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Bakri Final Presentation  2
Bakri Final Presentation  2
Bakri Final Presentation  2
Bakri Final Presentation  2
Bakri Final Presentation  2
Bakri Final Presentation  2
Bakri Final Presentation  2
Bakri Final Presentation  2
Bakri Final Presentation  2
Bakri Final Presentation  2
Bakri Final Presentation  2
Bakri Final Presentation  2
Bakri Final Presentation  2
Bakri Final Presentation  2
Bakri Final Presentation  2
Bakri Final Presentation  2
Bakri Final Presentation  2
Bakri Final Presentation  2
Bakri Final Presentation  2
Bakri Final Presentation  2
Bakri Final Presentation  2
Bakri Final Presentation  2
Bakri Final Presentation  2
Bakri Final Presentation  2
Bakri Final Presentation  2
Bakri Final Presentation  2
Bakri Final Presentation  2
Bakri Final Presentation  2
Bakri Final Presentation  2
Bakri Final Presentation  2
Bakri Final Presentation  2
Bakri Final Presentation  2
Bakri Final Presentation  2
Bakri Final Presentation  2
Bakri Final Presentation  2
Bakri Final Presentation  2
Bakri Final Presentation  2
Bakri Final Presentation  2
Bakri Final Presentation  2
Bakri Final Presentation  2
Bakri Final Presentation  2
Bakri Final Presentation  2
Bakri Final Presentation  2
Bakri Final Presentation  2
Bakri Final Presentation  2
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Bakri Final Presentation 2

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Final Presentation of Internship In Sudan. Presentation was attended by PETRONAS and Scomi Oiltools Officials

Final Presentation of Internship In Sudan. Presentation was attended by PETRONAS and Scomi Oiltools Officials

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  • 1. INDUSTRIAL INTERNSHIP PRESENTATION<br />ScomiOiltools Overseas (M), Khartoum , Sudan<br />AHMAD BAKRI BIN ZUBIR<br />Petroleum Engineering | 9058<br />UniversitiTeknologiPetronas<br />Plant Supervisor<br />Mr. RamySrag<br />DF Operational Manager<br />Date: 4th January 2010<br />Time: 2.30 pm<br />
  • 2. OUTLINE<br />Industrial internship objectives<br />Host company profile<br />Drilling fluids<br />Internship assignments, activities and site operations<br />Lesson learned and experience gained<br />Discussion & recommendation<br />Conclusion<br />
  • 3. INTERNSHIP OBJECTIVES<br />Integrate theory with practice & apply theoretical knowledge in industrial application.<br />Introduce student to work culture and industrial practices<br />Expose student to potential employers<br />Importance Health, Safety & environment (HSE) at workplace<br />To make interns be acquainted with water-based mud systems used in ScomiOiltools in Sudan operations and contribute the company by assisting on-site field engineers.<br />
  • 4. HOST COMPANY PROFILE<br />ScomiOiltools (formerly known as KMC Oiltools), a subsidiary of Scomi Group. <br />One of the world’s leading providers of innovative high performance drilling fluids and drilling waste management services.<br />ScomiOiltools had established overseas operations in Sudan in 2003 with GNPOC and in 2005 with WNPOC<br />Involved in three core division – drilling fluids, drilling waste management and oilfield product distribution<br />Worldwide operations coverage of drilling fluid operations - extends from Asia region to USA<br />
  • 5. DRILLING FLUIDS<br />Introduction<br />Fluids that aid the production and removal of cuttings from the borehole<br />Differ widely in their chemical compositions.<br />Also known as mud.<br />
  • 6. DRILLING FLUIDS<br />Functions<br />Additional<br />Seal Permeable formation<br />Primary<br />Suspend cuttings<br />- Static condition<br />Transport & remove<br />cuttings<br />from the well<br />Cool, lubricate<br />the drill string & BHA<br />Control<br />formation<br />pressure<br />Minimize<br />loss of fluid<br />to formation<br />Maintain<br />borehole stability<br />Hydraulic<br />horse power<br />to the bit<br />
  • 7. DRILLING FLUIDS<br />Mud Circulation<br />
  • 8. DRILLING FLUIDS<br />Mud Content<br />Fluid Phase (water or oil)<br />Solids (to give desired mud property)<br />Inactive solids – do not react with mud (i.e barite) to give mud weight<br />Active solids – clays that react with the water (i.ebentonite) to give viscosity.<br />Additives (to give desired mud property)<br />Polymers and chemicals to control viscosity, yield point, fluid loss, pH, controls<br />
  • 9. DRILLING FLUIDS<br />Mud Types<br />1. WATER BASED MUD<br /><ul><li>Continuous phase is water
  • 10. Main disadvantage – causes shale instability
  • 11. Lower cost
  • 12. Types of WBM used in ScomiOiltools Sudan Operations -
  • 13. Non-inhibitive (gel)
  • 14. Inhibitive (KCl)
  • 15. Polymer (KCl PHPA, KCl silicate)</li></li></ul><li>DRILLING FLUIDS<br />Mud Types<br /><ul><li>Continous phase is oil
  • 16. Advantage
  • 17. Does not react with shales
  • 18. Good lubrication to BHA
  • 19. Undamaging mud – very low formation damage if any
  • 20. Excellent wellbore stability
  • 21. Usually used in HTHP wells
  • 22. Disadvantage
  • 23. Environmental impacts (toxic)
  • 24. Much more expensive than WBM
  • 25. Danger threat to rig workers - slippery</li></ul>2. OIL BASED MUD<br />
  • 26. DRILLING FLUIDS<br />Chemical & Polymer Additives<br />Soda Ash – Hardness reducer<br />Sodium Bicarbonate – Hardness & pH reducer<br />Caustic Soda – Alkalinity control (increases pH)<br />Bentonite – Viscosifier<br />PAC-R & PAC-UL (organic polymer) – Viscosity & Fluid loss control<br />Starch – Fluid loss control<br />Xanthan gum – Viscosifier and LSRV (low shear rate viscosifier)<br />Calcium Carbonate – Bridging & weighting agent<br />Barite – Weighting agent<br />
  • 27. ACTIVITIES, TASKS & ASSIGNMENTS<br />Office/HQ<br /><ul><li> HSE course
  • 28. Learnt about drilling fluids
  • 29. Discussion with SV and other </li></ul> mud engineers<br /><ul><li> Revision of mud recaps
  • 30. Prepared data tables of wells </li></ul> drilled during 2008 & 2009<br /><ul><li> Prepared the mud lab
  • 31. Assisted in re-checking</li></ul> chemical invoices<br />Warehouse<br /><ul><li> Attended GNPOC HSE meeting
  • 32. Briefly learnt about inventory & </li></ul> logistics management<br /><ul><li> Learnt more about drilling </li></ul> fluids with the warehouse SV<br />
  • 33. ACTIVITIES, TASKS & ASSIGNMENTS<br />Site Operation<br /><ul><li>Have been to 2 well sites:
  • 34. Azraq N-1 (Gel Mud & KCl polymer mud) - (43 days)
  • 35. Joknyang NE-1 (KCl PHPA mud) - (28 days)
  • 36. Given the following tasks:
  • 37. Perform the duty of back-up mud engineer
  • 38. Maintain and operate the solids control equipments
  • 39. Mixed new mud & hi-vis mud
  • 40. Assisted during cementing jobs
  • 41. Make mud tests
  • 42. Chemical inventory management & repacking
  • 43. Learnt about good drilling practices</li></li></ul><li>SITE OPERATIONS<br />Solids control equipments<br />
  • 44. SITE OPERATIONS<br />Solids control equipments<br /><ul><li>Sand Trap
  • 45. Pit tank located under shale </li></ul> shakers<br /><ul><li> Mud flow rate is slow
  • 46. Settling rate – function of:
  • 47. SG of particle
  • 48. Density & viscosity of mud
  • 49. Type flow regime & residence </li></ul> time in pit<br /><ul><li> Periodically checks the sand trap </li></ul> to see the sand level<br /><ul><li> If level of sand is high – dump the </li></ul> sand trap – 40 -50bbls<br />
  • 50. SITE OPERATIONS<br />Solids control equipments<br /><ul><li>Shale Shakers
  • 51. Most important SCE
  • 52. Mud flows - return line to shale shakers
  • 53. Vibrating Screens remove drill cuttings
  • 54. Solids that are bigger than screen </li></ul> size are conveyed off the screen<br /><ul><li> Size of solids discarded are dependant </li></ul> upon the opening size of the screens (120 microns, 170 microns, 200 microns)<br />
  • 55. SITE OPERATIONS<br />Solids control equipments<br /><ul><li>Shale Shakers: Cuttings Observation & Maintenance
  • 56. When drilling shale zones, good inhibited mud should </li></ul> produce rounded, pebble size cuttings & dry in the inside<br /><ul><li> Larger than average & angular cuttings are cavings
  • 57. Poorly inhibited mud/ Gel mud: Fine & sticky solids blind the</li></ul> screens. Results in mud overflow. To overcome:<br /><ul><li> Increase the inclination of the screens.
  • 58. Clean the screen using water jet nozzle</li></li></ul><li>SITE OPERATIONS<br />Solids control equipments<br /><ul><li>Shale Shakers: Cuttings Observation & Maintenances</li></ul>Angular cuttings : Indication of cavings<br />
  • 59. SITE OPERATIONS<br />Solids control equipments<br /><ul><li>Shale Shakers: Cuttings Observation & Maintenances</li></ul>Usage of gel mud: Sticky, uninhibited cuttings, Mud Overflow<br />
  • 60. SITE OPERATIONS<br />Solids control equipments<br /><ul><li>Shale Shakers: Maintenances
  • 61. Helped changing torn-out/broken screens
  • 62. Torn screens allow larger solids to pass through screen – Shale shaker not effective
  • 63. Causes: - Usual wear and tear of screens</li></ul> - Improper installation of screens – premature defects<br /> - low quality screen <br />
  • 64. SITE OPERATIONS<br />Solids control equipments<br /><ul><li>Desilter
  • 65. Removes silts -> hydrocyclone
  • 66. Smaller size than desander
  • 67. Can handle up to 75 GPM of mud flow
  • 68. Remove particles: 15-30 microns
  • 69. Desander
  • 70. Removes sand –> hydrocyclone
  • 71. Can handle up to 500 GPM of mud flow
  • 72. Remove particles: 45-74 microns</li></li></ul><li>SITE OPERATIONS<br />Solids control equipments<br /><ul><li>Mud Cleaners
  • 73. Combination of </li></ul>desander and <br />desilter mounted <br /> over a screening <br /> device. <br />
  • 74. SITE OPERATIONS<br />Solids control equipments<br /><ul><li>The centrifuge
  • 75. Separate solids by increasing the centrifugal force
  • 76. Removal up to 2-5 micron
  • 77. Bowl rotates between 2000-4000rpm
  • 78. Capacity 50-250gpm
  • 79. Useful for processing weighted fluid
  • 80. Faster rotation to remove lower SG solids (silts)
  • 81. Slower rotation to remove higher SG solids (barite)
  • 82. Barite recovery process:
  • 83. 1st centrifuge = Separate barite, liquid moves to the 2nd centrifuge
  • 84. 2nd centrifuge = removes silt and return liquid portion back to mud</li></li></ul><li>SITE OPERATIONS<br />Solids control equipments<br />
  • 85. SITE OPERATIONS<br />Mixing new mud (in premix tank)<br />Water (as required)<br /> Soda Ash (0.5 ppb)<br /> Caustic Soda (0.4 ppb) - pH 8.5-9.5<br /> Potassium Chloride (KCl) (5-10 ppb)<br /> Polymers for Fluid Loss control and rheology<br /> Barite (weighting agent) for mud density requirement (as required)<br />Premix Tank 2<br />Centrifuge Tank<br />Premix Tank 1<br />Pill Tank<br />Suction Tank 1<br />Suction Tank 2<br />Desilter Tank<br />Desander Tank<br />Sand Trap<br />Trip Tank<br />
  • 86. SITE OPERATIONS<br />Pumping Hi-Vis & Slug<br /><ul><li>Slug is used to displace mud in stands of pipes prior POOH
  • 87. Hi-Vis is pumped down hole to suspend cutting  during long hours of </li></ul> non-circulation and pipe rotation<br /><ul><li>Hi-Vis sweep is performed to lift cuttings downhole (increase efficiency </li></ul> of hole cleaning)<br /><ul><li>Transfer active mud to pill tank (40bbls)
  • 88. Increase weight and viscosity by addition of barite and KMC-Zan</li></li></ul><li>SITE OPERATIONS<br />Assisted cementing jobs<br /><ul><li> Weighting up cement
  • 89. Pumping the spacer fluid (50 bbl water) to displace mud
  • 90. Treating mud with sodium bicarbonate (decrease hardness & pH)</li></li></ul><li>SITE OPERATIONS<br />Dump or Dilute<br />- Drilled solids content is high (PV & sand trap)  Dump<br /><ul><li> Mud Weight is high but drilled solids content is low  Dilute</li></li></ul><li>SITE OPERATIONS<br />Other chemical usage & observations<br /><ul><li> Drilling detergent – to prevent bit balling
  • 91. Biocide – Prevent bacterias from spoiling the polymers
  • 92. Caustic Soda – Used to increase pH (alkalinity) after long hours of no mud circulation
  • 93. Washpipe – leak in drillstring or BHA – eventually lead to fishing</li></li></ul><li>FLUID SYSTEMS<br /><ul><li>Bentonite Mud (Gel Mud)
  • 94. No inhibition
  • 95. Lower cost
  • 96. Suitable for surface drilling
  • 97. High carrying capacity
  • 98. Deep hole - Hole problems
  • 99. pH 8-9
  • 100. KCl Polymer
  • 101. Moderately reactive shale
  • 102. Cation exchange of Potassium ions with clay
  • 103. High inhibition – reduce swelling/hydration
  • 104. Upgradable to Sodium Silicate mud
  • 105. KCl depletes over time
  • 106. pH 8.5-9.5
  • 107. KCl Sodium Silicate
  • 108. Coats the cuttings and wellbore with a thin layer of silicate
  • 109. Suitable for reactive shale
  • 110. KCl & Silicate deplete over time
  • 111. Higher cost
  • 112. Protection against stuck pipe & balling
  • 113. Enhanced inhibition
  • 114. Ensures mechanical stability (micro fractures & unconsolidated formation)
  • 115. pH 11.5-12.5</li></li></ul><li>MUD TESTING & EQUIPMENTS<br />Mud Weight test<br /><ul><li>Mud balance to determine the mud weight (in lb/gal) as specified by program
  • 116. Place mud in mud cup
  • 117. Rider – adjusted along the graduated scale with guidance of bubble vial
  • 118. Accuracy +/- 0.1 ppg</li></li></ul><li>MUD TESTING & EQUIPMENTS<br />Funnel Viscosity<br /><ul><li>Marsh Funnel & beaker (1 quart)
  • 119. Quick guide whether mud is thickening or thinning (YP)
  • 120. Reading is influenced by gelation and density of mud
  • 121. Calibration – water at 21 celcius (70 fahrenheit) = 26 sec/qt</li></li></ul><li>MUD TESTING & EQUIPMENTS<br />Rheology Test: PV & YP<br /><ul><li>6 speed viscometer
  • 122. For determining the values of YP & PV
  • 123. Rotor sleeve rotates at constant velocity (speed control by the switching gears)
  • 124. Produce torque to inner bob – displacement of bob provide the reading (lb/sq.ft)
  • 125. 600,300,200,100,6,3 rpm speeds
  • 126. PV = 600rpm – 300rpm
  • 127. YP = 300 rpm - PV</li></li></ul><li>MUD TESTING & EQUIPMENTS<br />Rheology Test: Gel Strength<br /><ul><li> 10 seconds / 10 minutes reading
  • 128. 10 sec  600rpm for 30secs, leave for 10 secs, read 10-sec gel at 3rpm
  • 129. 10 min  600rpm for 30secs, leave undisturbed for 10mins, take reading at 3rpm
  • 130. Good gel is needed to suspend cuttings
  • 131. Wide divergence between 10secs and 10mins reading indicate colloidal build up</li></li></ul><li>MUD TESTING & EQUIPMENTS<br />API filtrate<br /><ul><li> To know milliliters of filtrate lost under 100psi pressure
  • 132. Procedure:
  • 133. 100psi applied to the column of pressure cell using air compressor
  • 134. 3 ½ inch diameter of filter paper placed in the bottom of pressure cell (build up of filter cake)
  • 135. Amount of filtrate collected for 30 minutes, (ml/30min)</li></ul>Low filtrate volume  Thinner cakes, good fluid loss control in mud<br />High filtrate volume  Thicker cake, must treat mud with PAC-R, PAC-UL and starch to minimize fluid loss<br /><ul><li>Thick mud cakes leads to differentially stuck pipes </li></li></ul><li>MUD TESTING & EQUIPMENTS<br />pH, sand content & hardness test<br /><ul><li> pH test – uses pH paper to measure pH of filtrate
  • 136. Sand content – Uses sand screen set kit to determine sand content in mud
  • 137. Hardness test - To measure hardness of filtrate water. It is not good if the water is too hard, as polymer reactions cannot take place effectively. Chemicals needed are, 1 ml filtrate, a few drops of ammonia 30%, versanate hardness indicator, and EDTA (slowly releasing it). Mixture changes color from purple to wine red. </li></li></ul><li>MUD TESTING & EQUIPMENTS<br />KCl & Chloride Test<br /><ul><li>KCl Test -KCl Content determination by sodium perchlorate</li></ul> 1) Precipitating potassium <br /> 2) Centrifuging the precipitate<br /> 3) Compare the volume of precipitate over the graph to determine amount <br /> of KCl content left in mud<br /><ul><li>Chloride test - To know the concentration of chloride in the mud. Chemicals needed are 1 ml filtrate, a few drops of yellow chloride indicator and silver nitrate 0.282N (slowly releasing it). Mixture changes color from yellow to red.</li></li></ul><li>DISCUSSION<br />
  • 138. DISCUSSION<br />Problem and Challenges<br />
  • 139. DISCUSSION<br />Lesson Learnt<br />
  • 140. DISCUSSION<br />Recommendations<br />
  • 141. RECAP<br />Industrial internship objectives<br />Host company profile<br />Drilling fluids<br />Internship assignments, activities and site operations<br />Lesson learned and experience gained<br />Discussion & recommendation<br />Conclusion<br />
  • 142. CONCLUSION<br />Expose students to real-life working experience, culture and industrial practices.<br />Practice theory learned during studies into working environment.<br /><ul><li>Students could gain the opportunity to work directly with industrial practitioners</li></ul>Acquaint UTP students especially from PE department with the Petroleum Industry<br />
  • 143. THANK YOU<br />
  • 144. Q & A<br />

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