Department of geology
Mr. Gohar Rehman
B.S (HONS) Part-2
University of Peshawar
To the teachers
Introduction to the study Region
Stratigraphy of the Region
Locality and accessibility
Gali Jagir Fault
Khair-e Murat Fault
1. Margalla Hill Limestone
2. Chorgali Formation
3. Muree Formation
4. Kamlial formation
Folds and Joints
Dip and Strike data
To my parents, teachers, fellows
Today's students are tomorrow's decision-makers, whether their future careers
are in politics, finance, technology, medicine, geology, or other sciences. It is
their decisions that collectively will decide the fate of our planet-earth. The
instructors in Earth science or geology must ensure that their students have the
opportunity to obtain a basic understanding of the Earth so that they are
equipped to make informed, environmentally responsible decisions in their
I will definitely say that our teachers/ instructors helped us a lot in
attaining goals that were selected for we students during fateh jhang field trip.
I convey the message that understanding the Earth is exciting, and that it
enriches and heightens our sense of awareness of the world around us.
Our field to Fateh-Jhang was to recognize and understand various
lithologies, structures, fossils, economically important mines in the sedimentary
strata. If, at the end of my report, you urge to have a glance over again, then I
will have definitely done my best job in preparing this report and achieving the
goals through the ever best help of my teachers.
Organization of the report
This report is organized with study of various formations, groups and members
of the formations in Khair-e-Murat range. The Khair-Murat range is basically
located on the Potwar plateau.
An undertaking such as this one is impossible to complete without the help and
expertise of many people. The team at the field encouraged and advised me
every step of the way. Their expertise and cheerfulness kept me motivated and
ensured that I completed the task at hand and made it a pleasurable experience.
My teachers Mr. Gohar rehman and Mr.zahid navigated me through many of
the members, formations and groups of the Khair-e-Murat range and also
through various secrets of writing this report which made substantial
improvements to the text and artwork. I greatly appreciate the impressive skills
of my teachers. I also acknowledge the department of geology and university of
Peshawar that helped a lot in arranging the field for us in such crucial
circumstances of our homeland.
To my family who helped me along every step of my life and in
understanding of my geology life while I was out of the native town in field
studies and was a constant source of inspiration.
Abstract:The Khair-e-Murat Range contains the most important
geologic and paleontologic localities in Pakistan, and is one of the
outstanding field areas in the entire world. Despite its easy accessibility,
it has a wealth of geological and paleontological features. In fact, it
represents an open book of geology where various richly provide an
excellent opportunity for appreciation of tectonics in the field.
In addition to the easily available roadside geology,
some prominent gorges provide fantastic locations to study the
sedimentary succession. This succession has been rightly called a Field
Museum of Geology and Paleontology and can be classified as one of the
great paleontological areas of the world, fully worthy of conservation and
To the teachers
We live in amazing times. In the past 20 years we have learned an enormous
amount about our Earth, and new information confronts us almost daily. We
can scarcely watch the news or read a newspaper without learning of some new
and exciting discovery related to Earth. This information had come at such a
bewildering pace, that it was difficult to assimilate it all without the help of our
I convey that during field our teachers gave us excitement of discovery
while heightening our knowledge, appreciated us, and made us interested in the
geologic field work and in displaying an appetite for learning more. In the near
future, we students will make decisions, big and small, that will impact the
environment on a local, regional, and even global scale. Facing to such
decisions, I hope that our teachers, in greater way, helped us in making the right
This study is carried out to see structure and stratigraphic frame
work of a part of Khair-e-Murat range situated in North Potwar deformed
zone of North Pakistan. Stratigraphic frame work of study area is
characterized by Eocene to Pliocene age rocks.
Potwar plateau is divided in to two parts. North Potwar Deformed Zone
and South Potwar Deformed Zone. North Potwar Deformed Zone is more
deformed than that of South. Our study area is situated in Northern
Potwar plateau, which is known as NPDZ because of complex
deformation. NPDZ lies in Punjab province which is located in the
northern part of upper Indus basin. The NPDZ is name given to region of
poorly exposed Muree formation sediments that are found lying between
Kala-chita ranges, Margalla Hills and Hazara Hill ranges to north and
Khair-e-Murat thrust fault in south.
Complex of structure transverse are constructed that shows that
structure has evolved as a result of north south oriented compressive
stresses with south progression.
STRATIGRAPHY OF THE REGION
The studied area Khair-e-Murat is located in the north
Potwar plateau in Punjab province.
Khair-e-murat range marks the southern limit of NDPZ and has
evolved due to khair-e-murat thrust juxtapose muree formation against
This zone is highly folded and faulted due to Himalayan related
transgression and regression.
NDPZ is bounded by MBT in the north, DURNAL RANGE in the
south,(there is a major syncline known as soan syncline).In east, there is a
JHELUM FAULT which is a left handed strike slip fault and in west
INDUS RIVER and KOHAT PLATEAU is located.
LOCALITY AND ACCESSIBILITY :
The studied area is located in tehsil fateh Jung district attock
Punjab province. It is mountainous terrain which is covered by trees and
It covers an area of 7,000 square miles. It is located to the south of
northern mountains and lies between Indus River to the West and Jhelum
River to the East. Northern boundary of Potwar plateau is marked by
Kala-chitta ranges and Margalla hills while southern end is marked by
salt range thrust.
GALI JAGIR FAULT
In the gali jagir we saw a small scale left lateral strike slip fault in
which the left block move towards the observer. It has been named after
its locality.It trends NW-SE cross-cutting the khair-e-murat fault at its
It is a main emergent thrust fault in NDPZ.As it is a thrust fault so
it has brought older rocks over younger rocks.its trend is from NE-SW
with dip towards 520
North West. It emplaces Eocene rocks over Miocene
and Pliocene sediments of siwalik group.
Its Stratigraphy include:
Margalla Hill Limestone
And each of them will be discussed in detail…
MARGALLA HILL LIMESTONE:
The term margalla hill limestone of latif (1970) has been
formally accepted by stratigraphic Committee of Pakistan.
Limestone with subordinate
marl and shale. Limestone colour is
grey at fresh surface and pale grey
on weathered surface. Fine to
medium grained, nodular medium
to thick bedded and rarely massive.
Marl is grey to brownish grey while
the shale is greenish brown to
brown in color.
Forams, mollusks and
echinoids are common in formation.
Upper : Conformable with Chorgali formation of Chherat group
from early Eocene.
Lower: Conformable with Patala formation of Makarwal group
This is the 1st
member of Chherat Group.
“Chorgali beds” by Pascoe (1920) has been formalized as Chorgali
Formation by SCP. This formation also represents the “Passage beds” of
Pinfold (1918) in the Attock area “Badhrar beds” of Gee and Evans (in
Davies and Pinfold 1937) in the Salt Range and “Lora Formation” of
Latif (1970a) in the Hazara area.
Location & Type Section:
The section exposed in the Chorgali Pass (Lat. 33°26'30"N and
Long. 72°41'E) in the Khair-e-Murat Range, has been chosen as the type
According to Cheema et al. (1977), the formation is
composed of shale and limestone.
In the Khair-e-Murat Range, it is divisible into two distinct units.
The lower unit comprises dolomitic limestone and shale. The upper unit
is composed predominantly of shale with one thick bed of dark grey
limestone and a bed of nodular argillaceous limestone near the top.
In Salt Range, the formation is also divisible into two parts. The
lower part consists of shale and limestone, while the upper part is mainly
The formation is distributed in the eastern Salt Range, Kala
Chitta Range, Khair-e-Murat Range and in the Hazara area.
It is 150 m thick at Chorgali Pass, 30 m in Tarki, 15m at
Bahadurkhel and about 45 m in
In the Salt Range, the
formation conformably overlies the
Sakesar Limestone and at other
places Margala Hill Limestone.
In the Salt Range, it is
unconformably overlain by the
Murree Formation, while
conformably in other areas by the
A rich fossil assemblage including foraminifers,
mollusks and ostracodes has been reported by Davies and Pinfold (1937),
Eames (1952), Gill (1953) and Latif (1970c).
Mari group, Wynne 1874
Muree beds, Lydekker 1876
Muree series, Pilgrim 1910
Then Stratigraphy Committee of Pakistan approved the named
Type Locality / Section:
Derived from the Murree Hill, in the Rawalpindi District.
North of Dhok Maiki ( lat. 33º25´N and long. 72º35´E ) in Cambellpur
District is a type section.
Clay and sandstone with subordinate intraformational
Clay is Red, Purple and Sandstone is grey and greenish grey in colour.
Thickness / Distribution:
Widely distributed in Upper Indus Basin, Hazara and Kashmir
3030m in Potwar Basin
Thins out to Western Kohat upto 9m
180-600m in Salt Range
Poorly fossiliferous, few plants remains, fish remain, frog and
Lower: unconformable with Chorgali formation.
Upper: conformable with Kamlial.
Environment of Deposition:
River deposits (Alluvial Plain).
Kamlial Stage, Pascoe 1963
Kamlial beds, Pinfold 1918
Stratigraphic Committee of Pakistan formalized the name “Kamlial
Type Locality / Section:
SW of Kamlial ( lat.33º15´ N and long. 72º50´ E) ,
Cambellpur District as type section.
Sandstone with intercalation of shale and intraformational
Sandstone; is purple grey, brick red, medium to coarse
Shale; is purple and hard
Colour of conglomerates yellow, purple.
Formation is distinguished from Muree Formation by Spheroidal
Thickness / Distribution:
Widely distributed in UIB (upper Indus basin) , Hazara , Kashmir.
90m at Kamlial ( type section)
580m at Kaur
650m atSoan Gorge.
Plants remains, frog, mammals, fishes having species difference
from Muree formation.
Middle to Late Miocene.
Environmental of Deposition:
FOLDS AND JOINTS:
While going through these formations we saw folding in margalla
limestone. This fold was an anticlinal fold because the limbs of the fold
were dipping away from each other. As it is anticlinal fold, so it was
formed in tensional environment and folds are mostly formed in disturb
areas. We stood there at the core of anticline and there we saw joints at
the front of this huge anticlinal fold. These joints are systematic up to
certain limit but mostly they are non systematic.
In the 1st
figure you can see perfect anticline in the Margalla Hill
limestone while the 2nd
figure shows joints in the same formation. These
joints are non-symmetrical almost but you can catch some symmetrical
joint systems as well but they may b at large scale.
Dip and strike
Dip is the angle between inclined plane and horizontal plane.
Strike is the horizontal line on inclined plane.
We also calculated the dip and strike data of some of limbs
of these folds which were dipping away from each other.
Dip and strike data calculated by us is given below:
1. Due E (strike), 600
2. N 850
E( strike), 640
W (strike), 400
۞ CREDITS ۞
With the Grace of ALLAH (THE most merciful
and beneficent ) I have completed my this report of Salt Range Field.
This all credit goes to my dear Parents, respected Teachers and fellows
who always remembered me in their prayers, guided me through their
best and gave me a backup while doing this tough job.
I want to thank them all.
1. The Geological Survey of Pakistan (volume 22)
2. Stratigraphy of Pakistan – by S.M.Ibrahim Shah