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Fateh Jhang Field Report

Fateh Jhang Field Report






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    Fateh Jhang Field Report Fateh Jhang Field Report Document Transcript

    • 1
    • 2 Department of geology Fateh Jhang Field report Submitted to: Mr. Gohar Rehman Mr. Zahid Submitted by: Ahmad Ghani B.S (HONS) Part-2 University of Peshawar
    • 3 Brief Contents Preface Acknowledgments To the teachers Chapter 1:  Introduction to the study Region  Stratigraphy of the Region  Locality and accessibility Chapter 2:  Gali Jagir Fault  Khair-e Murat Fault  Stratigraphy: 1. Margalla Hill Limestone 2. Chorgali Formation 3. Muree Formation 4. Kamlial formation  Folds and Joints  Dip and Strike data Chapter4:  CREDITS  REFRENCE DEDICATED TO To my parents, teachers, fellows & All the DIAMONDS
    • 4 Preface Our Approach Today's students are tomorrow's decision-makers, whether their future careers are in politics, finance, technology, medicine, geology, or other sciences. It is their decisions that collectively will decide the fate of our planet-earth. The instructors in Earth science or geology must ensure that their students have the opportunity to obtain a basic understanding of the Earth so that they are equipped to make informed, environmentally responsible decisions in their future careers. I will definitely say that our teachers/ instructors helped us a lot in attaining goals that were selected for we students during fateh jhang field trip. I convey the message that understanding the Earth is exciting, and that it enriches and heightens our sense of awareness of the world around us. Our field to Fateh-Jhang was to recognize and understand various lithologies, structures, fossils, economically important mines in the sedimentary strata. If, at the end of my report, you urge to have a glance over again, then I will have definitely done my best job in preparing this report and achieving the goals through the ever best help of my teachers. Organization of the report This report is organized with study of various formations, groups and members of the formations in Khair-e-Murat range. The Khair-Murat range is basically located on the Potwar plateau. Acknowledgments An undertaking such as this one is impossible to complete without the help and expertise of many people. The team at the field encouraged and advised me every step of the way. Their expertise and cheerfulness kept me motivated and ensured that I completed the task at hand and made it a pleasurable experience. My teachers Mr. Gohar rehman and Mr.zahid navigated me through many of the members, formations and groups of the Khair-e-Murat range and also through various secrets of writing this report which made substantial improvements to the text and artwork. I greatly appreciate the impressive skills of my teachers. I also acknowledge the department of geology and university of
    • 5 Peshawar that helped a lot in arranging the field for us in such crucial circumstances of our homeland. To my family who helped me along every step of my life and in understanding of my geology life while I was out of the native town in field studies and was a constant source of inspiration. Abstract:The Khair-e-Murat Range contains the most important geologic and paleontologic localities in Pakistan, and is one of the outstanding field areas in the entire world. Despite its easy accessibility, it has a wealth of geological and paleontological features. In fact, it represents an open book of geology where various richly provide an excellent opportunity for appreciation of tectonics in the field. In addition to the easily available roadside geology, some prominent gorges provide fantastic locations to study the sedimentary succession. This succession has been rightly called a Field Museum of Geology and Paleontology and can be classified as one of the great paleontological areas of the world, fully worthy of conservation and protection efforts. To the teachers We live in amazing times. In the past 20 years we have learned an enormous amount about our Earth, and new information confronts us almost daily. We can scarcely watch the news or read a newspaper without learning of some new and exciting discovery related to Earth. This information had come at such a bewildering pace, that it was difficult to assimilate it all without the help of our teachers. I convey that during field our teachers gave us excitement of discovery while heightening our knowledge, appreciated us, and made us interested in the geologic field work and in displaying an appetite for learning more. In the near future, we students will make decisions, big and small, that will impact the environment on a local, regional, and even global scale. Facing to such decisions, I hope that our teachers, in greater way, helped us in making the right ones.
    • 6 INTRODUCTION This study is carried out to see structure and stratigraphic frame work of a part of Khair-e-Murat range situated in North Potwar deformed zone of North Pakistan. Stratigraphic frame work of study area is characterized by Eocene to Pliocene age rocks. Potwar plateau is divided in to two parts. North Potwar Deformed Zone and South Potwar Deformed Zone. North Potwar Deformed Zone is more deformed than that of South. Our study area is situated in Northern Potwar plateau, which is known as NPDZ because of complex deformation. NPDZ lies in Punjab province which is located in the northern part of upper Indus basin. The NPDZ is name given to region of poorly exposed Muree formation sediments that are found lying between Kala-chita ranges, Margalla Hills and Hazara Hill ranges to north and Khair-e-Murat thrust fault in south. Complex of structure transverse are constructed that shows that structure has evolved as a result of north south oriented compressive stresses with south progression. STRATIGRAPHY OF THE REGION The studied area Khair-e-Murat is located in the north Potwar plateau in Punjab province. Khair-e-murat range marks the southern limit of NDPZ and has evolved due to khair-e-murat thrust juxtapose muree formation against Eocene limestone. This zone is highly folded and faulted due to Himalayan related transgression and regression. NDPZ is bounded by MBT in the north, DURNAL RANGE in the south,(there is a major syncline known as soan syncline).In east, there is a JHELUM FAULT which is a left handed strike slip fault and in west INDUS RIVER and KOHAT PLATEAU is located. LOCALITY AND ACCESSIBILITY : The studied area is located in tehsil fateh Jung district attock Punjab province. It is mountainous terrain which is covered by trees and bushes. It covers an area of 7,000 square miles. It is located to the south of northern mountains and lies between Indus River to the West and Jhelum River to the East. Northern boundary of Potwar plateau is marked by Kala-chitta ranges and Margalla hills while southern end is marked by salt range thrust.
    • 7 GALI JAGIR FAULT In the gali jagir we saw a small scale left lateral strike slip fault in which the left block move towards the observer. It has been named after its locality.It trends NW-SE cross-cutting the khair-e-murat fault at its eastern end. KHAIR-E-MURAT FAULT It is a main emergent thrust fault in NDPZ.As it is a thrust fault so it has brought older rocks over younger rocks.its trend is from NE-SW with dip towards 520 North West. It emplaces Eocene rocks over Miocene and Pliocene sediments of siwalik group. Its Stratigraphy include:  Margalla Hill Limestone  Chorgali Formation  Muree Formation  Kamlial Formation And each of them will be discussed in detail… MARGALLA HILL LIMESTONE: The term margalla hill limestone of latif (1970) has been formally accepted by stratigraphic Committee of Pakistan. Lithology: Limestone with subordinate marl and shale. Limestone colour is grey at fresh surface and pale grey on weathered surface. Fine to medium grained, nodular medium to thick bedded and rarely massive. Marl is grey to brownish grey while the shale is greenish brown to brown in color. Fossils: Forams, mollusks and echinoids are common in formation. Age: Early Eocene Contacts: Upper : Conformable with Chorgali formation of Chherat group from early Eocene. Lower: Conformable with Patala formation of Makarwal group from Paleocene.
    • 8 CHORGALI FORMATION: This is the 1st member of Chherat Group. History: “Chorgali beds” by Pascoe (1920) has been formalized as Chorgali Formation by SCP. This formation also represents the “Passage beds” of Pinfold (1918) in the Attock area “Badhrar beds” of Gee and Evans (in Davies and Pinfold 1937) in the Salt Range and “Lora Formation” of Latif (1970a) in the Hazara area. Location & Type Section: The section exposed in the Chorgali Pass (Lat. 33°26'30"N and Long. 72°41'E) in the Khair-e-Murat Range, has been chosen as the type section. Lithology: According to Cheema et al. (1977), the formation is composed of shale and limestone. In the Khair-e-Murat Range, it is divisible into two distinct units. The lower unit comprises dolomitic limestone and shale. The upper unit is composed predominantly of shale with one thick bed of dark grey limestone and a bed of nodular argillaceous limestone near the top. In Salt Range, the formation is also divisible into two parts. The lower part consists of shale and limestone, while the upper part is mainly limestone. Distribution: The formation is distributed in the eastern Salt Range, Kala Chitta Range, Khair-e-Murat Range and in the Hazara area. Thickness: It is 150 m thick at Chorgali Pass, 30 m in Tarki, 15m at Bahadurkhel and about 45 m in southeastern Hazara. Contact: In the Salt Range, the formation conformably overlies the Sakesar Limestone and at other places Margala Hill Limestone. In the Salt Range, it is unconformably overlain by the Murree Formation, while conformably in other areas by the Kuldana Formation. Fossils: A rich fossil assemblage including foraminifers, mollusks and ostracodes has been reported by Davies and Pinfold (1937), Eames (1952), Gill (1953) and Latif (1970c). Age: Early Eocene.
    • 9 MUREE FORMATION: Mari group, Wynne 1874 Muree beds, Lydekker 1876 Muree series, Pilgrim 1910 Then Stratigraphy Committee of Pakistan approved the named “Muree formation”. Type Locality / Section: Derived from the Murree Hill, in the Rawalpindi District. North of Dhok Maiki ( lat. 33º25´N and long. 72º35´E ) in Cambellpur District is a type section. Lithology: Clay and sandstone with subordinate intraformational conglomerates. Clay is Red, Purple and Sandstone is grey and greenish grey in colour. Thickness / Distribution: Widely distributed in Upper Indus Basin, Hazara and Kashmir area. 3030m in Potwar Basin Thins out to Western Kohat upto 9m 180-600m in Salt Range Fossils: Poorly fossiliferous, few plants remains, fish remain, frog and mamal bones. Age: Early Miocene. Contact: Lower: unconformable with Chorgali formation. Upper: conformable with Kamlial. Environment of Deposition: River deposits (Alluvial Plain). KAMLIAL FORMATION: Kamlial Stage, Pascoe 1963 Kamlial beds, Pinfold 1918 Stratigraphic Committee of Pakistan formalized the name “Kamlial Formation”. Type Locality / Section: SW of Kamlial ( lat.33º15´ N and long. 72º50´ E) , Cambellpur District as type section. Lithology: Sandstone with intercalation of shale and intraformational conglomerates.
    • 10  Sandstone; is purple grey, brick red, medium to coarse grained.  Shale; is purple and hard  Colour of conglomerates yellow, purple. Formation is distinguished from Muree Formation by Spheroidal weathering. Thickness / Distribution: Widely distributed in UIB (upper Indus basin) , Hazara , Kashmir. 90m at Kamlial ( type section) 580m at Kaur 650m atSoan Gorge. Fossils: Plants remains, frog, mammals, fishes having species difference from Muree formation. Age: Middle to Late Miocene. Environmental of Deposition: Fluvial. FOLDS AND JOINTS: While going through these formations we saw folding in margalla limestone. This fold was an anticlinal fold because the limbs of the fold were dipping away from each other. As it is anticlinal fold, so it was formed in tensional environment and folds are mostly formed in disturb areas. We stood there at the core of anticline and there we saw joints at the front of this huge anticlinal fold. These joints are systematic up to certain limit but mostly they are non systematic. In the 1st figure you can see perfect anticline in the Margalla Hill limestone while the 2nd figure shows joints in the same formation. These joints are non-symmetrical almost but you can catch some symmetrical joint systems as well but they may b at large scale.
    • 11 Dip and strike Dip is the angle between inclined plane and horizontal plane. Strike is the horizontal line on inclined plane. We also calculated the dip and strike data of some of limbs of these folds which were dipping away from each other. Dip and strike data calculated by us is given below: 1. Due E (strike), 600 SE (dip) 2. N 850 E( strike), 640 SE (dip) 3. N300 W (strike), 400 SW (dip). ۞ CREDITS ۞ With the Grace of ALLAH (THE most merciful and beneficent ) I have completed my this report of Salt Range Field. This all credit goes to my dear Parents, respected Teachers and fellows who always remembered me in their prayers, guided me through their best and gave me a backup while doing this tough job. I want to thank them all. REFRENCE: 1. The Geological Survey of Pakistan (volume 22) 2. Stratigraphy of Pakistan – by S.M.Ibrahim Shah 3. www.brooks/cole.com/geology 4. www.mcgraw-hill.co.uk/geology 5. www.gsp.gov.pk/pakistan/index.html 6. www.wikipedia.com/geology