids It is extremely important for you to practice using your visual aids before you deliver the presentation. By practicing, you can incorporate your visual aids smoothly and gain more confidence. Practicing is especially important for some of the more complicated methods you can W use to display your visual aids. A practice run might alert you to any potential problems. For example, you might discover an upside-down slide, or there might be a timing problem in your computerized presentation. This practice session can also help you feel confident about operating all the necessary equipment. It is much better to make your mistakes in a practice session than in front of an audience. The simpler methods of visual display should be practiced as well. Even distributing handouts can cause problems if you have not thought through the way you’ll do it. Do it! B-2: Creating visual aids IE Group discussion Ask students to share 1 Discuss in class the parameters that the presenter should take into consideration their ideas. while practicing his/her presentation? Share these parameters • Are the visual aids appropriate for the room with students. and the audience size? • Are the colors used beneficial? • Is the presentation too simple or too complex? EV • Is the time given for the presentation adequate or not?PRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 4–14 Effective PresentationsUnit summary: Presentation mechanicsTopic A In this unit, you learned about the advantages of visual aids. Then, you learned how to incorporate visual aids. You also learned about the different types of visual aids. WTopic B Next, you learned how to display the visual aids. Finally, you learned how to create visual aids and the guidelines to follow while creating visual aids. Independent practice activityPoint out that while it is Barbara Connor, Icon International’s Regional Vice President for the West Division hasnot necessary to read given a presentation to the same audience for which you are creating a presentation. Thethis story to answer thequestions that follow, it presentation will be presented to a group of industry journalists. Discuss the followingmight help to provide questions with Barbara to understand the presentation.context for the students. IE 1 Why should you consider the presentation environment? Because the presentation environment can affect the way you prepare and deliver your presentation. 2 What advantages do visual aids provide? They can give your presentation increased clarity, interest, retention, and credibility. 3 How do visual aids enhance clarity? Visual aids can make it easier for your audience to understand the presentation. Visual aids can EV be helpful in clearly displaying statistics, percentages, processes, and abstract ideas. 4 Why should a presenter use visual aids? The presenter should use visual aids to increase interest in the presentation, aid in retention, and add credibility to the presentation. 5 Where should you incorporate visual aids? Visual aids can be incorporated throughout your presentation. In your introduction, a visual aid can help you capture the audience’s attention. Visual aids can also help your audience understand main points or improve your conclusion by showing a summary of the important points of the presentation. 6 State some of the common types of visual aids. •PR Models • Photographs • Tables • Diagrams • Charts • Graphs NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • Presentation mechanics 4–15 7 Match the following: A Bar Graph C Depicts part of a whole B Line Graph B Illustrates pattern or trend over time C Pie Graph A Shows specific values at specific time W 8 What methods can you use to display visual aids? • Whiteboards and flipcharts • Overhead transparencies • Slides • Videos IE • Computer-based presentations • Handouts 9 What general guidelines should you follow while creating a visual aid? • Keep your visual aids simple • Visual aids should include keywords and phrases • Make the visual aid large enough so that every member of the audience can see it clearly • EV Use color when appropriate 10 Why should you practice using visual aids before a presentation? You should practice using visual aids before delivering a presentation: • To incorporate your visual aids smoothly into the presentation • To give you the confidence to use themPRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 4–16 Effective Presentations W IE EVPRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 5–1 Unit 5 Presentation process W Unit time: 80 minutes Complete this unit, and you’ll know how to: A Use a presentation process. IE B Prepare before making the presentation and how to overcome the fear of speaking. C Deliver a presentation by using different aspects of voice. D Use nonverbal communication aids. EVPRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 5–2 Effective PresentationsTopic A: Extemporaneous speakingExplanation For a presenter to communicate a message to the audience successfully, you have to do more than simply transfer information. Instead, you need to create meaning for the audience, which is done by preparing and delivering your presentation in a manner that W focuses on the audience. It is important to remember that the presentation can accomplish your objectives only if it is meaningful to the audience. Benefits The extemporaneous mode of speaking is the most effective method of delivery for most presentations. When speaking extemporaneously, the presenter plans and practices his or her presentation, but delivers it in a conversational manner. The exact words of an extemporaneous presentation are not written beforehand, but formed as the presenter IE delivers the presentation. Therefore, this method of speaking gives the impression that the speaker is talking with the audience. The presenter usually uses a concise set of notes to help him or her remember specific points of the presentation. Extemporaneous speaking is beneficial because the presenter is free to interact with the audience. Because the presenter will not be reading from a script, he or she can maintain eye contact with the audience and be open to any feedback the audience provides, such as a look of confusion or understanding. Although it might look very natural, extemporaneous speaking actually requires thorough practice. You must practice your presentation to become familiar with it. By rehearsing you can find any places in the speech that do not flow well, and then you can EV rearrange your presentation accordingly. Prepare extemporaneous mode In addition, you can find the words for your presentation by practicing. You’ll discover that there are certain ways you want to deliver the points of your presentation. Practicing helps you find the most effective way of delivering your presentation the way that enhances your audiences understanding and makes you feel comfortable. There are two steps you should complete to make your practice sessions productive: • Create a set of presentation notes • Collect delivery feedback Create a set of presentation notesPR The notes you use for presenting should be concise and well organized. Use only the keywords and phrases that will help you remember your presentation structure. You should include any information that is difficult to remember, such as statistics or quotations. In addition, you should include any comments that will help you deliver the presentation the way you planned it. For example, next to a point that you want to emphasize, you might write slow down.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • Presentation process 5 –3 Collect delivery feedback The first time you practice your presentation, do not worry about how well you deliver it. You should just try to get familiar with forming the words of the presentation. However, after this first practice, you’ll need to collect some feedback, as shown in Exhibit 5-1, about your delivery. W IE Exhibit 5-1: Collect feedback There are three ways you can collect feedback: • Practice with an audience: Ask some of your co-workers or anyone you feel comfortable practicing in front of, to watch your presentation. They’ll be able to provide helpful feedback about your delivery and the clarity of your message. • Practice in front of a mirror: If you deliver your presentation in front of a EV mirror, you’ll be able to incorporate effective facial expressions and gestures. In addition, you’ll notice any movements that are distracting. • Record your practice session: Record your practice session with a video camera so you can watch your presentation and study it. This method is helpful if you do not feel comfortable practicing in front of an audience. Presentation process Explanation There are three steps in the presentation process that will help you successfully deliver presentations: 1 Preparing to speak helps you to take steps to reduce the amount of anxiety you feel before giving a presentation. Knowing the causes of speech anxiety and how to counteract them will help you feel more comfortable.PR 2 Delivering the presentation is the process of effectively using your voice, facial expressions, and gestures when speaking. In addition, successful delivery of a presentation focuses on how to use visual aids properly and how to interpret audience feedback. 3 Answering questions is an important part of every presentation. When and how you answer questions will affect the success of your question-and-answer session. In addition, it is valuable to know how to handle challenging questions and challenging audience members.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 5–4 Effective PresentationsDo it! A-1: Understanding the presentation process Exercises 1 To communicate your message to the audience successfully, you should? A Have a clear set of objectives W B Practice the presentation C Create meaning for the audience D Use notes to help him or her remember specific points of the presentation 2 Which of the following is a benefit of extemporaneous speaking? A The presenter can change the presentation spontaneously B The presenter has plenty of time to prepare IE C The presenter is free to interact with the audience D The audience finds the presentation interesting 3 Which of the following lists the steps that successfully help you deliver a presentation? A Understanding your audience, preparing the presentation, and answering questions B Delivering the presentation, interpreting feedback, and modifying the EV presentation C Preparing to speak, delivering the presentation, and answering questions D Researching subject matter, determining the audience, and delivering the presentationShow students the slide 4 Read the content on the slide. Prepare to present this information to the class using“Extemporaneous the extemporaneous mode of speaking.speaking.” Let the slideremain on the projector forfive minutes.Tell students that afterabout five minutes ofpreparation time you willask a student to presentPRthis informationextemporaneously.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • Presentation process 5 –5 Topic B: Preparation for speaking Explanation Before delivering a presentation you should keep in mind certain points, such as speech anxiety, reducing the fear of speaking, and staying calm before the presentation. W Speech anxiety It is important to realize that feeling a certain amount of anxiety before delivering a speech is normal. Nervousness shows that you care about your audience and the information you want to communicate. In fact, nearly all speakers are nervous before giving a presentation. This normal level of anxiety can be beneficial. A little extra nervous energy can help you think quickly on your feet and help you give an energetic presentation. IE However, the amount of anxiety you feel can reach a level that becomes detrimental. At this level, the anxiety actually impedes your ability to give a strong presentation. Excessive amounts of anxiety can hinder your ability to think clearly, and it can cause you to deliver your presentation too quickly. Reason for speech anxiety One of the main reasons why people fear speaking in public comes from thoughts of failure. Presenters might be afraid they’ll not meet the audiences expectations, or they fear they’ll look foolish in front of the audience. Another cause for speech anxiety is that many individuals believe they have to give flawless presentations. This mindset EV causes people to establish goals that are unattainable. For other people, the fear of speaking might be based on a fear of not knowing how their presentation will be accepted. Fortunately, there are steps every speaker can take to help reduce the amount of apprehension they feel toward speaking in public. Fear of speaking Although public speaking cannot actually harm you, your mind might still perceive it as a threat. If so, your body responds by preparing you to fight the danger or flee from it. This reaction is known as the fight or flight response and causes many of the symptoms you associate with being nervous, as shown in Exhibit 5-2: cold or trembling hands and legs, nausea, perspiration, and dry mouth.PRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 5–6 Effective Presentations W Exhibit 5-2: Reduce the fear IE If you experience these or other symptoms, it is important to know that the following steps can help you control your fear of speaking: • Prepare • Practice • Change your attitude • Visualize success EV Prepare Preparation is an important step in reducing the amount of fear you feel about presenting. When you have prepared thoroughly, fewer problems are likely to arise. After thorough preparation, you’ll be knowledgeable about your topic, you’ll know the best way to present the information to the audience, and you’ll have created a well- organized presentation that clearly can express your message to the audience. Completing all this preparation will give you confidence when it is time to deliver the presentation. Another step you can take to prepare yourself is to memorize your introduction. If you begin your presentation strongly, you’ll feel more comfortable delivering the rest of your presentation. In addition, minimal use of your notes in the introduction will help you establish a connection with the audience.PR Practice Practicing your presentation can make the idea of delivering it to an audience less intimidating. By practicing, you’ll be able to find the right pace for your delivery, as well as identify any points you want to emphasize by pausing, changing the volume of your voice, or repeating the information. You’ll get used to talking through your presentation and find the most effective way to deliver it. If possible, you should practice your presentation in the room where you’ll present it. By doing so, you can practice moving in the space and will help determine where you want to position your visual aids.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • Presentation process 5 –7 Change your attitude Shifting your thoughts of public speaking from negative to positive can minimize the amount of nervousness you feel. The best way to replace your negative thoughts with positive ones is to make a list of all the fears you have about giving a presentation. After you have completed the list, write a positive statement so you can manage each of the W fears. For example, one of your fears could be that you believe your presentation will not succeed because you cannot give an outstanding presentation performance. You can manage this fear by creating a positive statement to manage the fear: My presentation does not need to be an incredible performance. I only need to share information with the audience, and I can use my own style of communicating. Visualize success Visualizing yourself in front of the audience giving a successful presentation will help IE you feel more confident. Visualization commonly is used by athletes, but can be effective in reducing your anxiety about speaking as well. Thorough preparation and practice of your presentation accompanied by visualization greatly can reduce the anxiety you feel before giving a presentation. The audience will not be as critical of your presentation as you’ll be. Usually, you are your own worst critic. You should keep in mind that your nervousness will probably not be obvious to the audience, so if you do not mention your nervousness, they are not likely to know how anxious you feel. Another good reason for not telling the audience you are nervous is that the nervousness of a speaker can be transmitted to the audience, as shown in Exhibit 5-4. If the audience becomes worried for you, they’ll stop listening EV to the message you are trying to communicate. Exhibit 5-3: NervousnessPRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 5–8 Effective PresentationsDo it! B-1: Reducing the fear of speaking Exercises 1 Read the following scene. Kara and Ms. Castor are sitting across from one another in Ms. Castor’s Office. W Ms. Castor: (Matter-of-factly) Well that about wraps it up. I’m glad to hear that everything’s going smoothly for the presentation in New York. Kara: (Fidgeting and acting very nervous, might be shaking one of her legs, nervously) I think that everything’s set. Ms. Castor: (Concerned) Kara, you’ve been acting nervous ever since I brought up the subject of the presentation. Are you sure that you’re fully prepared for it? IE Kara: (Admitting) The presentation is fine, I completed it yesterday. But, to be honest, I’m really nervous about giving such an important presentation to such a large group. Now, answer the following:Encourage students to Why was Kara nervous? Discuss.give as many reasons asthey can. 2 Write about an experience when you were nervous about speaking in front of a large group. Ensure that EVstudents give answersone at a time.Ask students to sharetheir experiences.PRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • Presentation process 5 –9 3 Do the following four steps help control your fear of speaking: visualize success, practice, change your attitude, and prepare? If yes, why? A Yes B No W Visualize success It gives you confidence when you visualize yourself in front of the audience. Practice It gives the right pace for delivering the presentation. You can identify points like volume, pauses, etc. Change your attitude Shifting your thoughts about public speaking from negative to positive can minimize the amount of nervousness you feel. IE Prepare It reduces the amount of fear you feel about presenting. Students can give various 4 What is the harm in revealing If you show nervousness, the audience will also viewpoints. your nervousness to the audience? be nervous and worried about you. They’ll stop listening to the message you are trying to communicate. EV Stay calm during presentation Explanation There are several actions you can take before you present to help you remain calm: • Arrive early • Engage in physical activity • Use tension-relaxation exercises • Use deep breathing exercises Arrive early Arriving at the location of the presentation early will give you plenty of time to set up your visual aids and make sure your notes are in order. When you arrive, check all your visual aid equipment to make sure it is working properly. Arriving early will also give you time to prepare yourself mentally.PR Engage in physical activity Engaging in some type of light physical activity can burn up some of your nervous energy and help you relax. For example, you could take a quick walk down the hallway, or you could find a place where you’ll not be seen, and do a few push-ups, jump up and down, or any other activity that will help you calm down.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 5–10 Effective Presentations Use tension-relaxation exercises Tension-relaxation exercises can help relax tense muscles and relieve stress. You should start by lying down or sitting. This exercise involves tensing each muscle in your body, holding it for ten seconds, and then slowly relaxing the muscle, as shown in Exhibit 5-4. You should start at either your forehead or your toes and, depending on where you W started, progress down or up the rest of your body. After you relax each muscle, it’ll be more relaxed than before you started the exercise. For this exercise to be effective, you’ll need to practice it. When you first start, you might need to tighten and relax each muscle a couple of times before moving on to the next muscle. With practice, it’ll take you less time to relax your entire body. IE EV Exhibit 5-4: Tension-relaxation exercises Use deep breathing exercises When you become nervous, your breathing becomes quick and shallow. The frequent need to yawn or sigh can indicate that you are not breathing normally. Slower, deeper breaths will increase the supply of oxygen to your muscles and brain, which will help you relax and concentrate. Start deep breathing exercises by placing your hand on your abdomen, just above your waist. While you breathe, notice whether your abdomen moves. If it does not, breathe slower and deeper, so your abdomen expands when you inhale and contracts as you exhale. At this point, you can begin the exercises. Inhale as you count to five, hold it for two counts, and then exhale for five counts. Continue this exercise for three to fivePR minutes. If at any point you feel lightheaded, return to your normal breathing pattern until the feeling has passed. You should practice this exercise daily for several weeks. With practice, you’ll be able to calm yourself easily using this technique. This exercise is also helpful because, with some modification, it can be used just before you give your presentation without anyone knowing.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • Presentation process 5–11 Create a warm-up routine Creating your own personalized warm-up routine can be effective in helping you stay calm before a presentation. Your routine should include whatever activities help you relax. Use a combination of physical activity, deep breathing, as shown in Exhibit 5-5, and tension-relaxation exercises. In addition, you might want to include some warm-ups W for your voice, a quick check in the mirror, or you might want to state your objectives to yourself. If you create a routine that works well for you, use it every time you need to give a presentation. IE Exhibit 5-5: Deep-breathing exercise As you take your place in front of the audience, the many faces looking back at you might be intimidating. However, the audience will be less intimidating if you remember that every audience is made up of individuals. As you begin your presentation, pick out EV a few friendly faces and make eye contact with them. Establishing a connection with a few individuals will help you feel more comfortable and give you the confidence to deliver the rest of your message to all of the individuals in your audience. Another way to help you remain calm is to be yourself as you deliver your presentation. Do not put unnecessary stress on yourself by trying to emulate a speaker you admire or by trying to deliver a perfect presentation. Communicate in the style that is comfortable for you. Making a mistake Nearly all speakers make a mistake at some time, so do not let a simple mistake spoil the remainder of your presentation. If you do make a mistake, just correct it and move on. If you lose your place in the presentation, refer to your notes and keep going. If you happen to have a memory lapse and cannot remember a portion of your presentation,PR move on to the next point that you remember. If you remain calm and keep going, the audience is not likely to know you skipped anything. You can make your presentation appear more relaxed by projecting confidence. Acting like you are confident can make you feel more confident, and the audience is not likely to know the difference.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 5–12 Effective Presentations Another way to help your delivery seem more relaxed is to use gestures and movement to your advantage. When you are nervous, your body responds by providing an extra surge of energy. However, there is no way to dispense of this energy if you, like many presenters, become too scared to move during your presentation. To eliminate some of the extra energy, you should move throughout the presentation. Adding appropriate gestures to your presentation will release tension and help you emphasize specific W points. Your voice might crack or become shaky when you are nervous. In addition, nervousness can cause the pitch of your voice to raise. As a result, you start speaking at a pitch that is unnatural for your vocal chords. You can reduce the effects of nervousness on your voice by lowering the pitch of your voice. In addition, you should be sure you are breathing deep and using plenty of air to support your voice. Remember that the energy for your voice comes from your lungs and abdomen, not your throat. Increasing your volume can also help you push past any IE shaking and cracking you experience.Do it! B-2: Using warm-up routines Exercises 1 Which action(s) should be included in a warm-up routine? A Vocal warm-ups B A final visual aid check C Talking with the audience EV D All of the above 2 Are warm-up routines beneficial? Yes, they help you to remain calm during the presentation.Play the movie clip on the 3 Watch the movie clip and then answer the following:slide by clicking on it. Why would Nathan want to leave It’ll give him plenty of time to check all the visual early for the presentation? aids and mentally prepare himself. 4 If you have a memory lapse during the presentation, you should apologize to thePR audience and then refer to your notes. True or False? A True B FalseAsk students to give their If you make a mistake and continue to proceed,answer and the reason for the audience is not likely to discover that youit. skipped a point.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • Presentation process 5–13 Topic C: Deliver a presentation Explanation You should use your notes in a way that will not interfere with your ability to connect with the audience. If you have several pages of notes, you should leave them on the lectern. If you hold them in your hand and you are nervous, you might be tempted to W play with them. In addition, they’ll make noise if you gesture while holding them. However, using one note card will not be distracting and will give you the opportunity to move freely as you speak. Lectern Before using the lectern, you should decide if it is appropriate for your particular presentation. The lectern establishes a formal relationship between you and the audience. If you want to be more interactive with your audience, you should stand in IE front of them. If you choose to use the lectern, stand behind it without leaning on it. When you want to change the mood or pace of your presentation, step to the side of the lectern. This movement creates a more informal interaction between you and the audience because it removes the barrier created by the lectern. Another way to use the lectern is to start your presentation behind it and, as you feel more comfortable in front of your audience, step out from behind it. When you reach your conclusion, return to your position behind the lectern, so you end the presentation the way you began it, creating visual closure for your audience. EV Different aspects of voice The delivery of your presentation might be affected by any of the following vocal aspects: • Volume • Pronunciation • Articulation • Rate • Pitch • Pauses • VarietyPR Volume When delivering your presentation, you must speak loud enough for your audience to hear you easily. Your voice should be loud enough for people in the back of the room to hear, but not so loud that you overpower the people in the front row. In most circumstances, you’ll need to talk louder than you do normally. Remember that your voice will not sound as loud to the audience as it does to you. For a large audience, it might be impossible for you to project your voice loud enough for everyone to hear. Therefore, you should consider using a microphone. By using a microphone you can speak at a comfortable level and be heard by all of the audience.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 5–14 Effective Presentations Pronunciation Correct pronunciation of words is essential for your credibility as a speaker. Even if you are knowledgeable about your topic, your audience might doubt you if you fail to pronounce your words correctly. Therefore, before you give your presentation, you should determine the correct way to pronounce any technical words or names you are W including. Articulation Articulation, as shown in Exhibit 5-6 involves clearly enunciating the vowel and consonant sounds in the words you speak. In everyday conversation, people frequently talk very quickly and slur some of their words together. While people you know might understand you, it might be difficult for other people to follow what you are saying. Therefore, when you deliver a presentation, you should speak more slowly and make the vowel and consonant sounds more deliberate. Be careful not to slur your words IE together, and do not drop the ends of words. For example, do you want to sometimes becomes do you wanna, and the g in words ending with ing frequently is dropped. EV Exhibit 5-6: Articulation Rate The rate at which you speak during your presentation will affect the attention of the audience. Nervous speakers usually tend to rush through their presentations because they want the experience to be over as soon as possible. However, if you speak tooPR quickly, you’ll lose the audiences attention because they’ll not have a chance to absorb the information you are sharing. If you speak too slowly, the audience might become bored. Therefore, you should find a rate that keeps your presentation interesting for the audience. The rate you use will vary according to the subject, audience, occasion, and the mood you want to create. A fast rate can convey urgency, excitement, happiness, or fear; a slow rate might convey sadness, tranquility, or disgust. Speeding up or slowing down during your delivery can help you emphasize certain points and give the presentation variety.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • Presentation process 5–15 To determine if your rate of delivery is effective, record your presentation as you practice it. Then, review the tape to determine if you need to adjust your rate when you present it. Pitch Pitch is how high or low your voice sounds. The pitch, or inflection, of your voice helps W people interpret the meaning of your words, as well as understand the emotion and attitude behind them. For example, questions and sarcastic comments are frequently indicated by specific changes in pitch. Most people use vocal inflections in everyday conversation to interpret meaning. Using inflection appropriately as you deliver a presentation is just as important because it can affect your ability to keep the audiences attention. If you have ever heard a monotonous speaker, you know how difficult it is to listen to someone who does not change the pitch of his or her voice. By practicing your presentation in front of people, you can IE determine if your use of pitch is effective. Pauses Pauses can be used to add emphasis and meaning to specific words or phrases. The pause effectively indicates that you are moving on to another idea or to another section of your presentation. Pauses can also be used to add suspense when you use them just before you reveal your next point. In addition, pauses add variety to your delivery. They provide a chance for the audience to absorb information. Pauses are effective if you want to deliver a certain section of your presentation quickly. By adding occasional pauses, you can continue speaking the EV words at a quick rate and the audience will have time to understand what you are saying. You should try not to use phrases such as um or you know during your delivery. These verbal pauses can be detrimental to your credibility because the audience might think you are unsure about your topic. Record your practice sessions so you can determine if you use verbal pauses. If you do, try taking a quick breath instead of saying the verbal pause. With practice, you’ll be able to use a silent pause instead of a verbal one. Variety Using variety in your volume, rate, and pitch, as well as adding pauses, will add vocal variety throughout your presentation. This variety is essential for making your presentation interesting for your audience. The interest you add to your presentationPR through the effective use of your voice will show your audience that you are happy to be speaking to them and that you are interested in the topic.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 5–16 Effective PresentationsDo it! C-1: Using different aspects of voice ExercisesAsk a student to play the 1 Act out the following scene.role of “Caroline.” Havethe other students Wobserve the gesture used Caroline is giving a presentation. She is holding one or several note cards.by “Caroline. While giving the presentation she is glancing at the note card once or twice to reference her notes. She is also using natural gestures to communicate. Caroline: With our communication system, you’ll always be able to access the people and information you need. We have Service Centers in over 40 countries around the world, including China, Japan, Malaysia, France, Spain, Argentina, and Brazil, just to name a few. You can be sure that the communication will be fast and secure. IELead a discussion about What gestures did Caroline use and how do those gestures benefit thehow “Caroline” used presentation?gestures and the bestuses for them. 2 To eliminate verbal pauses, which of the following would you use? A Increasing your delivery rates B Changing positions EV C Articulating more deliberately D Taking a quick breathAsk a student to play 3 Act out the following scene.“Caroline.” In this scene, Caroline is giving the introduction of her presentation. Throughout she should use a moderately fast pace and then give slight pauses as noted. Could be holding a note card, but shouldn’t reference it. Caroline: Do you ever feel like you don’t have enough time to accomplish all your tasks in one day? (pause) Do you ever feel so overwhelmed by everything you have to do, that you don’t even know where to start? (pause)PR You might be feeling like this today. (pause) Many of us feel like we never have enough time to accomplish all our tasks and to do them well. In my work as a personal coach and motivational speaker, I’ve discovered that there are several powerful steps you can take to better manage your time.Have students discuss How did those pauses benefit the presentation?how “Caroline” used thepauses and the benefitsthey added to thepresentation.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • Presentation process 5–17 Topic D: Nonverbal communication Explanation The way you communicate nonverbally with the audience will affect the way they respond to you. These aspects of nonverbal communication are important when delivering a presentation: W • Facial expressions • Eye contact • Personal appearance • Gestures • Body movements Facial expressions IE Facial expressions, as shown in Exhibit 5-7, are important when delivering a presentation because they effectively communicate emotions and attitude. Always try to make your facial expressions consistent with the message you are conveying to your audience. By doing so, your facial expressions will reinforce your message. EV Exhibit 5-7: Facial expression Using a variety of facial expressions during your presentation adds interest. Smiling at the beginning helps you establish a friendly connection with the audience and will help you feel a bit more relaxed if you are nervous.PR Eye contact Maintaining eye contact throughout your presentation will improve its effectiveness. Establishing eye contact with the individuals in your audience shows that you are interested in talking to them. Eye contact also improves your credibility as a speaker. If you avoid making eye contact, the audience might think you are nervous, insincere, rude, or evasive.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 5–18 Effective Presentations Your eye contact encourages the people in your audience to listen to you. Therefore, you should make eye contact with as many members of your audience as possible. Usually, a few seconds of eye contact with an individual is sufficient to engage him or her, and then you can focus on another person. Try to keep your attention balanced, so you do not focus on any one person or section more than you do other people or sections. W If you are nervous, you can begin your presentation addressing a few friendly faces, and then, as you feel more comfortable, shift your focus to other people. Making eye contact with many individuals will help you assess how your audience is reacting to your presentation. Personal appearance Your personal appearance is important because it’ll make an impression on your audience before you even begin your presentation. You always should look neat and IE wear whatever clothing is appropriate for the occasion. If it is relaxed, then wear more casual clothing, but if the occasion is formal, you should be dressed formally. The way you dress also affects how closely your audience listens to your message. If something about your appearance is out of place, the audience might focus on that item instead of listening, or they might even doubt your credibility based on your appearance. Gestures In everyday conversations, gesturing never seems to be a problem, but when people get in front of an audience to speak, they suddenly do not know what to do with their hands. EV When delivering a presentation, your gestures, as shown in Exhibit 5-8 should look natural. However, this does not mean that you cannot rehearse your gestures. In fact, practicing in front of a mirror can help you determine which gestures are effective and which are distracting.PR Exhibit 5-8: Gestures Gestures are important in your presentation because they can help you emphasize or clarify certain points. They always should be appropriate for you, the audience, and the occasion. If the gestures are not appropriate, They’ll be distracting. Therefore, when you do not need to gesture, simply find a position for your arms that is natural and not distracting.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • Presentation process 5–19 Body movements Moving your entire body during your presentation can be effective. Walking to a new position can help refocus the audiences attention. Using movement can help emphasize that you are moving on to another main point, and it can help you change the mood or pace of the presentation. Moving to a new position will also help you relieve some of W your nervous energy. It is important that you plan any changes in position before giving the presentation because the audience will notice this type of movement. Keep in mind that unless there is a reason for moving, you should remain in the same position. In addition, you should avoid pacing and shifting your weight from one foot to the other repeatedly because the audience will be distracted by these movements. Do it! D-1: Using nonverbal communication aids Multiple-choice questions IE 1 If you are nervous while speaking, you should maintain eye contact with only one individual during your presentation. True or False? A True B False 2 Which of the following actions will make your presentation delivery appear relaxed? A Eliminating gestures EV B Projecting confidence C Changing positions frequently D Delivering from memory 3 If you notice that members of your audience are not maintaining eye contact during your presentation, you should increase your delivery rate and move to another position. True or False? A True B FalsePRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 5–20 Effective Presentations Using visual aidsExplanation Using visual aids can be an effective addition to your presentation, but they must always be prepared ahead of time. There are several general guidelines you should follow when using your visual aids: • Display as you discuss W • Refer to the visual aid • Maintain focus on the audience Display as you discuss You should display your visual aids, as shown in Exhibit 5-9, only when you are ready to discuss them. Leaving them on display throughout your presentation might tempt your audience to focus on the visual aids instead of listening to what you have to say. Therefore, you should remove them from view before and after you talk about them. IE For example, if you are using slides or overhead transparencies, you can leave the projector off until you are ready to discuss the visual aid. Then, after you have finished displaying the slides or transparencies, turn the projector off. For flipcharts, you can use a blank page to cover any information you have already put on the chart. EV Exhibit 5-9: Display as you discuss Refer to the visual aidPR You should point to the specific parts of the visual aid as you talk about them. If you do not refer to the visual aid, the audience might not understand it, and the visual aid might simply become a distraction. While discussing the visual aid, you might want to increase your volume because your audience will be concentrating on the visual aid as well as what you are saying. You should also be careful that you do not block any of the audience members views of the visual aid as you talk about it.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • Presentation process 5–21 Maintain focus on the audience To use your visual aid successfully, you should maintain your focus on the audience even while you are discussing the visual aid. Naturally, you might need to look at the visual aid as you point out certain items, but always remember to return your focus to the audience. If you turn away from the audience for extended periods of time, you W might lose their attention. In addition, by maintaining eye contact with them, you can watch for feedback about whether they understand what you are explaining. Do it! D-2: Maintaining a focus on the audience Exercises 1 You should maintain a consistent rate of delivery during your presentation. True or False? A True IE B False 2 When done using a visual aid, you should: A Leave it on display B Remove it from view C Pass it around the room D Set it aside EV 3 Read the following scene. Nicholas (District Manager) is standing, giving a presentation in the conference room. Carla and Dana are audience members. For the first section, Carla and Dana are not interested in the presentation. Carla is writing in her day planner or on other notes. She is restless. Dana is sitting back in her chair, arms folded across her chest. She does not make eye contact with Nicholas. Nicholas is starting with a slow speech rate and boring delivery. When he notices their behavior, he should increase his speaking rate and energy. Nicholas: (slow, boring, little vocal variety) I’ve developed several changes for the department that I think will increase productivity, ensure better communication, and create a more cooperative environment. (notices Carla and Dana’s nonverbals) I’m sure that we can implement these plans successfully within a month. If so, then by the end of the year we should see an eight to twelve percent increase in productivity, and we’ll be working in a more positivePR environment. Ask students to share their thoughts. State some of the ways that Nicholas should use to capture Carla’s and Dana’s attention. Share these with students. • By asking questions • By showing credibility • By making humorous statementNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 5–22 Effective Presentations Before starting this 4 Icon’s International Division is organizing an exhibition titled “Computers inactivity, handout the Everyday Life.” As part of the sales team, you have been asked to make a fiveFeedback form to each minute presentation. Each group will be given 10 minutes to prepare thestudent. presentation. Any one member from each team will come and give theDivide the class into two presentation. Remember that the time limit to give the presentation is five Wgroups, Group A and minutes.Group B. Tell students toreview the Feedback form. Using the Feedback form, rateHave two students give each presenter according to thethe presentation and the parameters specified.student rate bothperformances on theFeedback form. Keep each IEpresentation to amaximum of five minutes. Make sure studentsare not overly critical intheir reviews. This is justan exercise.Ask students to sharetheir rating for both thepresenters using theparameters on the form. EVAsk the presenters howthey could have made thepresentations better.PRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • Presentation process 5–23 Unit summary: Presentation process Topic A In this unit, you learned how to prepare for speaking in a presentation. Topic B Next, you learned to understand and use the presentation process. You also learned W about speech anxiety. Then, you learned how to reduce the fear of speaking. You also learned how to stay calm before a presentation. Topic C Then, you learned how to deliver a presentation by using different aspects of voices. Topic D Finally, you learned how to use nonverbal communication aids in a presentation. Independent practice activity 1 What is required to communicate your message successfully? IE To create meaning for the audience by preparing and delivering the presentation in a manner that focuses on them. 2 What is extemporaneous speaking? A method of delivery for presentations where you plan and practice your presentation, but deliver it in a conversational manner. 3 The extemporaneous speaking style is beneficial. True or False? Give a reason. True. It gives you the opportunity to interact freely with the audience. 4 How should you prepare to speak extemporaneously? EV You should rehearse your speech to find any places that do not flow well and then rearrange your presentation accordingly. 5 What is the best way to create a set of presentation notes? Notes should be concise and well organized. 6 What are the various ways to get feedback regarding your presentation? The ways to get feedback about your presentation are: • Practicing with an audience • Practicing in front of a mirror • Recording your practice sessionsPR 7 Is there a process you can follow that will help you deliver successful presentations? Explain the steps? Yes, there is a three-step process. First, prepare to speak. This will reduce the amount of anxiety you feel before giving a presentation. Second, deliver a presentation. Focus on effectively using your voice, facial expressions, gestures, and visual aids. Third, answer questions. When and how you answer questions will affect the success of your question-and- answer session.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 5–24 Effective Presentations 8 Why are people nervous about speaking in front of large groups? They have the fear of public speaking. For example, some think that the audience will laugh, or they are worried that they will not meet the audience’s expectations on the subject. 9 As a presenter, what are your strengths and weakness? In the space below, create a column that lists your strengths and a column that lists your weaknesses. W IE EVPRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 6–1 Unit 6 Question-and-answer session W Unit time: 40 minutes Complete this unit, and you’ll know how to: A Prepare to answer questions and conduct a question-and-answer session. IE B Handle challenging questions and audiences. EVPRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 6–2 Effective PresentationsTopic A: Handle questions effectivelyExplanation Because audience members usually ask questions that reflect their own situation and experiences, you’ll have the opportunity to apply your topic directly to their lives, which will improve your audience’s understanding and retention of the information you W present. Prepare to answer questions The best way to prepare to answer questions is to analyze your audience while you are preparing your presentation. The more you know about the people in your audience, the better you’ll be able to anticipate any questions they might ask. As you prepare your presentation, take time to make a list of questions the audience might ask you, and plan answers to those questions. In addition, you might want to ask IE some colleagues to watch as you practice your presentation. When you have finished, ask them what questions they have, and ask them to point out any potential weaknesses in your presentation. When should you take questions? Although many presenters take questions after they conclude their presentations, it is better to conduct your question-and-answer session just before concluding your presentation. While question-and-answer sessions can be beneficial for you and the audience, there is always a possibility that the session will not go smoothly. EV For example, if you are unable to answer an audience members question, you do not want this situation to be your last impression on the audience. Therefore, answer questions just before your conclusion. As a result, you’ll be able to finish the presentation in the manner you had planned. Tell the audience that you’ll be saving the last few minutes for a review, so they know the presentation does not end with the last question.Do it! A-1: Handling questions Group discussionEncourage students to 1 Acme Electronics is a successful TV manufacturing company. The company hasparticipate in a question- launched a new TV model. As a sales strategy you are giving a presentation on theand-answer session. new model. What questions do you expect from the audience.PRShare these questions • What features are included with the TV?with students and askthem to come up with one • Is this new model better than the old model?or two questions that theywould ask the presenter. • How much does it cost?NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • Question-and-answer session 6 –3 Question-and-answer session Explanation Question-and-answer sessions can be a valuable addition to your presentation. Offering to answer questions from your audience gives you the opportunity to clarify any information your audience has not understood fully. In addition, answering questions gets your audience involved in the presentation, which will increase their level of W attention. Responsibilities during a question-and-answer session As the presenter, you have two responsibilities during a question-and-answer session: • The first responsibility is to answer the questions of your audience as well as you can. Use the questions, as an opportunity to make sure your message is clear. • The second responsibility is to not waste the audiences time. To do so, you must IE regulate the question-and-answer session, so the information remains relevant to your topic and useful to the audience. You’ll need to answer questions with the interest of all your audience members in mind. Therefore, you should make sure that you or an audience member does not move the discussion on to an unrelated topic, and do not let any one issue dominate the discussion, unless it is of interest to the majority of the audience. Methods to approach a question-and-answer session The attitude with which you approach a question-and-answer session will affect its success. Your attitude should reflect your willingness to help the audience understand EV the topic and your appreciation for their questions. Even if taking questions makes you nervous, you do not want to approach the session with a negative attitude. If you respond to an audience members question defensively, the rest of the audience might begin to doubt your knowledge of the topic. If no one in the audience has a question, you should conclude the presentation. However, after the presentation, you should try to determine why there were no questions. In reviewing your presentation notes, you might discover that you covered your topic thoroughly. However, another possibility is that you lost the audiences interest somewhere in the presentation. An audience can lose interest for several reasons: the presentation lasted too long, they became confused and did not understand your message, or they had a firm opinion about the topic before you began and were not open to new ideas. Determining thePR reason for a lack of questions can be valuable for your next speaking experience.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 6–4 Effective Presentations Process to answer a question There are four steps you should use to properly answer a question: 1 Listen. You should listen carefully as audience members ask their questions, so you can provide helpful answers and will not have to ask them to repeat the questions. W 2 Acknowledge. After audience members ask questions, you should thank them for asking to show that you appreciate their participation. 3 Clarify. Before you answer questions, you should make sure you have understood fully what is being asked. Paraphrase the question, and check with the audience member to make sure you have understood correctly. In a large audience, restating the question is also important because the other audience members need to hear the question as well as the answer. 4 Answer. Answer every question in the best and most concise manner you can. It is important that you never ignore a question. Similarly, you should not dwell on IE any particular question, especially if the answer is not of interest to the majority of the audience.Do it! A-2: Understanding the question-and-answer session ExercisesAsk students to share 1 Give some examples where you think asking questions can add value to yourtheir examples and presentation, involve the audience, or increase the level of attention.questions. EV 2 List the steps of answering the Listen, Acknowledge, Clarify, and Answer. questions? 3 Your approach to a question-and-answer session should reflect: A Your ability to defend your topic B Your appreciation for the questions C Your ability to answer any question D Your vast knowledge of the topicPRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • Question-and-answer session 6 –5 Topic B: Handle challenging questions Explanation Occasionally, you’ll be asked certain types of questions that are difficult to answer. Challenging questions W The following are some commonly asked questions for which you should prepare: • Unanswerable questions • Imprecise questions • Suggestions Unanswerable questions If you are asked a question and you have no answer, the best response is to admit that IE you do not know the answer. If you try to bluff your way through, the audience will realize it, and they’ll question the legitimacy of your entire presentation. A positive way to approach this type of question is to offer to find the answer for the person, and then after the presentation, follow through on that offer. Another type of question that can be difficult to handle is one asked for the purpose of embarrassing you. The person who asks this type of question often is trying to gain some recognition by challenging you. Usually, there is no good way to answer the question. The best response is to ask the individual how he or she would answer the question or give a brief answer and move on. Engaging the individual in a discussion will be detrimental to your presentation. EV Imprecise questions Imprecise questions can be difficult to answer because the questions are either too broad and might contain a series of questions, or because the questions are irrelevant to the topic of your discussion. In the case of a question that contains several questions, you might not have time to answer all of the questions. Therefore, you should tactfully ask the individual to be more specific, or you can select one part of the question and answer it. For the irrelevant question, you must try to maintain the focus of the question-and- answer session without disregarding the question. If there is any part of the question that relates to your topic, answer that part and move on. If the question is completely off the topic, give a succinct answer and review where you were before the question was asked.PR This review will help the entire audience get back to your topic. Suggestions Occasionally, you’ll be given suggestions that are phrased as questions. For example, someone might say, Why dont we use the same marketing strategy for Product B as we used for Product A?NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 6–6 Effective Presentations If you encounter a question that really offers a new idea, you should acknowledge and thank the individual for his or her contribution. You might want to offer to talk more about the idea after the presentation. However, it is crucial that you do not disregard the idea or the individual. If you fail to be sensitive, you might offend or embarrass the audience member. WDo it! B-1: Handling challenging questions ExercisesPlay the movie clip in the 1 Watch the movie clip and then answer the following:slide by clicking on it.Ask students to share What kind of question did Dana Dana asked an imprecise question and it wastheir answers. ask? difficult to answer it. The question was too broad and contained a series of questions.Some students might IEhave a different answer. Ifso, lead a discussion 2 While making a presentation, you are asked a question you cannot answer. Whatabout what type of is the best way to handle this situation?question “Dana” asked. A Admit that you do not know the answer B Try to answer the question in the best way you can C Redirect the conversation in a different direction D Engage the person in discussion EV Handle challenging audience membersExplanation Sometimes, an audience member who is particularly difficult might ask you a question. To uphold a good impression with the audience, you need to be able to appropriately handle questions from the following types of audience members: • Hostile individuals • Rambling individuals • Individuals with personal agendas Hostile individuals If a hostile individual asks you a question, remember that the individual probably is looking for an opportunity to receive some recognition or to make a specific complaint.PR You should never engage in an argument with the individual. If the complaint is irrelevant, thank the individual for introducing the point and offer to discuss it after the presentation. If you can provide an answer, do so, but then refocus the discussion on another topic. Rambling individuals Rambling individuals, as shown in Exhibit 6-1, have a difficult time asking a concise question. The risk with this individual is that the rest of the audience might lose interest while the person tries to reach the point he or she wants to make.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • Question-and-answer session 6 –7 To resolve this situation, you’ll probably need to interrupt the individual. If you think you know what they are about to ask, you can state the question for them and then answer it. Otherwise, you could relate something they have said to a previous question or topic of discussion. However you handle the situation, you must be tactful and show that you value the W individuals participation. IE Exhibit 6-1: Rambling individual Individuals with personal agendas EV Individuals with personal agendas will try to dominate your question-and-answer session to discuss their own concerns, which might not be on the same topic as your presentation. You must control this situation, so it does not waste the time of the other audience members or the time you need to conclude your presentation. When addressing this type of audience member, do not let your frustration show. If you become angry, you might lose the support of the other audience members. You should be polite, but assertive. Ask the individual to state his or her question. If this request does not work, explain to the individual that you cannot fix the situation for him or her, and state that you must use the remaining time to finish your presentation.PRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 6–8 Effective PresentationsDo it! B-2: Handling challenging audience Exercises 1 Read the following scene. Nathan (Account Executive) is conducting a question- and-answer session during his presentation. Nathan should be standing. Carla W (Account Executive) is sitting. She is an audience member. Nathan: (friendly) What other questions do you have? (seeing that Carla has a question) Yes, what’s your question? Carla: (energetic) Well, I’m really concerned about how we approach any new changes. I know I’ve been here for five years, and we’ve tried several times to implement plans similar to this one, and they just haven’t worked out. In fact, one of the changes actually caused productivity to plummet, and the employees were very frustrated. In the end, we just ended up going back to the old system (Nathan IE interrupts). Nathan: (encouraging) I see your point about the difficulties of implementing changes. We have laid out a thorough plan for implementation and have made provisions to aid employees throughout the transition. What type of an audience member Carla has a personal agenda. She is trying to use is Carla? Nathan’s question-and-answer session to discuss her own concerns.Select three students and 2 Create a presentation on “Nutrition” and share your presentation with the class. EVask them to create this The presentation should only last between three and five minutes but be sure topresentation during thenext ten minutes. conduct a question-and-answer session before the conclusion.After they are ready, ask The instructor will divide the classone of them to give the into three groups. Each group willpresentation and the othertwo to help the presenter be assigned a role to play, eitheranswer questions. “hostile,” “rambling,” or “personal agenda.” When theDivide the rest of the class question-and-answer session forinto three groups: GroupA, Group B, and Group C. the “Nutrition” presentationAssign each group the begins, ask questions in the rolerole of “hostile,” you’ve been assigned.“rambling,” or “personalagenda.” Ask students toPRplay this role when askingquestions.Note how the threepresenters handle thequestions and later shareit with the students. Make sure studentsask questions one at atime and that this sessionlasts no longer than tenminutes.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • Question-and-answer session 6 –9 Unit summary: Question-and-answer session Topic A In this unit, you learned how to prepare and answer questions during a presentation. Next, you learned how to handle a question-and-answer session with various types of audiences. Then, you learned what are the responsibilities during a question-and- W answer session. You also learned the process to answer the questions. Topic B Finally, you learned how to handle challenging questions and audiences. Independent practice activity 1 Presenters have two primary responsibilities during a question-and-answer session. Choose the best answer that properly identifies these responsibilities. A Answer the audience’s questions as well as possible and try to minimize the IE number of issues that are discussed B Answer the audience’s questions as well as possible and avoid wasting the audience’s time C Only respond to questions to which you know the answers and avoid wasting the audience’s time 2 When giving a presentation, when is the most appropriate time to take questions from the audience? A Immediately after you discuss any complex information in your presentation EV B Right before you conclude your presentation C Immediately following the conclusion of your presentation D Both at the beginning and the end of your presentation 3 What is the best way to handle a situation in which no one in the audience has any questions? A Pose common questions to the audience so they are exposed to that information as well B Keep talking to the audience until someone has a question C Question the audience to identify if they understood everything in thePR presentation D Conclude the presentation 4 Choose the answer that lists the order of the steps you need to follow to ensure that you properly answer a question. A Listen, Clarify, Acknowledge, and Answer B Listen, Acknowledge, Clarify, and Answer C Acknowledge, Listen, Answer, and Clarify D Acknowledge, Listen, Clarify, and AnswerNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 6–10 Effective Presentations 5 What is the best way to respond to the question: “Can you tell me about the IWNS’s benefits over your current system, what the cost breakdown structure is, and how you can guarantee that the IWNS will work on every platform available?” A Ask the individual to clarify his or her question B Tell the audience member that you are only answering specific questions W C Recap where you were at before the question was asked D Explain that you do not have time to answer each question and move on 6 Choose the answer that correctly explains how you should respond to the irrelevant question: “Why do you think your company is better than any of the other large corporations in the market today?” A Explain that the question has no relevance on the audience IE B Ignore the audience member’s question and change the subject C Answer succinctly and review where you were before the question was asked D Shift the discussion focus so it answers the question 7 Choose the answer that explains the correct way to respond to the question: “Why aren’t you using the same marketing team for the IWNS as you did for the video- conferencing network you unveiled last year?” A Refer the audience member to the person who can answer their question EV B Answer the question as quickly as possible and move to a new subject C Disregard the question and say it will be addressed later D Acknowledge the individual’s question and offer to discuss it later 8 Choose the answer that correctly identifies how to address an audience member who tries to dominate a question-and-answer session. A Politely explain that his or her question is not relevant to the topic at hand B Be polite and assertive by telling him or her that you must move on to finish your presentation C Be polite and assertive by asking him or her to give his or her questionPR D Assertively tell them that you understand his or her concerns, but you cannot address them at this timeNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • Question-and-answer session 6–11 9 Choose the answer that identifies the best way to react to rambling audience member. A Politely interrupt the individual, state the question they are trying to ask, and then answer it B Explain to the person that they need to get to the point because your time is W limited C Interrupt the person by telling them that you have to keep the discussion moving D Let them finish asking their question before moving on to another question Rambling individuals have a difficult time asking a concise question. The risk with this individual is that the rest of the audience might lose interest while the person tries to reach the point he or she wants to make. IE EVPRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 6–12 Effective Presentations W IE EVPRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 7–1 Unit 7 Fundamentals of persuasion W Unit time: 70 minutes Complete this unit, and you’ll know how to: A Understand how to persuade and the goals of persuasion. IE B Organize a persuasive presentation. C Use the methods of persuasion. EVPRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 7–2 Effective PresentationsTopic A: Understand persuasionExplanation Although all presentations are persuasive to some extent, a true persuasive presentation attempts to influence the way audience members think about something or influence the way they behave. W Persuasion Being persuasive is challenging because its goal encompasses more than informing an audience. In persuasive speaking, the presenters goal is to influence the audience to agree with him or her and, in some cases, influence the audience to act on this belief. Because peoples attitudes and behaviors are based on the beliefs and experiences they have accumulated throughout their lives, making it difficult to change these attitudes and behaviors. IE To persuade in an ethical manner, you must show respect for your audiences ability to think for themselves. Therefore, you should provide them with all the information they need to evaluate and make rational decisions about the message. You can provide your audience with all the necessary information by following two guidelines: • Do not distort any information • Do not conceal any information Do not distort any information As a speaker, it’s your responsibility to present your topic accurately and discuss it EV openly with your audience. You should never distort information in your presentation. Distorting information is unacceptable because it does not provide the audience with the information they need to evaluate your message properly. Distorting information includes improperly citing sources, misrepresenting evidence, oversimplifying problems or counter-arguments, and misrepresenting your qualifications. Do not conceal any information When speaking persuasively, you should not conceal from your audience any information, including evidence, sources for your evidence, or your true intentions for speaking. Omitting a piece of evidence because it weakens your viewpoint does not provide your audience the information they need to make a rational decision. It’s better to address the information and argue against it. In addition, concealing the sources for information you include in your presentation prevents the audience from examining the credibility of those sources for themselves.PRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • Fundamentals of persuasion 7 –3 Do it! A-1: Understanding persuasion Multiple-choice questions 1 To persuade in an ethical manner, why is it important that the presenter not distort any information? W A Distorting information demeans subject matter B Distorting information makes the audience doubt the credibility of sources used to prepare the presentation C Distorting information negatively affects the presenter’s credibility D Distorting information does not provide the audience with the information they need to evaluate the presentation’s message properly 2 To persuade in an ethical manner, why is it important that the presenter not IE conceal any information? A Concealing information shows the audience that the presenter is not able to argue a viewpoint B Concealing information negatively affects the presenter’s credibility C Concealing information does not provide the audience the information they need to make a rational decision D Concealing information does not give the presenter the opportunity to present all sides of an argument EV Prepare to persuade Explanation When giving a persuasive presentation, it’s essential to know the views your audience has about the subject you are discussing. Their attitude toward your viewpoint, the level of interest they have in the topic, and how much they know about the topic will influence the level of ease or difficulty you’ll have in persuading them. For example, an audience member who is interested, well-informed, and agrees with your position will need no persuasion. However, a person who is interested, well-informed, and disagrees with your position will be difficult to persuade. Audience analysisPR Audience analysis, as shown in Exhibit 7-1, is the process of determining the attitudes and interests of your audience, as well as their knowledge of your topic. Knowing these characteristics about your audience will help you give a presentation that is designed specifically for them. Some other characteristics that will help you cater your presentation to the audience include: age, gender, political membership, religious affiliation, and any other demographic characteristic that will help you determine how to present your message effectively.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 7–4 Effective Presentations Most people analyze the presentation and the presenter while they listen. They might examine aspects such as delivery, supporting materials, and reasoning. The audiences analysis can become a mental dialog with the speaker, especially if they disagree with the speaker. These audience members might create arguments against the speakers position as they listen, and it’s possible that the presentation actually might cause them to be more ingrained in their original position. W In every audience, there will be individuals who are opposed to, in agreement with, undecided about, or unconcerned about the viewpoint you present. You won’t be able to persuade everyone who is opposed to your viewpoint. Therefore, it can be beneficial to target the audience members you are most likely to influence. IE EV Exhibit 7-1: Audience analysis After you have identified your target audience, you can tailor your presentation to them by using a particular style and carefully selecting your content. However, when you target a specific part of your audience, you should also keep the other members of the audience in mind. Even though you’ll not focus your presentation on them, you should not disregard them or say anything to offend them. Goals of persuasion There are two basic goals of persuasion: • Influence attitudes. A speaker might use a persuasive presentation either to change or to reinforce an audiences attitude about an issue. If an audience feels strongly about the issue, changing their attitude can be difficult. To be effectivePR at persuading them, you should plan your presentation according to the audiences current attitude about your topic. For example, you might want to begin your presentation with information with which they’ll agree. • Influence behavior. Persuasion frequently is used to motivate people to take specific actions. It can be difficult to influence audience members behavior because influencing behavior requires that you first influence the way they think about something. The type of change you want to cause in the audiences behavior also plays a role in how difficult it’ll be to achieve the desired results. Usually, convincing an audience to change for the short term is easier than persuading them to change for the long term.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • Fundamentals of persuasion 7 –5 Do it! A-2: Analyzing the audience Multiple-choice question 1 What is the goal of a persuasive presentation? A To change current policies that are largely disagreed upon W B To challenge the audience C To influence the way audience members think about something or influence the way they behave D To relay a message successfully Motivation IE Explanation Motivation is the best way to encourage an audience to change or maintain an attitude or behavior. There are two forms of motivation you can use: positive and negative. If you want to persuade the audience to make a change, positive motivation can be used to show audience members the benefits of making the change. Negative motivation would be used to show the harmful consequences of not making the proposed change. If you want to reinforce something, positive motivation can be used to show the benefits of upholding an attitude or behavior. Negative motivation would show the bad things that might occur due to a change. EV Relationship between motivation and needs To motivate people successfully, you must understand their needs. Persuasive presentations are most successful when they satisfy the needs of the audience. Needs of audience members According to a model created by psychologist Abraham H. Maslow, the needs of audience members can be classified in a hierarchy of five categories. Maslow believed that people had to satisfy the needs in the lower levels before they would be able to consider the higher-level needs. Maslows Hierarchy of Needs includes the following: • Survival needs • Safety needs • Social needsPR • Esteem needs • Self-actualization needsNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 7–6 Effective Presentations Survival needs Survival needs are the basic elements that all humans need to survive, including food, water, oxygen, shelter, and rest. These needs must be satisfied before people begin to think about their other needs. A presentation given to motivate customers to purchase water filtration systems, which W purify their drinking water, is an example of an appeal to peoples survival needs. Safety needs Safety needs refer to the need for stability and order in life. This category includes the need to feel safe at home, the need for financial security, and the need to feel free from fear and attack. A presentation given by a company to its prospective clients might outline the Web security features available for purchases made from its Web site. This information IE would appeal to the clients concerns for the security of their financial transactions. Social needs Feeling a sense of belonging is one of a persons social needs. Other social needs include love, acceptance, attachment, affiliation, and approval. A presentation that encouraged employees to attend the company picnic would be an example of a persuasive presentation that appeals to peoples social needs. The speaker might describe some of the activities planned and invite the employees families to help motivate the audience to attend. EV Esteem needs Esteem needs stem from peoples desire to feel good about themselves. In addition to self-respect, esteem needs include the need for recognition and respect, as well as the need to feel valued by others. Suppose a sales manager gives a presentation to sales representatives, telling them that whoever closes the most new sales over the next two quarters wins a free trip. The award appeals to a persons need to be recognized, valued, and respected. Self-actualization needs Achieving individual potential encompasses the category of self-actualization needs. Part of reaching ones potential might include qualities such as personal growth, self- awareness, knowledge, and openness to challenges. In addition, this category might include the need to make a contribution to life through social responsibility.PR A company representative could use a persuasive presentation to motivate employees to take advantage of career-development classes and seminars to improve their job skills and performance. This presentation would appeal to peoples self-actualization needs.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • Fundamentals of persuasion 7 –7 Do it! A-3: Motivating the audience Exercises 1 What is the proper order for the five needs in Maslows hierarchy of needs? A Survival, safety, esteem, social, self-actualization W B Safety, survival, social, self-actualization, esteem C Survival, safety, social, esteem, self-actualization D Safety, survival, esteem, social, self-actualization Discuss this activity in 2 Read the examples and identify the hierarchy of needs in which they fall. class. Sales award Esteem need IE Seat belts Safety needs Interpersonal skills seminar Self-actualization need Holiday packages Social need Eating food Survival need Claims that persuade EV Explanation The claims you make in a persuasive presentation are called propositions. There are several types of propositions that can be made: • Propositions of fact • Propositions of value • Propositions of policy Propositions of fact Claims that are based on facts are called propositions of fact. These claims are persuasive because there is not enough information to determine a true answer. The claims might be made about events that haven’t yet happened or might be about situations in which available information is inconclusive. For example, a claim that Company ABCs stock value will increase over the nextPR quarter is a proposition of fact. People might speculate that the stock value will increase, and they might have evidence to support the claim, but it’s not possible to know if the stock really will increase. When using propositions of fact, the speaker tries to persuade the audience that his or her claim is correct.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 7–8 Effective Presentations Propositions of value Propositions of value , as shown in Exhibit 7-2, make a claim about whether something is right or wrong. Propositions of value are based on peoples underlying beliefs. This kind of proposition does not examine whether something is true; it examines the worth of an idea or object. W A claim that Company ABCs failure to use recycled materials is disgraceful would be a proposition of value. This claim is dependent on the value that recycling is the right thing to do. Because propositions of value are based on the speakers own principles, he or she must persuade the audience of the claim’s worth. Frequently, in presentations that include propositions of value, there will be competing values concerning the issue. In this situation, the speaker should prioritize these values for the audience. By doing so, the speaker can convince the audience that the value he or she is emphasizing is more important than the conflicting value. IE EV Exhibit 7-2: Proposition of value Propositions of policy Propositions of policy are based on convincing the audience that something should or should not be done. Propositions of policy often can be recognized by the use of the word should.PR For example, a claim that Company ABC should increase the price for its new product line is a proposition of policy. There are two ways a proposition of policy can be used: to persuade the audience to agree with a policy or to persuade the audience to take steps to enact a policy. In the first option, the speakers goal is to change the way the audience thinks about a course of action. In the second option, the speakers goal is to persuade the audience to put the policy into action. In either presentation, propositions of fact and value might be incorporated to strengthen the argument for a policy change.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • Fundamentals of persuasion 7 –9 When using a proposition of policy, how can I encourage my audience to take action? There are two steps that can help you encourage your audience to act in support of your policy: • Demonstrate a need • Demonstrate practicality W Demonstrate a need To convince your audience, you must demonstrate that there is a need for a policy change. The audience probably will not endorse a change unless they can see that there is a problem with the status quo. When you establish a need for change, the audience will pay more attention to your solution and they’ll be more willing to take actions to enact it. Demonstrating a need for change will be most effective if you show how a change in IE policy will address the audiences needs. It’s also important that you make a specific and clear statement about satisfying their needs, so there is no chance for misunderstanding or misinterpretation. If the purpose of your presentation is to show that a current policy should be maintained, you can show why there’s no need for a change in policy. Demonstrate practicality After you have demonstrated a need for change and described a plan to achieve that change, you’ll need to show that your plan is practical. Audience members want to enact plans that’ll work without causing other problems. There are two effective ways to EV support the practicality of your plan: provide expert testimony and offer examples of successful plans that are similar to yours. In addition, practicality is important if your presentation advocates that a certain policy should be maintained. In this case, you can defend the current policy by showing that the proposed plans are impractical either because of their likelihood of failure or the other problems they’ll cause.PRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 7–10 Effective PresentationsDo it! A-4: Making claims True/False 1 Propositions of policy can be used to change the way the audience thinks or behaves. True or False? W A True B False 2 When you analyze your audience, you should determine their attitudes, interests, and knowledge of your topic. True or False? A True B False IEDiscuss the correct 3 The two ways to support the practicality of a plan for making a policy changeanswer with students. include statistics and examples of similar plans that have been successful. True or False? A True B False EVPRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • Fundamentals of persuasion 7–11 Topic B: Organize a persuasive presentation Explanation A persuasive presentation should consist of three major parts: • The introduction is the first impression you give the audience. The introduction W provides you an opportunity to introduce your position and show the audience why they should listen to your presentation. • The body of the presentation absorbs most of the time you have for presenting, because it includes the main points. Your main points are the important ideas and arguments you express to your audience to promote your position. • The conclusion is your last chance to make your case. It is an opportunity to summarize what you have covered in the presentation and make a final appeal for action. IE Introduction With your introduction you should try to accomplish the following: 1 Capture attention 2 Create concern for the topic 3 Establish credibility 4 Preview the proposition and structure Capture attention EV Because many of the audience members might be preoccupied with distractions as you begin your presentation, your introduction must grab their attention. During the introduction, you can get your audiences attention by asking questions, telling a story, sharing a quotation, or making a startling statement. You should use the method that works best for you, for your topic, and for your audience. Create concern for the topic After you have the audiences full attention, you should arouse interest in your topic, so the audience will want to listen to the rest of your presentation. Create concern for the topic by telling the audience how the problem or issue relates to them. If it doesn’t relate directly to them, tell them how the problem might affect them in the future or how it might affect people they know. Establish credibilityPR When you establish your credibility in the introduction of your presentation, the audience will be more likely to listen to your message. People generally are more willing to listen if they feel you are qualified to speak on a topic. Therefore, you need to share with the audience the knowledge, personal experience, or professional experience you have that’s relevant to the topic. The best way to share your qualifications is to simply list them and relate them to your topic.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 7–12 Effective Presentations Preview the proposition and structure Your introduction should state the proposition and preview the structure of your presentation. If you know the audience is hostile to your position, it’s especially important to wait until the end of your introduction to state your proposition. After you have captured their attention, created concern for the topic, and established your W credibility, the audience will be more receptive to your proposition. Previewing the structure of your presentation will help the audience follow along. If they know what to listen for and what to expect, they’ll understand and learn more.Do it! B-1: Creating a persuasive introduction ExercisesDiscuss the correct 1 The introduction of your persuasive presentation should introduce your position,answer with students. appeal for action, and demonstrate why the audience should listen to your IE presentation. True or False? A True B FalseDiscuss the correct 2 You can create concern for your topic by sharing the knowledge and experiencesanswer with students. you have that are relevant to the topic. True or False? A True B False EVAsk students to share 3 Give an example of a method that could be used to capture an audience’stheir examples. attention.Discuss their examples. 4 Read the following scene. Nicholas is giving a presentation. Nicholas: (spirited, connecting with the audience) The process we use to notify each department of changes in a product affects us all. If we could streamline this process, it would make our jobs easier and less time-consuming. Imagine not having to track down the information you need to complete a project. Imagine notPR being bombarded with questions you cannot answer and information you do not need. We must improve our communication channels for the benefit of us all.Students might have How is Nicholas starting the Nicholas is creating concern for the topic in hisdifferent views. Have them introduction? introduction.discuss their viewpoint.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • Fundamentals of persuasion 7–13 Body of persuasive presentation Explanation The organization of your presentation will depend on the results from the audience analysis and the type of proposition on which you will base it. There are seven organization patterns you can use to organize the body of your persuasive presentation: • Topical organization W • Criteria-satisfaction organization • Problem-solution organization • Comparative advantages organization • Refutative strategy • Monroes motivated sequence • AIDA model IE Topical organization Topical organization commonly is used for presentations based on propositions of fact or propositions of value. With this organizational method, you should select two to five reasons why the audience should agree with your claim. These reasons become the main points of your presentation. Topical organization works well for an audience who is neutral to your topic and not well-informed. In this situation, the audience will not have any preconceived notions about your topic and you’ll not have to counteract any opposing arguments. Criteria-satisfaction organization EV The criteria-satisfaction organizational pattern can be used for presentations on propositions of value. Remember that propositions of value make a claim about whether something is right or wrong. In other words, they offer an evaluation of an idea, person, or object. For example, a proposition of value could be: The companys president is effective. Criteria-satisfaction organization shows how the presentation topic fits the evaluation through two main points. The first main point provides a set of criteria that defines the evaluative word in the proposition. For the previous example, the evaluative word is effective. The first main point might include this criterion: An effective president possesses vision for the future of the company. The second main point demonstrates how the topic of the presentation meets the criteria expressed in the first main point. To satisfy the example criterion, the second main point might discuss the improvements the companys president made to the research andPR development department. Problem-solution organization Problem-solution organization works best for proposition of policy presentations. There are two main points in this organization pattern. The first one demonstrates to the audience that there is a problem and a need for change. Successfully demonstrating that a problem exists encourages the audience to listen to a solution. The second main point describes the solution.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 7–14 Effective Presentations The challenge of using problem-solution organization is that you’ll probably want to convince your audience to take a particular action in support of your solution. If so, you need to convince them while making the second main point. You must convince them that your solution is worth its cost and that it is better than any alternatives. It’s important to analyze your audience thoroughly before using the problem-solution W organization. If your audience is not well-informed about your topic, you need to educate them about the topic so they can more fully understand the problem. In other cases, people might understand the topic but disagree about the existence of a problem. You need to plan ahead to handle both of these situations. There are several variations to the problem-solution organization. Occasionally, you might want to motivate the audience to develop solutions to a problem. In this case, you would need only to identify the problem. Another possibility is that you want to defend a current policy. If so, your first main point should show that there is no need for change. The second main point then can be used to attack changes proposed by others. IE If, however, there is a need for change, you could use the second main point to show that none of the proposed solutions will solve the problem. Comparative advantages organization The comparative advantages organizational pattern should be used for proposition of policy presentations when the audience already agrees that a problem exists. Because there is no need for you to describe the problem, you can use the body of the presentation to examine the advantages and disadvantages of different solutions. Each main point should represent some aspect of your claim and describe how each alternative responds to that aspect. Ultimately, you want to show that your solution is EV the best alternative. For example, imagine Company ABC needs to purchase more equipment, and they are looking at two possible suppliers to provide that equipment: Company 1 and Company 2. For this example, the main points could be: Company 1 will charge less for the equipment than Company 2 will charge, and Company 1 has a longer warranty than Company 2 has. If you use more than two main points in your presentation, you should put the best and second-best arguments first and last. People tend to remember the first and last things they hear, so this order will help improve the audiences retention. Refutative strategy The refutative strategy works well for presentations on propositions of fact, value, or policy. This organization pattern persuades the audience by presenting and refuting, orPR disproving, the counter-arguments to your position. Your first main point should provide support for your position, the second main point should show support against your position, and the third main point should refute the support that argues against your position. When using the refutative strategy for propositions of policy change, you have two ways to attack the counter-arguments. You can show that the opposing plan is faulty due to flawed reasoning, or you can demonstrate that applying the opposing plan would cause undesirable results. Refutation works well for persuading people who are opposed to your viewpoint.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • Fundamentals of persuasion 7–15 Monroes motivated sequence As a professor of speech at Purdue University in the 1930s, Alan Monroe created the motivated sequence organizational pattern. This pattern is used to organize presentations on propositions of policy and to motivate the audience to take action. Monroes persuasive pattern consists of five steps that form the structure for an entire W persuasive speech: 1 Attention. Open you presentation with information that will capture the attention of your audience. 2 Need. Illustrate and emphasize the need for a change in policy. 3 Satisfaction. Satisfy the need for change by explaining a plan to accomplish the change. 4 Visualization. Help your audience visualize the positive effects of implementing your plan. 5 Action. Close your presentation by telling your audience what steps of action IE you want them to take to support your plan. AIDA model The AIDA model, which is an abbreviation for the four steps used in this process, can be used to organize presentations that support a change in policy. The AIDA model was originally developed as a tool to help salespeople develop successful presentations and includes the following: 1 Awareness. Tell your audience about the situation and illustrate the need for change. EV 2 Interest. Build interest in the problem by providing support to which your audience can relate. 3 Desire. Describe to your audience how a change will benefit them so they’ll want the change to take place. 4 Action. Instruct your audience on what steps they can take to make a change.PRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 7–16 Effective PresentationsDo it! B-2: Understanding the body of a persuasive presentation Exercises 1 Which of the following choices shows the correct order for Monroes motivated sequence? W A Attention, need, satisfaction, visualization, action B Need, satisfaction, attention, visualization, action C Attention, visualization, need, satisfaction, action D Action, need, attention, visualization, satisfaction 2 Which of the following should be the third main point in a presentation that is organized according to the refutative strategy? IE A Support for the speaker’s position B Counter-arguments for the speaker’s position C Information that disproves the opposing position D Support for the opposing positionDivide the class into two 3 Your company has launched a new car. You have to prepare a presentation togroups. Give 15 minutes advertise the car. Your presentation should be based on the AIDA model.for this activity.Ask a representative from EVboth groups to make thepresentation.Discuss the effectivenessof both presentations withthe entire class.Ask students to share Answer the following questions:their answers. What does AIDA stand for? Awareness, Interest, Desire, Action How would you apply the AIDA Tell the audience about the situation and the need for change model in the above scenario?PR Build interest by providing support Share the benefit of the change Outline the steps necessary to make the changeNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • Fundamentals of persuasion 7–17 Topic C: Methods of persuasion Explanation There are several elements of a presentation that influence an audience: 1 Reasoning W 2 Credibility 3 Emotional appeals Reasoning Reasoning is the means by which our mind examines information, draws conclusions from evidence, and makes decisions. Because the mind follows certain patterns of logic to perform this task of reasoning, it’s important to identify these patterns and use them correctly. The following are five common types of reasoning that can be used during a IE persuasive presentation: • Deductive reasoning • Inductive reasoning • Reasoning by sign • Reasoning by cause • Reasoning by analogy Deductive reasoning Deductive reasoning draws a specific conclusion from general principles, beliefs, or EV ideas. These general principles are called premises. The structure of a deductive argument contains two premises followed by a conclusion. The first premise is a general statement that applies to a group. The second premise makes a statement about some particular part of that group. To ensure that you use deductive reasoning correctly, there are two guidelines you should follow. You must be certain that the conclusion follows with certainty from the premises, and you must be certain that your premises are true. The following argument is an example of deductive reasoning: Murphy Industrys new product line is built to quality standards that are superior to the competition. (Premise) The E6 is one of the products in the new line at Murphy Industry. (Premise) The E6 is built to meet superior quality standards. (Conclusion)PR A sales representative at Murphy Industry could use this example of deductive reasoning to promote the new product line. However, to use this argument effectively, a speaker would have to provide support, such as statistics, testimony, or examples, to show that the premises and conclusion are true. The first premise makes a statement about a group: Murphy Industrys new product line. The second premise makes a statement about the E6, one of the products in the new line mentioned in the first premise. The conclusion does follow necessarily from the premises.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 7–18 Effective Presentations Inductive reasoning Inductive reasoning draws a conclusion from specific instances. Conclusions that are drawn don’t necessarily follow the specific instances. Instead, the specific instances offer support that the conclusion is probably true. Therefore, when you use inductive reasoning in a presentation, you should provide plenty of evidence to support your W conclusion. The following is an example of inductive reasoning: Ninety-five percent of Nordans customers are satisfied with their service. If you become a Nordan customer, you’ll be satisfied. A sales representative at Nordan could use this example of inductive reasoning to attract new customers. In the example, it’s only probable that you’ll be a satisfied customer, but the evidence, ninety-five percent of Nordans customers are satisfied, strongly supports this conclusion. IE To use inductive reasoning effectively, you must make sure that the evidence from which you drew your conclusion is strong enough to support it. In addition, you should word your conclusion appropriately. Don’t make a broad conclusion that cannot be supported by the evidence. Reasoning by sign Reasoning by sign is a form of inductive reasoning in which the presence of one attribute is an indication that some other condition is present. Sign reasoning can be useful in presentations when the audience will accept the conclusion without an in-depth EV explanation of how you reached it. The following is an example of sign reasoning: Last Monday when the server went down, two days worth of work was lost. Because a substantial amount of information was lost, Stover Incorporated clearly needs a better backup system. This example of sign reasoning might be used by an Information Services Manager to persuade upper management that upgraded equipment is needed. In the example, the amount of data lost serves as the sign or attribute that indicates the presence of another condition. The other condition in this example is the need for upgraded equipment. There are some guidelines you should follow to use sign reasoning effectively. First, the relationship between the attribute and the condition must be more than coincidental. Then, you should determine if the attribute is a reliable sign of the condition. In addition, you should consider if there are other signs indicating the same conclusion.PR Reasoning by cause When someone uses reasoning by cause, they use a form of inductive reasoning that attempts to establish a cause-effect relationship between two events. A speaker might use causal reasoning to determine the cause of certain effects. After the cause has been determined, it can be removed, and then the effects are eliminated. A speaker might also examine specific events and speculate what the effects of these events might be. Whichever way you use causal reasoning, you must provide substantial evidence to establish that the cause-effect relationship exists.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • Fundamentals of persuasion 7–19 The following is an example of reasoning by cause: Last quarter the marketing department began a new campaign. Since that time there has been a 20 percent increase in Web site traffic. This example of causal reasoning might be used in an internal briefing that examined the positive results of the new marketing campaign. The example tries to establish a W cause-effect relationship between the marketing campaign and the increased Web site traffic. When using causal reasoning its important to follow several guidelines. First, you must be certain that the cause actually occurred before the effect. Second, you can’t assume that one event occurring before another means that the second event was caused by the first. Third, you should evaluate whether or not the alleged cause actually could bring about the effect. Fourth, you must consider that effects might have more than one cause. Reasoning by analogy IE When reasoning by analogy, you draw conclusions based on the similarity of two items. The conclusions infer that because the items are alike in some ways, they’ll be alike in other ways. Reasoning by analogy often is used for propositions of policy. Speakers use reasoning by analogy when they compare their own plans for a policy change to similar plans that have been successful. The following is an example of reasoning by analogy: Nelsons New York branch implemented a new plan to improve productivity. Nelsons Atlanta branch is preparing to implement a plan similar to the New York plan. EV Therefore, the plan in Atlanta will be successful. In the example, the conclusion that Atlantas plan will be successful is based on the similarities between it and the New York plan. For this argument to be successful in a presentation, a speaker would need to provide evidence that the plans are similar enough to support the conclusion. When using reasoning by analogy, you should consider that the number of similarities between the items would affect the strength of your conclusion. If the items are not essentially alike, your conclusion will not be strongly supported by the argument. In addition, you should consider whether or not the similarities are relevant to the conclusion. CredibilityPR Explanation The credibility of a speaker is the perception the audience has of that speaker. Credibility is based on a combination of a speakers knowledge of the topic and how he or she presents this information. For example, if a speaker is well educated but mumbles and avoids eye contact with the audience, his or her credibility will suffer. If a speaker delivers the presentation well but does not sufficiently know the topic, his or her credibility will be reduced. A speakers level of credibility fluctuates, depending on nearly everything he or she does during a presentation, from the choice of words to the organization of the main points. Even though credibility is an audience attitude, you can and should try to obtain the highest level of credibility you can because it is an important factor in persuading an audience.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 7–20 Effective Presentations Enhancing Your Credibility There are many factors that influence an audiences assessment of a speakers credibility. Two of the most influential factors are expertise and character. An audience is more likely to be persuaded by a speaker who appears to be trustworthy and knowledgeable about the presentations topic. Other influences on credibility include the W audiences perception of a speakers motive, the speakers appearance and charisma, and the perception of similarities between the audience and speaker. There are several ways you can enhance the audiences perception of your credibility: • Explain your background • Emphasize similarities • Use effective delivery • Use a positive attitude IE Explain your background Because audience members are not likely to accept the claims of a person they dont find credible, you need to share with them the knowledge or experience you have that qualifies you to speak about your topic. Explain any research you have completed, as well as any personal or professional experiences you have had that are relevant to the topic. Emphasize similarities As a speaker, its important to establish any similarities between you and the audience. People are more likely to be persuaded if they feel the speaker has the same values, EV experiences, and opinions as they do. Emphasizing similarities is essential when the audience opposes your viewpoint. In this case, its beneficial to find some point of agreement at which to start your presentation. After you have established a connection with the audience, you have a better chance of influencing them when you discuss the topics with which they disagree. Use effective delivery Many elements of delivery affect a speakers credibility. Usually, speakers who deliver presentations with vocal variety and high energy are seen by the audience as more credible, than speakers who do not have a lively delivery. Speaking with sincerity and confidence is one of the strongest elements of delivery that can affect your credibility. If the audience doesnt believe that you are sincere andPR confident, theyll probably be skeptical of your message. If the audience is skeptical, then youll not be able to persuade them effectively. Use a positive attitude Its important for a speaker to have a positive attitude toward the audience. An attitude that conveys your desire to help the audience and address their concerns improves your credibility. In addition, you must be respectful of your audiences viewpoint even when it is contradictory to your own. If you attack the audiences beliefs, theyll become defensive, and theyll not be receptive to your message. When the audience is defensive, its possible that your attempts to persuade them only will reinforce their attitudes and beliefs.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • Fundamentals of persuasion 7–21 Another way to show your respect for the audience is to prepare fully for your presentation. Being on time and organized improves your credibility. If the audience has to wait while you finish setting up your visual aids or organizing your notes, your credibility diminishes. In addition, you should dress in a manner appropriate for the audience and occasion, which shows your respect for them. W Emotional appeals Explanation Using emotional appeals is an effective way to persuade an audience. Because people are driven by their feelings as well as their thoughts, it is important to influence their emotions as well as their minds. Strong emotional appeals can help change attitudes and behavior. When using emotional appeals to persuade your audience, you should use vivid, active, and colorful language. Using language that has emotional appeal helps arouse an emotional response from the audience in support of your position. Frequently, creating IE an emotional response in people is the best way to get them to take action. Another way to appeal emotionally to your audience is to make your words and speaking style correspond with the emotion of your presentation. Also, you can make emotional appeals by using examples and speaking with sincerity. For example, if a companys community foundation wanted to implement a new campaign to help children growing up in poverty, the public relations director might give a presentation to community leaders to gain their support for the project. In this presentation, he or she might make an emotional appeal similar to the following: The children in this community deserve to have food, clothing, shelter, and security. They EV deserve to attend a good school, and they deserve the chance to reach their full potential. Helping these children will not only improve their lives, but itll provide promise for the future of our community. Evidence to be more persuasive Because evidence is an important part of reasoning, you need to use it effectively. The evidence you provide to support your arguments should be recent, specific, and from an unbiased, credible source. The best way to use evidence is to find the points in your presentation at which the audience might be inclined to doubt your position. You must place convincing evidence at these points, so your audience cannot reject the argument as unsupported. You should clearly demonstrate the connection between your evidence and your claims, so the audience can see the connection.PR If your audience is likely to reject your argument, you should cite the source of your evidence before presenting the information. If they hear the name of a reputable source before they hear the information, it will be difficult for them to dismiss the evidence.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 7–22 Effective PresentationsDo it! C-1: Using different methods of persuasion ExercisesDiscuss in class. 1 Read the following example, identify the type of reasoning, and give the reason to support your answer. W What can you conclude when you Reasoning by sign. Someone is using the phone make a phone call and receive a line you are trying to call. busy signal?Discuss the students’ 2 Give an example for each of the following types of reasoning.examples. Reasoning by cause If I don’t study, I will fail the test. IE Inductive reasoning Plato is mortal, Aristotle is mortal, Dr. Kingsley is mortal. Therefore, all people are mortal." Deductive reasoning All people are mortal, therefore, I am mortal. Reasoning by analogy Knowledge always desires increase: it is like fire, which first must be kindled by some external agent, but which will afterwards propagate itself. 3 Inductive reasoning draws conclusions from specific instances. True or False? A True EV B False 4 Which of the following guidelines should you use with sign reasoning? A The conclusion follows with certainty from the premises B The attribute is a reliable indication of another condition C The similarities are relevant to the conclusion D There are sufficient similarities between the items 5 Which of the following actions increases your ability to influence an audience that disagrees with you? A Use a positive attitudePR B Explain your background C Emphasize similarities D Use effective deliveryNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • Fundamentals of persuasion 7–23 Divide the class into two 6 Is evoking an emotional response from an audience the best way to get them to groups. take action? Why or why not? Have Group A discuss the pros of emotional responses and Group B discuss the cons of W emotional responses. Make sure that the discussion lasts 10 minutes or less. Have Group A share their What are the pros of emotional Emotional appeals are effective because people thoughts. Encourage the responses? are driven by the feelings as well as the thought entire class to discuss. of the presenter. IE Have Group B share their What are the cons of emotional Some people might be against this because they thoughts. Encourage the responses? consider it useless to capture attention by entire class to discuss. feelings. Show only the first 7 Observe the slide shown by the instructor. Do you think it is true? slide of the “Fact” presentation. Ask students whether they agree to the statement or not. EV Show the students the fact Observe the next slide. that supports the statement. Discuss the impact of showing the source to the audience. 8 Read the following scene. In the scene, Mary and Dana are sitting in Mary’s office. They have been discussing Dana’s preparation for an upcoming presentation. Mary: (friendly) Is there anything else I can help you with? Ask this question to Dana: (concerned) Actually, yes. I want to make sure the audience sees me as a students and have them credible speaker. What can I do to enhance my credibility?PR respond to it before showing “Mary’s” next statement. 9 Now, read the answer given by Mary. Mary: (explaining) That’s an important question. Credibility is vital if you want to persuade your audience. I think it’s crucial to be prepared, on time, and dressed appropriately. These things show your audience that you respect them. It is also helpful to convey your interest in the audience’s concerns. Encourage students to Is it beneficial for Dana to discuss. enhance her credibility? Give reasons.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 7–24 Effective PresentationsUnit summary: Fundamentals of persuasionTopic A In this unit, you learned how to use persuasion effectively in a presentation and you learned the various goals of persuasion. WTopic B Next, you learned how to organize the three major elements of a persuasive presentation.Topic C Finally, you learned how to use the different methods of persuasion to influence an audience. Independent practice activity 1 What is a persuasive presentation? A presentation that attempts to influence an audience’s opinions or behaviors. IE 2 When does information become distorted? When you cite sources improperly, misrepresent evidence, oversimplify problems or counter- arguments, or misrepresent your own qualifications. 3 Complete the following statement by choosing the correct answer. If you tell a story and ask a rhetorical question in the introduction, you will be: A Creating concern for the topic B Establishing your credibility EV C Previewing the presentation’s structure D Capturing the audience’s attention 4 Complete the following statement by choosing the correct answer. If you tell the audience that the operating cost is currently very high and your solution can bring it down during the introduction, you will be: A Gaining the audience’s approval B Creating concern for the topic C Establishing your credibility D Previewing the presentation’s structurePR 5 Complete the following statement by choosing the correct answer. When giving a presentation to a hostile audience, you state a proposition: A After capturing the audience’s attention and establishing credibility B After capturing the audience’s attention and creating topic concern C After creating concern for the topic but before establishing credibility D After capturing the audience’s attention but before establishing credibilityNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • Fundamentals of persuasion 7–25 6 Complete the following statement by choosing the correct answer. If you tell an audience about your personal knowledge and past experiences, you will be: A Previewing the presentation’s importance B Highlighting the company’s market dominance W C Determining your topic and its importance D Establishing your credibility 7 If the audience opposes your viewpoint, what is the best organizational pattern to use? A Topical organization B Comparative advantages organization IE C AIDA model D Refutative strategy Refutative strategy persuades the audience by presenting and refuting, or disproving, the counter-arguments to your position. 8 If the audience is neutral to your viewpoint, what is the best organizational pattern to use? A Appeal for action approach EV B Comparative advantages organization C Refutative strategy D Topical organization The audience will not have any preconceived notions about your topic and you’ll not have to counteract any opposing arguments 9 What are the ideal placements for the best and second-best arguments in a presentation? A The first and last points in the presentation B The first two points in the presentationPR C The last two points in the presentation D The two middle points in the presentation 10 If the audience is sympathetic to your viewpoint, what is the best organizational pattern to use? A Comparative advantages organization B Criteria-satisfaction organization C Monroe’s motivated sequence D Refutative strategyNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 7–26 Effective Presentations 11 Which of the following statements correctly defines credibility? A The audience’s perception of the speaker based on knowledge and presentation skills B A quality of the speaker that leads to persuasive reasoning W C An audience’s thought pattern when drawing conclusions from evidence D An emotional element that creates distress between the speaker and audience 12 Which of the following statements correctly identifies the best way to build a speaker’s credibility? A Tell the audience about experiences with past winners B Inform the audience that a friend had benefited from the scholarship IE C Express negativity toward those who want to eliminate the program D Emphasize differences between low and middle income students 13 What should a speaker do to encourage a hostile audience to agree with his or her viewpoint? A Tailor the presentation to agree with the audience’s viewpoint B Show respect for the audience by speaking about something else C Emphasize similarities between the speaker and the audience EV D Attack the audience members’ viewpoints to show that their thinking is flawed 14 Complete the following statement by choosing the correct answer. When using vocal variety during a presentation, you will increase your credibility with the audience by: A Using effective delivery techniques B Accentuating similarities with the audience C Emphasizing a positive attitude D Communicating with nonverbal behavior 15 What type of reasoning occurs when a speaker draws a general conclusion fromPR specific instances? A Deductive reasoning B Inductive reasoning C Causal reasoning D Reasoning by signNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • Fundamentals of persuasion 7–27 16 What type of reasoning occurs when a speaker argues that one event is the outgrowth of another event? A Reasoning by sign B Reasoning by analogy W C Deductive reasoning D Reasoning by cause 17 What type of reasoning occurs when a speaker draws a specific conclusion from general beliefs? A Reasoning by analogy B Premise reasoning IE C Deductive reasoning D Inductive reasoning 18 Select the type of reasoning being used in this example: “Icon’s product managers are dedicated to their jobs. Dana is one of Icon’s product managers. Therefore, Dana is dedicated to her job.” A Deductive reasoning B Inductive reasoning EV C Reasoning by cause D Emotional reasoning 19 Select the type of reasoning being used in this example: “Almost all of Icon’s corporate clients are located in North America. Foxborough Industries is one of Icon’s corporate clients. Therefore, Foxborough is located in North America.” A Effectual reasoning B Reasoning by analogy C Causal reasoning D Inductive reasoningPR Inductive reasoning draws a conclusion from specific instances. 20 Select the type of reasoning being used in this example: “The old version has been extremely successful with customers. Because the product’s new version is similar to the old version, it’ll also be successful.” A Reasoning by analogy B Reasoning by emotional appeal C Reasoning by sign D Reasoning by cause Draws conclusions based on the similarity of two items.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • 7–28 Effective Presentations 21 What three characteristics must evidence possess to be effective? A Support your argument, contains first-hand quotes, and seems realistic B Recent, specific, and from an unbiased source C Reliable, consistent with other evidence, and lengthy W D General, established, and come from an experienced source 22 When is the best place to use evidence in a presentation? A At the end of the presentation so the audience is left with a positive impression B At points in the presentation where the speaker has little else to say C At the beginning of the presentation to convince the audience immediately D IE EV At points in the presentation where the audience might doubt the argumentPRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • S–1 Effective Presentations W Course summary IE This summary contains information to help you bring the course to a successful conclusion. Using this information, you will be able to: A Use the summary text to reinforce what students have learned in class. B Direct students to the next courses in this series (if any), and to any other resources EV that might help students continue to learn about Effective Presentations.PRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • S–2 Effective PresentationsTopic A: Course summary At the end of the class, use the following summary text to reinforce what students have learned. It is not intended as a script, but rather as a starting point. W Effective Presentations Unit 1 In this unit, students learned how to identify and use effective presentations. Next, they learned to use the types of presentations. Then, they learned the aspects to plan a presentation. Students also learned how to establish and determine objectives for the presentation. Then, they learned to make realistic objectives. Finally, they learned how to introduce secondary objectives. IE Unit 2 In this unit, students learned to analyze the audience. Next, they learned the benefits of analyzing. They also learned how to determine and select supporting material. Finally, students learned different types of supporting material. Unit 3 In this unit, students learned how to build a presentation. Then, they learned how to respond to a presentation. Next, they learned how to develop the introduction by establishing credibility and previewing topics and main points. Then, students learned EV how to capture audience attention. Next, they learned how to organize the body of the presentation. Then, they learned about the importance of the organization. Next, students learned how to use a transition. Finally, they learned different functions of a conclusion. Unit 4 In this unit, students learned about the advantages of visual aids. Then, they learned how to incorporate visual aids. Next, they learned different types of visual aids. Then, students learned how to display the visual aids. Finally, they learned how to create visual aids. Then, they learned the guidelines to follow to create visual aids. Unit 5 In this unit, students learned how to prepare to speak in a presentation. Next, theyPR learned to understand and use the presentation process. Then, they learned about speech anxiety. Next, they learned how to reduce the fear of speaking. Then, students learned how to stay calm before a presentation. Next, they learned how to deliver a presentation by using different aspects of voices. Finally, students learned how to use the nonverbal communication aids in a presentation.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • Course summary S–3 Unit 6 In this unit, students learned how to handle questions. Next, they learned how to handle a question-and-answer session. Then, they learned what are the responsibilities during a question-and-answer session. Next, students learned the process to answer the question. Finally, they learned how to handle challenging questions. W Unit 7 In this unit, students learned how to understand persuasion for a presentation. Next, they learned the different goals of persuasion. Then, they learned how to organize a persuasive presentation. Finally, students learned how to use different methods of persuasion. IE EVPRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • S–4 Effective PresentationsTopic B: Continued learning after class Point out to your students that it is impossible to learn to use any subject effectively in a single day. To get the most out of this class, it is important that students begin making use of the effective presentations techniques they’ve learned as soon as possible. Course W Technology also offers resources for continued learning. Next courses in this series This is the only course in this series. Other resources Course Technology’s sister company, NETg, offers a full line of online and computer- IE based courses on Effective Presentation and a variety of other subjects. For more information, visit www.netg.com. This course maps precisely to the following three NETg courses: • Effective Presentation: Planning a Presentation • Effective Presentation: Presentation Process • Effective Presentation: Essentials of Persuasion EVPRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • G–1 Glossary W Audience analysis Literal analogy Process to determine the needs of your audience. Makes comparisons between items that are essentially the same. This type of analogy can be used Bar graph to increase understanding or to provide proof. Shows specific values at specific times. Bar graphs might be created horizontally or vertically. Line graph Illustrates patterns or trends over time. Because the Decision-making presentation line graph is easy for your audience to understand, you Provides a list of the pros and cons of each can display multiple sets of data by showing several alternative to help facilitate decision-making. lines. IE Deductive reasoning Problem-solving presentation Draws a specific conclusion from general Identifies possible solutions to eliminate a problem. principles, beliefs, or ideas. Persuasive presentation Effective presentation Requires the presenter to change the minds of the Provides the opportunity to communicate audience members. important, specific information in a succinct manner that is beneficial to the audience members. Pie graph Depicts parts of a whole. It can show distribution Expert testimony patterns and percentages. Provides credibility to your claims. Taken from individuals that are recognized as authorities on the Propositions of fact EV topic. Claims that are based on facts. Figurative analogy Propositions of value Draws comparisons between items that are Claims that are based on peoples underlying fundamentally different. These analogies usually are beliefs. This kind of proposition does not examine used to improve understanding by comparing an whether something is true; it examines the worth of an unfamiliar concept to a familiar one. idea or object. Inductive reasoning Propositions of policy Draws a conclusion from specific instances. With Claims that are based on convincing the audience inductive reasoning, the conclusions drawn don’t that something should or should not be done. follow from the specific instances. Instead, the specific Propositions of policy often can be recognized by the instances offer support that the conclusion is probably use of the word should. true. Reporting presentation Informative presentation Updates people, frequently management groups,PR Provides details about an object or event of some about something. It often is used to report on the type or explain concepts or processes. progress of a project with which the audience is familiar. Instructional presentation Teaches or demonstrates how to use new Supporting materials equipment or processes. Specific pieces of information that develop the topic of your presentation and supports your ideas or Lay testimony claims. Provides first-hand insight and can be influential emotionally. Taken from individuals who are not recognized authorities, but have some valuable experience with the topic.NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • G-2 Effective Presentations W IE EVPRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • I–1 Index W Enhancing, 7-20 A Ways to enhance, 7-20 Criteria-satisfaction organization AIDA model Using, 7-13 Steps, 7-15 Using, 7-15 Analogies D Using as supporting materials, 2-8 Decision-making Articulation Presentation type, 1-4 Aspect of voice, 5-14 Deductive reasoning IE Audience analysis Using, 7-17 Benefits of, 2-2 Diagrams Methods of, 2-2 Using as visual aids, 4-5 Using, 7-3 Audience attention E Methods of attaining, 3-5 Using questions in, 3-5 Emotional appeals Using quotation in, 3-5 Evidence, 7-21 Using reference in, 3-6 Using, 7-21 Using startling statements in, 3-6 Examples Using story in, 3-5 Using as supporting materials, 2-5 EV Audience members Expert testimony Hostile, 6-6 Using as supporting materials, 2-6 Needs, 7-5 Extemporaneous speaking Personal agendas, 6-7 Benefits of, 5-2 Rambling, 6-6 Collecting feedback, 5-3 Types of, 6-6 Creating notes, 5-2 Preparing for, 5-2 B F Bar graphs Using as visual aids, 4-6 Facial expressions Body movement Using, 5-17 Using, 5-19 Fear of speaking Steps to control, 5-6 C Flipcharts Using as visual aids, 4-9PR Cause-effect organization Using, 3-9 G Charts Using as visual aids, 4-5 Gestures Chronological organization Using, 5-18 Using, 3-8 Graphs Comparative advantages organization Bar graphs, 4-6 Using, 7-14 Line graphs, 4-6 Conclusion Pie graphs, 4-6 Ending of, 3-14 Types of, 4-6 Functions of, 3-12 Using as visual aids, 4-6 Constraints Using with objectives, 1-9 H Credibility Handouts Effects on, 7-19 Using as visual aids, 4-11NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • I–2 Effective PresentationsHierarchy of Needs Eye contact, 5-17 Esteem, 7-6 Facial expressions, 5-17 Safety, 7-6 Gestures, 5-18 Self-actualization, 7-6 Personal appearance, 5-18 Survival, 7-6Hierarchy of Needs social, 7-6 OHostile individual W Handling of, 6-6 Objectives Secondary, 1-10I Objects Using as visual aids, 4-4Imprecise Organization Question type, 6-5 Importance of, 3-2Inductive reasoning Parts of a presentation, 3-2 Using, 7-18 Overhead transparenciesInformative Using as visual aids, 4-10 Presentation type, 1-3 P IEInstructional Presentation type, 1-3Introduction Pauses Capturing attention, 7-11 Aspect of voice, 5-15 Creating topic concern, 7-11 Personal agenda individuals Developing, 3-4 Handling of, 6-7 Establishing credibility, 7-11 Persuasion Parts of, 7-11 Audience analysis, 7-3 Previewing proposition and structure, 7-12 Goals of, 7-4Introductions Guidelines, 7-2 Capturing attention with, 3-4 Methods of, 7-17 Establishing credibility with, 3-4 Preparing, 7-3 EV Previewing, 3-4 Understanding, 7-2 Persuasion methodsL Reasoning, 7-17 Types of reasoning, 7-17Lay testimony Persuasive Using as supporting materials, 2-6 Presentation type, 1-4Lectern Photographs Using, 5-13 Using as visual aids, 4-4Line graphs Pie graphs Using as visual aids, 4-6 Using as visual aids, 4-6 PitchM Aspect of voice, 5-15 PresentationMain points Steps to remain calm, 5-9 Organization of, 3-8 Presentation processModelsPR Steps, 5-3 Using as visual aids, 4-4 PresentationsMonroes motivated sequence Advantages of, 1-2 Steps, 7-15 AIDA model, 7-15 Using, 7-15 Aspects of voice, 5-13Motivation Audience analysis, 2-2, 7-4 Using, 7-5 Audience attention, 3-5 Audience members, 6-6N Body of, 7-13Needs Cause-effect organization, 3-9 Hierarchy of, 7-5 Challenging questions, 6-5Nonverbal communication Chronological organization, 3-8 Aspects of, 5-17 Closing, 3-14Nonverbal communications Comparative advantages organization, 7-14 Body movements, 5-19 Conclusion, 3-12 Constraints, 1-9NOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • Index I–3 Credibility, 7-19 Using, 7-13 Criteria-satisfaction organization, 7-13 Propositions Decision-making type, 1-4 Propositions of fact, 7-7 Deep breathing exercises, 5-10 Propositions of policy, 7-8 Delivering, 5-13 Propositions of value, 7-8 Determining objectives, 1-8 Types of, 7-7 Effective, 1-2 Using, 7-7 W Emotional appeals, 7-21 Propositions of fact Extemporaneous speaking, 5-2 Using, 7-7 Fear of speaking, 5-5 Propositions of policy Handling questions, 6-2 Steps used in, 7-9 Informative type, 1-3 Using, 7-8 Instructional type, 1-3 Propositions of value Introduction, 3-4, 7-11 Using, 7-8 Lectern, 5-13 Making mistakes, 5-11 Q Monroes motivated sequence, 7-15 IE Motivation, 7-5 Question-and-answer sessions Needs of audience members, 7-5 Methods of, 6-3 Nonverbal communication, 5-17 Responsibilities, 6-3 Objectives, 1-7 Questions Organization, 3-2 Handling challenging, 6-5 Organization patterns, 7-13 Handling effectively, 6-2 Organizational parts of, 3-2 Imprecise, 6-5 Organizing, 7-11 Preparing answers for, 6-2 Organizing main points, 3-8 Steps in answering, 6-4 Organizing the body, 3-8 Suggestions, 6-5 Parts of, 7-11 Taking, 6-2 Unanswerable, 6-5 EV Persuasion, 7-2 Persuasion methods, 7-17 Persuasive type, 1-4 R Planning, 1-7 Rambling individual Preparing to speak, 5-5 Handling of, 6-6 Presentation process, 5-3 Rate Problem solving organization, 3-8 Aspect of voice, 5-14 Problem-solving organization, 7-13 Reasoning Problem-solving type, 1-3 Deductive reasoning, 7-17 Propositions, 7-7 Inductive reasoning, 7-18 Question-and-answer sessions, 6-3 Reasoning by analogy, 7-19 Realistic objectives, 1-9 Reasoning by cause, 7-18 Reasons for creating, 1-2 Reasoning by sign, 7-18 Refutative strategy, 7-14 Types of, 7-17 Reporting type, 1-4 Reasoning by analogy Response from, 3-2PR Using, 7-19 Spatial organization, 3-9 Reasoning by cause Speech anxiety, 5-5 Using, 7-18 Supporting materials, 2-4 Reasoning by sign Tension-relaxtion exercises, 5-10 Using, 7-18 Topical organization, 3-9 Refutative strategy Topical Organization, 7-13 Using, 7-14 Transitions, 3-11 Reporting Types of, 1-3 Presentation type, 1-4 Visual aids, 4-2, 5-20 Retention aids Warm-up routine, 5-11 Types of, 2-8 Problem solving organization Using as supporting materials, 2-8 Using, 3-8 Problem-solving Presentation type, 1-3 S Problem-solving organization SlidesNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE
    • I–4 Effective Presentations Using as visual aids, 4-10 VideoSpatial organization Using as visual aids, 4-10 Using, 3-9 Visual aidsSpeech anxiety Advantages of, 4-2 Reasons for, 5-5 Charts, 4-5Statistics Computer-based aids, 4-11 Using as supporting materials, 2-7 Creating, 4-12 WSuggestions Diagrams, 4-5 Question type, 6-5 Elements of, 4-2Supporting materials Flipcharts, 4-9 Analogies, 2-8 Graphs, 4-6 Examples, 2-5 Guidelines, 5-20 Purpose of, 2-4 Handouts, 4-11 Retention aids, 2-8 Incorporation of, 4-3 Selection of, 2-4 Models, 4-4 Statistics, 2-7 Objects, 4-4 Testimony, 2-6 Overhead transparencies, 4-10 IE Types of, 2-5 Photographs, 4-4 Visual aids, 2-8 Practicing with, 4-13 Slides, 4-10T Tables, 4-4 Types of, 4-4Tables Using, 5-20 Using as visual aids, 4-4 Using as supporting materials, 2-8Testimony Video, 4-10 Expert testimony, 2-6 Ways to display, 4-9 Guidelines, 2-6 Whiteboards, 4-9 Lay testimony, 2-6 Voice Using as supporting materials, 2-6 EV Articulation, 5-14Topical organization Aspects of, 5-13 Using, 3-9, 7-13 Pauses, 5-15Transitions Pitch, 5-15 Using, 3-11 Rate, 5-14 Variety, 5-15U Volume, 5-13Unanswerable Volume Question type, 6-5 Aspect of voice, 5-13V WVariety Whiteboards Aspect of voice, 5-15 Using as visual aids, 4-9PRNOT FOR PRINTING OR INSTRUCTIONAL USE