1. BENETT INTERNATIONAL COLLEGE POST GRADUATE DIPLOMA IN BUSINESS MANAGEMENTStrategic Business Management & PlanningPrepared by-Name-Deepak KapoorWord limit- 5000 1
2. TABLE OF CONTENTS:-Abstract …………………………………………………….Introduction……………...................................................Aim of Microsoft……………………………………………SWOT..............................................................................ECONOMIC.....................................................................SOCIAL..........................................................................TECHNOLOGICAL.........................................................ENVIRONMENTAL........................................................BARRIER TO ENTRY.....................................................SUPPLIER POWER.......................................................BUYER POWER.............................................................COMPETITIVE RIVALRY ..............................................Types of Information Systems needed to aid in the decision making process atmanagerial levels.........................................................Improvement of Customer Relations……………..Critical analysis of competitive advantages to an organizationChallenges to an organization & Managing changeConclusion………………………………………………..References……………………………………………….Bibliographies………………………………………….
3. Abstract:In my assignment I have highlighted the aims of the renowned organization likeMicrosoft whose continuous success due to their strong strategies and planningastonished the entire IT industry in the 21st century. I clearly stressed Microsoft’sstrength, weaknesses, opportunities and threats which explains the organizationcontinuous business strategies and planning. Based on various obvious facts I must saythat any organization who want to be successful must plan ahead to achieve thecompany’s desire goal which should include economic, social, technological andenvironmental factors.INTRODUCTION:According to William E. Ward: Four steps to achievements ‘Planpurposefully, prepare prayer fully, proceed positively and perusepersistently’ Strategic business management and planning inbusiness world and in business organization whether it is a publicsector organization or private sector organization refers to the set orthe change of the goals and aims of the organization. Strategicmanagement and planning is a key to success to reach the corporateladder that is to give the organization a strong plat form from thevery beginning of the business. The management is responsible forthe strategy and planning as how to achieve a one desire goal of anorganization. The management should give the judgment afterconsidering all the aspects of that planning. Good management andplanning strategy.According to L.H.Hunt ‘Decide what you want, decide what you arewilling to exchange for it. Establish your priorities and go to work’MICROSOFTThis assignment is about the “Microsoft”. Microsoft is the world’s leading producer ofcomputer software. Microsoft was founded in Albuquerque, New Mexico in1975 by BillGates and Paul Allen and is now one of the largest and most successful companies in 3
4. the world (Microsoft, 2005). They are the largest and most successful companies in theworld. Microsoft headquarters are located in Redmond, Washington, a suburb ofSeattle. It is the developer and distributor of software’s such as Windows, MicrosoftOffice, and DirectX and other programmers and games which will be listed later on inthis assignment. In almost all the countries in the world people are using Microsoftoperating system. Microsoft is one of the most dramatic examples of network externalityin economics.The Microsoft Corporation is doing a monopoly business and their product has aneffective domination in the operating system market. Almost every computer that is soldhas a copy of Microsoft Windows pre-installed (Microsoft industry products andsolutions, 2006). This assignment describes its mission statement (Microsoft),evaluating its strengths and weaknesses using the SWOT analysis, establishing thestrategic information systems needed to give the company a competitive edge,discussing the information systems (ISs) that could aid in the decision makingprocesses at the different managerial levels. Aim of the Microsoft“At Microsoft, we work to help people and businesses throughout the world realize theirfull potential. This is our mission. Everything we do reflect this mission and the valuesthat make it possible.” A mission statement captures an organisations purpose,customer orientation and business philosophy. Effective missions are inspiring, long-term in nature, and easily understood and communicated (Learn Direct Business, 2003)The mission statement of Microsoft comprises of a general objective which is, to assistindividuals and businesses become cognizant of their presently unrealized capacity.Secondly, not only does the mission statement capture this but in the journey to allowingindividuals and businesses realize their full potential they intend to do this in a morallyethical way. Thirdly the mission statement captures the target group for Microsoft whichis the world. The question is then asked, “Has Microsoft achieved its goals andobjectives outlined in its mission statement for the last 31 years and if yes, how?”In allowing people realize their full potential Microsoft has made available the followingOffice Software including Word (a word processor), Excel (a spread sheet), PowerPoint(presentation software) and Access (a database storage) to list a fewMicrosoft Windows pre-installed on most computers, the current versions being XP andWindows serverMicrosoft’s company web browser the Internet ExplorerHotmail (online mail service)MSN Messenger (online chat service)Windows media player (for listening to music)XBOX, for those individuals who are into gaming and this is also used for playingmovies Microsofts succession of Windows operating systems, Vista is the most recent.Microsoft has indeed been achieving one if its goals which is being a global organization
5. as their product has had an effective domination in the operating system market. Almostevery computer that is sold has a copy of Microsoft Windows pre-installed. Microsoft’sweb browser is most widely used in the world and it has become a default browser withall the version of Windows since Windows 95. Microsoft has definitely aided in therealizing of our full potential as individuals as the preparation of this assignment is usingMicrosoft word. Organizations are able to have soft copy storage of data and so easyretrieval of information. In the financial services Microsoft experience FinancialServices program assists businesses in increasing their revenue by improving customersatisfaction and employee productivity while reducing operational costs (Microsoftindustry products and solutions, 2006.) The work environment can be relaxing bylistening to some music on the very computer you are using instead of spending moremoney to buy a radio. In the home the same device you use to play your games can beused to watch a movie. In so doing Microsoft has enabled us to maximize on ourmonetary funds.The company has made its presence in markets by online advertising, mobile devices,and enterprise software. In 2008 Microsoft made repeated efforts to acquire Yahoo! Butultimately two companies would instead sign a deal in 2009 to combine their searchoperations.Strengths and Weaknesses of Microsoft (SWOT analysis)There are two types of environmental factors that affect every organisation, these areremote and industrial. An organisation’s strengths and weaknesses are those factorswithin or closely related to the organisation such as Porter’s five forces (these includebarriers to entry, supplier power, buyer power, substitutes available and competitiverivalry). However the opportunities and threats faced by the organisation are thoseremote environmental factors and these include economic, social, political,technological and ecological (PESTE) .In evaluating the possible opportunities andthreats that Microsoft is faced with this report will group them according to the acronymPESTE.PoliticalMany organizations are faced with possibly threats from political factors such as lawsthat can be enforced by the government and terrorism to list a few. Microsoft hasexperienced many political factors that have tried to impact on the organization in anegative way but the company has been successful in overcoming these factors andhas been able to sustain its sales. In the past two years, Microsoft has made significantprogress in resolving many of the legal issues facing the company including the recentU.S. Court of Appeals decision reaffirming its settlement with the Department of Justice,most of the state class-action lawsuits, and the AOL and Sun Microsystems cases alongwith patent claims such as the InterTrust litigation. Resolving these issues marks animportant step forward in clarifying Microsofts legal and related business risk (Gilbertand Katz, 2001). "We have resolved the large majority of our legal issues, which thecompany has always said was a prerequisite to addressing our cash managementplans," said Brad Smith, Microsofts general counsel. "While we still have a number of 5
6. legal issues and we take them seriously, we have reduced the legal uncertainties facingthe company, and we have a much clearer understanding of the potential risks involvedin the cases that remain, such as the ongoing European Commission case" (Redmond,2004).EconomicThese factors usually pose as potential threats in an organization, such as internal andexternal inflation. Currency exchange rate has been affecting the demand for computersin certain parts of the world and fluctuating currencies can negatively impact revenuesin the global marketplace (Microsoft, 2005). Increasing globalization of the Microsoftindustry has definitely been a significant advantage for the company as this creates adomino effect which increases profitability for the company.SocialThe social lifestyle is not one that would affect Microsoft as in every country and inevery industry, they desire new technology to help them boost their organization aheadof others in this rather competitive world that we live in. In other words Microsoft will notencounter much of a social barrier globally; it is a product that is welcomed byeveryone. This is definitely a probable strength in favour of Microsoft as it means “thesky is the limit” socially.TechnologicalMicrosoft has made significant advancement in their technology which has definitelyworked in their favor and so has strengthened the company. They continue to beinnovative with their products and utilization of these innovations where increasing theirmarket share is concerned. They are a pure dot-com enterprise which facilitates lowercost both for themselves and the customer, data communication and are user friendly.Being the big giant in the software market they have made and still continue to makehardware to support specific software business strategies and to list a few:Microsoft mouse which encouraged the use of windows operating system GraphicalUser Interface (GUI). This made GUI more user-friendly and so increased its salesWeb TV (an internet television appliance)The tracing of stolen goods such as laptops and pirated software (this is done whenthese people log on to the internet. (This has given Microsoft huge benefits)PDA also known as the wireless system (The maximization of peoples time so they canmail while on their way) Microsoft has a big involvement in the productions of modifiedsoftware for NASA and the Pentagon Recently introduced is the Trusted Computingwhich Microsoft has presented as their solution to computer insecurityEcological/EnvironmentalBeing a software industry Microsoft has not been affected by these factors whichcomprise of elements such as salinity levels etc.To add to this Microsoft has had many opportunities in its favor as cheaper globaltelecommunication costs open new markets as people connect to the market; mobilephone applications and exploitation of personal digital assistants; popularity amongpeople for internet access and the demand for personal computers in the global market.Possible threats in the market exist from Apple and Linux, UNIX dominates high-end
7. mission-critical applications, software piracy and hardware manufacturers (SunMicrosystems, Oracle, IBM, AOL and Apple) are issuing their own pre-bundledprogrammes on their own hardware. .DISCUSSION ABOUT THE COMPETITIVENESS AND ATTRIBUTES OF EMERGENT ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE INTHE LIGHT OF PORTER’S FIVE FORCES MODEL :In a business world competition factor can never be overlooked and it is just like a builtin threat or I say a mandatory threat which must take into consideration by themanagement of any organization while planning its strategy. Therefore the profit or therates of return must be constant for any organization to be successful. Economicresearch states that many organization can face the above mentioned threat ofcompetition factor and can be sustained to a certain level of profitability, thus followingare the five forces that any organization can be effected by -:Barriers to EntryMicrosoft has made it difficult for new entities into the software industry by increasingthe barrier to industry. Klein, 2001 says that the dominance of windows in the market foroperating systems is due in large part to its success as a software platform; that is, tothe fact that a great many software developers write application programmes solely forthe windows operating system. Because “porting” or rewriting application programmesto run on other less popular operating systems can be expensive, an “applicationsbarrier to entry” may exist in the market for operating system but not succeed incompetition with windows because of the lack of sufficient applications. Bessin andBaskin, 1999 state that the standard economic rationale for patents is to protectinnovators from imitation and thereby give them the incentive to incur the cost ofinnovation. Conventional wisdom holds that, unless would-be competitors areconstrained from imitating an innovation, the inventor may not reap enough profit tocover that cost. Thus, even if the social benefit of invention exceeds the cost, thepotential innovator without patent protection may decide against innovating altogether(Gilbert and Katz, 2001).Supplier PowerBeing the great Monopoly Microsoft has been, its bargaining power is quite high whichwould cause a decrease in supplier power.Buyer PowerBeing a monopoly for many years Microsoft has been able to reduce buyer powerhowever with the increase in competition this is gradually going up (Gilbert and Katz,2001). It will however take a while for this to be of significant interest to the company asits products and devices are user friendly and it has in someway made its products veryinelastic.Substitutes Available and Competitive RivalryIt is in the interest of any thriving company to seek to have both competitive rivalries andsubstitutes of their products being low. There are not many substitutes available and so 7
8. this has definitely worked in the favor of Microsoft. However they have to be very carefulthat they increase on their innovativeness and marketing strategies as the presentcompetitors (AOL, Netscape, Oracle etc.) have been introducing great products andhave every intention of being the “next giant.” Microsoft presently owns most of themarket and if it keeps on increasing its technology it should be able to overcome thepresent and possible future substitutes (Netscape Communications CorporationsCompany Backgrounder, 1999).In addition to its weaknesses Microsoft has unsatisfied employees. Employeescomplaints are rooted in a number of factors. They resent cuts in compensation andbenefits as profits soar. Theyre disappointed with the stock price, which has barelybudged for three years, rendering many of their stock options out of the money. Theyrefrustrated with what they see as swelling bureaucracy, including the many proceduresand meetings Chief Executive Steven A. Ballmer has put in place to motivate them. Andtheyre feeling trapped in an organization whose past successes seem to stifle currentcreativity. "Theres a distinct lack of passion," says one engineer, who would talk only oncondition of anonymity. "Were missing some spunk" (Troubling exist at Microsoft, 2005).Still, Microsoft faces serious long-term challenges: the rising popularity of the Linuxopen-source operating system, a plague of viruses attacking its software, and potentrivals such as Google in the consumer realm and IBM in corporate computing (Bessinand Baskin, 1999; Yoffie and Cosumano, 1999). Operating systems ranging fromWindows 98 to Windows Server 2003 64-bit edition, as well as the Outlook Express e-mail program, are affected by the problems with the imperfect and insecure codes(Clark, 2004).Strategic Information Systems to keep Microsoft ahead in the gameDecisions are classified into structured (repetitive) and unstructured (not routine). Thisinformation will allow the organisation to develop the best strategy to achieving orfulfilling its mission. Most scholars in strategic management are familiar with thedistinction between "content" research which deals with the content of strategies and"process" research which examines the strategic decision process and the factors thataffect it. Content research has been quite useful in providing rules and guidelines on thetypes of strategies which lead to the best performance for different types oforganisations in different competitive conditions (Schwenk, 1995). Before a companycan achieve improvements in its organisation, the company has to first recognise itsweaknesses (intelligence phase), conceive alternative solutions (design phase), selectthe best suited among the alternatives (choice phase) and then execute the bestchoices (implementation phase). The question is then asked, what information isrequired to increase the competitiveness of Microsoft? Key Success Factors, factorswhich must go right if the company is to achieve it’ mission are indications of theposition Microsoft stands in relation to its competitors and where it needs to go. Inimplementing systems that will aim at improving its security Microsoft will then increaseits market share as people will be forced to buy. Secondly Microsoft will need to dointensive research on its competitors, researching the products that they have (andMicrosoft lacks) and improving on these systems. Making sure that its software’s
9. (Microsoft) are always ahead of its competitors; improving on its present systems suchas Internet Explorer, the Microsoft Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) Library and RemoteProcedure Call (RPC). Also extending it’s cliental and the types of software’s availablewill definitely give Microsoft a competitive edge to its competitors such as theautomotive industry. Competitiveness and efficiency are more important now than at anytime in the history of the automotive industry. Microsoft Dynamics business software canhelp with powerful manufacturing, financial, and CRM solutions that support leanbusiness processes (Microsoft Dynamics solutions for automotive suppliers: Increasingglobal competitiveness, 2006). Also Microsoft will need to improve on its humanresources as this is a critical factor to the successiveness in any organisation. On atactical level, an enterprise competes for present market share. It does this by offering acontinuing succession of product features and by adjusting price. As the niche fills withcompetitors, the competition becomes a squabble and profitability is eroded. On astrategic level, an enterprise competes for the future by envisioning a new niche,inventing and fielding the product capability to service the niche first, and reaps thebenefits of this innovation and risk taking. However, “Given human nature, evolvingthreat models and the increasing interconnectedness of computers, the number ofsecurity exploits will never reach zero," Gates wrote in the recent letter (Clark, 2004),(see fig.2).Characteristics of Operational Tactical Planning Strategic PlanningInformation Planning and and Control and Control ControlSource Largely Internal ExternalScope Well defined Very wideLevel of aggregation Detailed AggregateTime horizon Historical FutureCurrency Highly current Quite oldRequired accuracy High lowFrequency of use Very Frequent infrequentFig 2: The required characteristics of information in different planning and controlactivitiesGory and Scott Morton, 1971Planning:For any organization to be successful in the business word and to reach the corporate 9
10. ladder business planning is one of the major factor and this allows organization tohandle any un avoidable circumstances which may comes in the way to success of anyorganization. Planning ahead of time gives the opportunity to identify any threat and toutilize business key strength at the right time. A proper business plan gives the precisepicture of the company’s goals and objectives, it does also foresee financial structure ofan organization including financial forecast. Business plan must explain as how thebusiness is going to be developed and how the finances will be managed.As I have discussed about the planning and strategy of Microsoft In implementingsystems which aims the security of Microsoft result in increase of its market share,however by applying right planning formula Microsoft has to go in extensive researchon its competitors and have to watch competitors movement, only planning ahead canmake the difference in the interest of Microsoft.Types of Information Systems needed to aid in the decision making process atmanagerial levelsAn information system is a system, whether automated or manual, that comprisespeople, machines, and or methods organized to collect, process, transmit, anddisseminate data that represent user information. There are 6 main types of informationsystems, these are: 1Executive Support Systems (ESS) 2Decision Support Systems (DES) 3Management Information Systems (MIS) 4Knowledge Work Systems (KWS) 5Office Automation Systems (OAS) 6Transaction Processing Systems (TPS)The three main managerial levels are; strategic, tactical and operational (Fig.3)
11. Figure 3: Strategic, Tactical and Operational BIQuinn, 2006It is at these levels that the different information systems are used. ESS is utilized at thestrategic level by senior managers. Business intelligence (BI) is an IS which providesperformance metrics to management and executives, often in conjunction with a formalmanagement methodology such as Balanced Scorecard or Six Sigma. Strategicbusiness intelligence, one of the latest crazes, is generally called performancemanagement (PM). Depending upon which analyst firm you subscribe to, PM might bepreceded by a C for corporate performance management, an E for enterpriseperformance management or a B for business performance management (not to beconfused with BPM, the acronym for business process management). ESSs are veryexpensive to develop and are used to monitor key performance indicators of theorganization (e.g. Dividends and market share) and comparing them with competitors. Itis at this stage that the decisions made are of an unstructured format and so will takemore time and careful planning. This will indeed be beneficial to Microsoft in aiding inthe decision making process (Quinn, 2006). As suggested by DeLone & McLean (1992),“… the executive managers are ideally positioned to act as key informants in aqualitative assessment of IT impacts in their corporations.” 11
12. MISs and DSSs are utilized at the management or middle level used by professionalsand staff. In making decisions managers are faced with what is known as limits onrationality; this is where the human perceptual system is slow, personal biases exist andpersonal characteristics such as dogmatism pose to be problems. DSSs assistmanagers in this area as they look at all the possible options, analyze them in terms ofcost/risk etc. and then assist in the choice phase. Tactical business intelligence, calledtraditional and or analytical in various industry articles, is the application of businessintelligence tools to analyze business trends, frequently comparing a specific metric(such as sales or expenses) to the same metric from a previous month or year. Theanalysts within Microsoft in each department would use online analytical processing(OLAP) and hoc query to perform this task.KWS is used by the technical staff especially research and development and this existbetween the lower most level and the middle level. As Microsoft is an innovative leadingcompany in technologies, it is essential to establish a good knowledge work system inwhich the tactical managers and the operational managers within Microsoft branchesin different countries can follow the same standardized knowledge, instructions anddecisions made by the executive level. Standardizing quality control systems andprocedures and smooth functioning in manufacturing processes have occurred whencompanies have established good knowledge work systems. With these systems inplace and efficiently utilized Microsoft will definitely stay ahead in the game.TPSs are basic computerized systems which are used at operational level. This systemcan be used to record and process day-to-day transactions of an organization. Howeverthey are most successful for both B2B (business to business) and B2C (business tocustomer) companies and in the establishment of innovative and creative transactionprocessing systems in which both frontline staff and outside customers can used thesetransaction processing systems via online. This will enable these systems to beoperated for dual purposes. Although the main purpose of transaction processingsystem is to gather day-to-day transaction information towards the company, thesesystems are being adapted as a customer relationship tool innovatively by companies,
13. e.g. online order processing system, online payment and online after sales servicesystem). Nowadays more or less customer relationship management programmes(CRM) are integrated with companies’ transaction processing systems and are playing avital role for the companies’ long term success. Microsoft could adapt the transactionprocessing system at operational level to gather day-to-day transaction information aswell as maintain existing customer relationship by creating online service programmes(e.g. DELL computers) (Marketing research and business information system, 1996).Office automation system consists in a fully computerized and automatic system whichcan be used at any managerial level in a company. When the office automation systemshave been created by the large companies these systems are operating by themselveswithout much human control. Creating an error-free culture within the company, costeffectiveness & less human interference and speed and accuracy are the main benefitsof a good office automation system. Nowadays the large companies are operating withtheir own specific office automation systems in which these companies can managetheir large customer data base as well as other relevant stake holders and cater to all ofthem by using intranet and extranet. Microsoft could have a specific and unique officeautomation system throughout the branches which could help to manage the largenumber of customer data base and relevant stake holders as well as inside and outsideof the organization (Marketing research and business information system, 1996). 13
14. Improvement of Customer RelationsIn thinking of how Microsoft can improve its customer relation with IS/IT systemsMicrosoft has to first analyze its present strategic situation by asking itself somequestions; these are 11-What are the industry’s dominant economic features? 22-What is the competition like and how strong are the competitive forces? 33-What is causing the industry’s competitive structure and business environment to change? 44-What companies are in the strongest/weakest positions? 55-What strategic moves are rivals likely to make next? 66-What are the key factors for competitive success? 77-Is the industry attractive and what are the prospects for above average profitability?The answers to these questions and the IS/IT systems used will improve Microsoft’scustomer relation. The key factor that must affect the industry within the market place isidentifying the basis of customers choosing Microsoft over competing brands. (What canMicrosoft offer me that AOL is not offering me?). Microsoft also needs to ensure that ithas the necessary resources and competitive capabilities to compete successfully andthey need to ensure that they achieve and sustain this competitive advantage. KeySuccess Factors (KSFs) are also known as Key Result Areas (CSFs); each key successarea needs a measure of performance or performance indicator. In the software industrya key performance indicator could be the ability of Microsoft to increase its technologywith new and innovative software’s and browser provider. The customer relations seemto be improved when the use of technology and efficient flows of information areavailable for both parties. The IT/IS facilitates better customer contact and thus biggercustomer loyalty when they can contact the business representatives with no need toqueue, thanks to the Web (online procedures such as e-mails, e-commerce and e-business) or the telephone itself. This kind of system at the end of the day leaves thecustomer and the employees smiling. According to Porter, 1999, “efficiency is achieved
15. by using IT to reduce operating costs or to improve productivity, while effectivenesscomes from using IT to foster greater flexibility and responsiveness to changing marketneeds”.CHALLENGES TO THE ORGANIZATION:Change is very living part of every organization. In the business world’s, all people likechange. Change can be implemented in many factors. Organizational structure, Policiesand rules, processes, systems, work force, culture, factual activities. Changes are notnew. In past decade, changes are taking place In today’s economy, major three factorsare influenced. They are knowledge, change, and globalization.The competitive pressure forced the changes in the counties in various parts of theworld and the creation of Free trade agreements. It creates changes in economics,changes in technology and political changes. Tragic options are value added activities,Raw Materials, Components, End Products Firm, Specific Knowledge, priorityTechnologies, Management Skills, Marketing Skills, Brand Equity Production, know-howagreements.Changing is very important context. All business organization faces new challengesfrom globalization, new technologies and business models.Plan for the development of change in an organization I would like to highlight theprocess of organizational change as follows-:Planning for the change to meet the Challenges: • Analysis of the environmental and social economic system • Analysis of the stake holders • Decision making of facilitating community • Developing of an ECHO System management strategies. • Negotiation among agencies and other organization • Strategy of the management system in an organization. 15
16. DOING: • Making changes in the managements • Building of the capacity • Experts in projects and advancement of technologies • Running the management system successfully • Development of the communityREVIEWING: • Evaluation of the success and performance of the organization • Analyze the social and economic outcome of an organizational changeConclusionsIn this ever changing world a corporation needs a lot of things to survive and compete.Microsoft has been a giant success story in the software industry for approximately 30years. Being an industry that produces software’s, Microsoft can better improve itself byusing what it produces in aiding decision making at specific levels of management.Microsoft will guarantee itself success in this rather competitive market by coming upwith creative devices and software’s that are globally craved for. Furthermore, we cansay that strategic business management and planning is a process of making wisejudgment and selection of different options while considering the information availablefrom different sources. Thus management and planning we decide the aim andobjective of business organization then we look to achieve one common goal that isprofessional management and planning.
17. 8.0 References • Bessen, J and Maskin, E (2002) Sequential Innovation, Patents and Imitation. Research on Innovation and Visiting Scholar, MIT Sloan School of Management [online] Available from <URL:http://www.researchoninnovation.org/patrev.pdf> • Clark, M (2004).Software giant Microsoft has admitted to no less than 20 new flaws in its software, the most ever announced at once. Entropy [online] Available from <URL:http://www.electricnews.net/news.html?code=9407701> • DeLone, H and McLean, R (1992) Information Systems Success: The Quest for the Dependent Variable”. Information Systems Research • Gilbert, RJ and Katz, ML (2001). An Economist’s Guide U.S. v. Microsoft Journal of Economist Perspective 15: 25-44 • Gory, GA and Scott Morton, MS (1971) A framework for management information systems Sloan Management Review 13 (1) • Learn Direct Business, (2003) [online] (Available from <URL:http://www.learndirect-business.co.uk/campaigns/finances05/glossary/ • Marketing research and business information system, (1996) The Chartered Institute of Marketing • Microsoft Dynamics solutions for automotive suppliers: Increasing global competitiveness, (2006) [online] Available from <URL:http://www.microsoft.com/dynamics/industry/automotive.mspx.> • Microsoft industry products and solutions, (2006) [online] Available on <URL: 17
18. http://www.microsoft.com/business/industry.mspx>• Netscape Communications Corporations Company Backgrounder, (1999) [online] Available on URL:http://wp.netscape.com/company/about/backgrounder.html• Porter, M (1999) “Ser Competitivo: Nuevas Aportaciones y Conclusiones.” Spain.• Product overview: Microsoft Dynamics CRM 3.0 [online] Available from <URL:http://www.microsoft.com/dynamics/crm/product/overview.mspx>• Redmond, W (2004) Remarks by Bill Gates, Chairman and Chief Software Architect, Microsoft Corporation Microsoft CEO Summit 2004 [online] Available from <URL: http://www.microsoft.com/billgates/speeches/2004/05-20CEOSummit.asp>• Quin, K (2006). Strategic Information Architecture: Strategic, Tactical and Operational Business• Intelligence [online] Available from <URL:http://www.dmreview.com/article_sub.cfm?articleId=1055164>• Schwenk, CR (1995). Strategic decision making - Special Issue: Yearly Review of Management Journal of Management Available from <URL:http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m4256/is_n3_v21/ai_17154315>• Troubling exists at Microsoft, [online] Available form <URL: http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/05_39/b3952001.htm>• Yoffie, DB and Cosumano, MA (1999) Judo strategy. The competitive dynamics of Internet time Harv Bus Rev. 77: 70-81.
19. 9.0 Bibliography • Davenport, TH (1998). Putting the Enterprise into the Enterprise System. Harvard Business Review, pp. 121-131. • How BT’s e-ticketing service, Rialto, helped Alton Towers improve customer service while increasing cost efficiencies (2005) [online] Available from <URL: http://www2.bt.com/static/i/media/pdf/alton%20towers.pdf • Information Systems as Aids in Managerial Decision Making [online] Available from <URL: http://zeus.bke.hu/oktatas/cems/perspectives/DecisionMaking.pdf> • Klein, B (2001). The Microsoft Case: What can a dominant firm do to defend its market position? Journal of Economist Perspective 15: 45-62 • Moaz, M and Fellow, G (2006). The Best Customer Strategy: Fire the Manager, Not the Employee [online] Available from <URL: http://crm.blog.gartner.com/blog/index.php?blogid=7> • Nicho, M (2004) Implementation Failures in Customer Relationship Management Software Bulletin of Applied Computing and Information Technology Vol 2, Issue 1 (March 2004). • Microsoft Acquires Anti-Spyware Leader GIANT Company New Offerings Will Help Customers Keep Spyware and Other Deceptive Software off Their Computers, (2004) [online] Available from <URL:www.microsoft.com> 19