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Tenses

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  • 1. Tenses yang dipergunakandalambahasaInggrisitujumlahnyaada 16 waktu, yanglebihdikenaldengansebutan “16 tenses “.Makalebihjelasnyaperhatikanbentuk-bentukwaktuberikut: 1. Dilakukanuntukmelakukanperbuatankebiasaan (+) He is works every day (-) He is not works every day  Present tense (?) Is he works every day?  Present continous tense  Past tense 2. Digunakanuntukmenyatakansuatukebenaranumum:  Past continous tense (+) A week has seven day  Simple future tense (-) A week has not seven day  Past future tense (?) Has a week seven day?  Present perfect tense   Past perfect tense Future continous tense c. Time Signal 1. Usually  Present perfect continous tense Ex: I usually get up at 5 o’clock  Past perfect continous tense 2. Always  Future perfect tense Ex: I always drink milk  Future perfect continous tense 3. Often  Future past continous tense Ex: I often goes to my grand mother house  Future past perfect tense 4. Generally  Future past perfect continous tense Ex: A rectangular has four corner 5. Seldom Ex: She seldom goes to school by cara. PRESENT TENSE b. Present Continous Tenses a. Rumus  Positif (+) = S+V1(es/s)+O  Negatif (-) = S+Do/does+Not+V1+O a. *Rumus:  Introgatif(?) =Do/does+S+V1+O  Positif : S+V.ing+O *Example:  Negatif : S+do/does+not+V1+O  Introgatif : Do/does +S+V1+O 1. (+) He writes a letter every month (-) He doesn’t writes a letter every month *Example: (?) Dors he writes a letter every month? 1. (+) I am teaching English at the first grade of SMK 2 MEI (-) I am not teaching English at the first grade of SMK 2 MEI 2. (+) She teaches English every week (?) Am I teaching Englidh at the first grade of SMK 2 MEI? (- ) She doesn’t teaches English every week (?) Does she teaches English every week? 2. (+) you are writing present continousnow (-) you are not writing present continous now (?) are you writing present continous now? 3. (+) They studysmatematic every day (- ) They don’t studysmatematic every day 3. (+) we are learning tenses now (?) Do they studysmatematic every day? (-) we are not learning tenses now (?) are we learning tenses now? 4. (+) She works in the office every Monday to Saturday (- ) She doesn’t works in the office every Monday to Saturday 4. (+) I am going to school now (?) Does she works in the office every Monday to Saturday? (-) I am not going to school now (?) Am I going to school now? 5. (+) They go to Jakarta every years (- ) They don’t go to Jakarta every years 5. (+) Daus and Anis are running now (? ) Do they go to Jakarta every years? (-) Daus and Anis are not running now (?) are Daus and Anis running now? b. Pungsi Present Tense
  • 2. b. Fungsi Present Continous Tense 5. (+) It rain since at five o’clock (-) It did not rain since at five o’clock 1. Digunakanuntukmenyatakanperbuatan yang sedangterjadi (?) Did it rain since at five o’clock? (+) I am going to Jakarta Now (-) I am not going to Jakarta now (?) Am I going to Jakarta now? 2. Digunakanuntukmenyatakansuatuperbuatan yang bersifatsementara b. FUNGSI PENGGUNAAN PAST TENSES (+) Chindy is writing now but he will explain soon Digunakanuntukmenyatakansuatukejadian yang dimulaidankejadianituberakhir ,padamasa (-) Chindy is not writing now but he will explain soon yang lampau. Dan sampaisekarangini ,sudahtidakadahubungannyalagi. Kejadian yang (?) Is Chindy writing now but he will explain soon? lampauitu, baikdilakukansecaraberkali-kali atausekali. (+) I went yesterday (-) I did not went yesterday c. (?) Did I went yesterday? Time Signal 1. Today Ex : Iam today teaching English 2. Right now c. TIME SIGNAL Ex : Rini is working right now 1. Last Year 3. When Ex: I went to Yogjakarta last year Ex : Rina is coming hear when I go to park 4. Now 2. Yesterday Ex: Dini went to my home yesterday Ex : Roy is going to Bandung now 5. Still 3. Last Week Ex : He is still angry to me Ex: I fineshed my worked lasr week 4. Ago Ex: She taught English three days ago 5. Last Saturday Ex: I went to here last Saturdayc. PAST TENSES a. *Rumus: d. Past Continous Tenses  (+) : S+V2+O  (-) : S+Did not+V2+O a. *Rumus:  (?): Did+S+V2+O 1. (+): S+was/were+vVing+O *Example: 2. (-): S+was/were+not+v.ing+o 3. (?): was/were+S+v.ing+o 1. (+) Sarah invite me last week (-) Sarah did not invite last week (?) Did Sarah invite last week? *Examp;e: 2. (+) I went to Jakarta yesterday 1. (+)The third year student were sitting behind the teacher’s now yesterday (-) I went not to Jakarta yesterday (-) The third year student were not sitting behind the teacher’s now yesrterday (?) went I to Jakarta yesterday? (?) Were the third year student sitting behind the teacher’s now yesterday? 2. (+) He was playing football yesterday 3. (+) You watch tv last week (-) He was not playing football yesterday (-) You did not watch tv last week (?) was he playing football yesterday? (?) Did you watch tv last week? 4. (+) I wrote letter to her last week 3. (+) They were working in the office yesterday (-) I wrote not letter her last week (-) They were not working in the office yesterday (?) Wrotw I letter her last week? (?) Were they working in the office yesterday?
  • 3. 4. (+) Tuti was reading a novel when I come yesterday 1. (+) He will go to PasirPanjang tomorrow morning (-) Tuti was not reading a novel when I come yesterday (-) He will not go to PasirPanjang tomorrow morning (?) was Tuti reading a novel when I come yesterday? (?) Will he go to pasirPanjang tomorrow morning? 2. (+) I shall study hard next mounth (-) I shall not study hard next mounth 5. (+) They were studying Biologi at ten O’clock last Friday (?) Shall I study hard next mounth? (-) They were not studying Biologi at ten o’clock last Friday 3. (+) I am go to Singkawangtomorrow (?) were they studying Biologi at temn o’clock last Friday? (-) I am not go to Singkawang tomorrow (?) Am I ga to Sngkawang tomorrow? b. 4. (+) She will write this lesson next week FungsiPenggunaan Past Continous Tenses (-) She will not write this lesson next week (?) will She write this lesson next week? 1. Digunakanuntukmenyatakanduakejadian yang 5. (+) I shall go to Medan tomorrow sedangberlangsungdalamwaktu yang bersamaan di masa yang lampau. (-) I shall not go to Medan tomorrow Ex: (+) I was going to garden when it began to rain (?) Shall I go to Medan tomorrow? (-) I was not going to garden when it began to rain (?) Was I going to garden when it gegan to rain? b. Fungsi simple future tenses 2. Digunakanuntukmenyatakansuatuperbuatan yang 1. digunakanuntukmenyatakansuatuperbuatan yang akandilakukan. sedangberlangsungpadamasa yang lampau. Ex: (+) I shall go to Surakarta tomorrow Ex: (+) at three o’clock last week, She was reading (-) I shall not go to Surakarta tomorrow (-) at three o’clock last week,She was not reading (?) Shall I go to Surakarta tomorrow? (?) at three o’clock last week,was she reading? 2. Jugabisadigunakanuntukmenyatakansyatujanji. Ex: (+) I shall give you book tomorrow (-) I shall not give you book tomorrow 3. Bentukini, jugadigunakanuntukmenyatakanduakejadian yang (?) Shall I give you book tomorrow? bersamaanwaktudanberlangsung lama padamasa yang lampau. Ex: (+) I was reading a book, while Ani writing a letter 3. Digunakanuntukmenyatakansuatujanji,tapidengansyarat: (-) I was not reading a book,whileAni writing a letter Ex: (+) Your mother will give you a new car if you past your exams (?) Was I reading a book,whileAni writing a letter? (-) Your mother will not give you a new car if you past your exams (?) Will your mother give you a new car if you past your exams? 4. Digunakanuntukmenyantksan memintatolongkepadaseseorang. c. Time Signal Ex: (+) you will help me lift this table (-) You will not help me lift this table (?) Will you help me lift this table? 1. Last Week Ex: at seven o’clock last week 2. Yesterday Ex: all day yesterday c. Time Signal 1. Tomorrow Ex: I shall work tomorrowe. Simple Future Tenses 2. next week Ex: I shall teach next week a. *Rumus: 3. Next Mounth 1. (+): S+shall+/will+V1+O Ex: He will study in here next mounth 2. (-): S+shall/will+not+V1+O 3. (?): Shall/will+S+V1+O f. Past Future Tenses *Example: a. *Rumus: 1.
  • 4. 1. (+): S+should/would+V1+O g. PRESENT PERFECT TENSES 2. (-): S+should/would+not+V1+O 3. (?): Should/would+S+V1+O a. *Rumus: *Example: 1. (+) : S+have/has+V3+O 2. (-) : S+have/has+not+V3+O 1. (+) I should go to Mojosari next day 3. (?): Have/has+S+V3+O (-) I should not go to Mojosari next day (?) Should I go to Mojosari next day? *Example: 2. (+) He would by a car the day before (-) He would not by a car the day before 1. (+) We have learned English for two years (?) Would He by a car the day before? (-) We have not learned English for two years (?) Have we learned English for two years? 3. (+) He would come if you invited him (-) He would not come if you invited him 2. (+) She has taught English since 1988 (-) She has not taught English since 1988 (?) Would he come if you invited him? (?) Has she taught English since 1988? 4. (+) You would give me this pen last Saturday (-) You would not give me this pen last Saturday (?) Would you give me this pen last Saturday? 3. (+) He has been to Jakarta before (-) He has not been to Jakarta before (?) Has he been to Jakarta before? 5. (+) She would have breakfast before at seven (-) She would not have breakfast before at seven 4. (+) He has a written a letter for thirty minutes (?) Would she have breakfast before at seven? (-) He has not a written a letter for thirty minutes (?) Has he a written a letter for thirty minutes?b. Fungsi Past Future Tenses 5. (+) I have just spoken to him 1. Digunakanuntukmenyatakansuatuperbuatan yang (-) I have not just spoken to him akandilakukanpadamasalampau. (?) Have I just spoken to him? Ex: (+) I should go to England last year (-) I should not go to England last year (?) Should I go to England last year? b. Fungsi Present Perfect Tenses 1. Digunakanuntukmenyatakansuatukejadian di masa yangc. Time Signal lampautanpamenyebutkanwaktu yang khusus (tertentu). 1. Last year Ex: (+) I have gone to school Ex: He would go to Semarang last year (-) I have not gone to school (?) Have I gone to school? 2. Last week Ex: They would trip a Paris last week 2. Digunakanuntukmenyatakansuatuperbuatan di 3. Before masalampaudankegiatanmasihberlangsungsampaisaatini. Ex: I should by a car the day before Ex: (+) I have learned in the 2 Mei school since 2000 4. Next day (-) I have not learned in the 2 Mei school since 2000 Ex: She should go to Riau next day (?) Have I learned in the 2 Mei school since 2000? 5. Invited Ex: They would come if you invited him 3. Digunakanuntukmenyatakansuatuperbuatan yang barusajatelahterjadi. Ex: (+) I have just read my book
  • 5. (-) I have not just read my book (-) I had not come home before I when three (?) Have I just read my book? (?) Had I come home before I when three? c. Time signal 2. Digunakanuntukmenyatakansuatuperbuatan yang terjadisebelumwaktutertentudimasa yang lampau. Ex: (+) By the end of the mounth, she had lived here 1. Already (-) By the end of the mounth, she had not lived here Ex: have had breakfast already (?) Had by the end of the mounth, she lived here? 2. Three Times Ex: I have been drink medicine three times a day 3. Finally c. Time Signal Ex: finally, He has started to finally 1. On Ex: On sunday morning, I painted my car8. Past Perfect Tenses 2. When Ex: When my brother arrived, I had painted my car a. *Rumus: 3. Before Ex: The train had left before I arrived 1. (+): S+had+V3+O 4. After Ex: She told me her name after I had asked her twice 2. (-): S+had not+V3+o 3. (?):Had+S+V3+O 9. FUTURE CONTINOUS TENSES Example: a. *Rumus: 1. (+) The train had left before I arrived (-) The train had not left before I arrived 1. (+): S+shall/will+be+Ving+O (?) Had the train left before I arrived? 2. (-): S+shall/will+not+be+Ving+O 3. (?): Shall/will+S+be+ving+O 2. (+) I had copied the lesson before she come home (-) I had not copied the lesson before she come home (?) Had I copied the lesson before she come home? *Example: 1. (+) I shall be waiting for you in this station at four 3. (+) I had come home before I week three (-) I shall not be waiting for you in this station at four (-) I had not come home before I week three (?) Shall I be waiting for you in this station at four? (?) Had I come home before I week three? 2. (+) I shall be studying at this time tomorrow 4. (+) I had written this lesson before he called me (-) I shall not be studying at this time tomorrow (-) I had not written a lesson before he called me (?) Shall I be studying at this time tomorrow? (?) Had I written a lesson before he called me? 3. (+) I shall be waiting for you in this airport at three o’clock tomorrow evening (-) I shall not be waiting for you in this airport at three o’clock tomorrow evening 5. (+) When my brother arrived, I had painted my car (?) Shall I be waiting for you in this airport at three o’clock tomorrow evening? (-) When my brother arrived, I had not painted my car (?) When my brother arrived, had I painted my car? 4. (+) He will be working at this time tomorrow (-) He will not be working at this time tomorrow b. Fungsi past perfect tenses (?) Will he be working at this time tomorrow? 1. Digunakanuntukmenyatakankejadian yang 5. (+) She will going to be school together at seven o’clcok tomorrow (-) She will not going to be school together at seven o’clock tomorrow selesaisebelumkejadianlainterjadidimasalampau. (?) Will she going to be school together at seven o’clock tomorrow? Ex: (+) I had come home before I when three
  • 6. 5. (+) The girl has been crying since he was a child (-) The girl has not been crying since he was a child (?) Has the girl been crying since has was a child? b. Fungsi Future Continous Tenses 1. Digunakanuntukmenyatakansuaturencana, yang dilaksanakanmendatang. b. Fungsi Present Perfect Continous Tenses Ex: (+) I will be going to PantaiPrambanantomorrow (-) I will not going to PantaiPrambanan tomorrow 1. Digunakan untuk mnyatakan suatu perbuatan yang menjadi kebiasaan pada masa (?) Will I going to PantaiPrambanan tomorrow? yang lampau, dan perbuatan itu masih berlangsung hingga saat ini. 2. Untukmenyatakansuatuperbuatanakandilakukandenganwaktutertentu, Ex: (+) I have been going to my grandmother home for my holiday since 1990 padamasamendatang. (-) I have not been going to my grandmother home for my holiday since 1990 Ex: (+) I shall be writing a letter at seven o’clock tomorrow (?) Have I been going to my grandmother home for my holiday since 1990? (-) I shall not be writing a letter at seven o’clock tomorrow 2. Digunakanuntukmenyatakansuatuperbuatan yang (?) Shall I be writing a letter at seven o’clock tomorrow? telahterjadidimasalampaudanakanberlangsungsampiaisekarang. Ex: (+) I have been studying here since 2000 (-) I have not been studying here since 2000 c. Time Signal (?) Have I been studying here since 2000? 1. At nine a o’clock tomorrow Ex: I shall be working at nine a o’clock tomorrow morning c. Time Signal 2. At this time next year Ex: at this time next year, Peter will be traveling in Japan 1. Since Ex: We have been waiting for you since ne o’clock10. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINOUS TENSES 2. For Ex: She has been studying English for over five tears a. *Rumus: 3.This mounth Ex: I have been studying at his place this mounth 1. (+): S+have/has+been+Ving+O 11. PAST PERFECT CONTINOUS TENSES 2. (-): S+have/has+not+been+Ving+O 3. (?): Have/has+S+been+Ving+O a. *Rumus: 1. (+): S+had+been+vVng+O *Example: 2. (-) :S+had+not+been+Ving+O 3. (?): Had+s+been+ving+o 1. (+) I have been going to PantaiSamudra for my holiday since 2002 (-) I have not going to Painting Samudra for my holiday since 2002 (?) Have I going to PantaiSamudra for my holiday since 2002? *Example: 1. (+) Dodi had been looking for the girl for a year before he applied her 2. (+) Mr.BurhanudinSimanjuntak has been teaching at SMK 2 MEI since 2003 (-) Dodi had not been looking for the girl for a year before heapplied her (-) Mr.BurhanudinSimanjuntak has not been teaching at SMK 2 MEI since 2003 (?) Had Dodi been looking for the girl for a year before he applied her? (?) Has Mr.BurhanudinSimanjuntak been teaching at SMK 2 MEI since 2003? 2. (+) I had been playing a football when they came 3. (+) She has been painting every day for a long time (-) I had not been playing a football when they came (-) She has not painting every day for a long time (?) Had I been playing a football when they came? (?) Has she painting every day or along time? 3. (+) She had been cooking a vegetable when he came 4. (+) It has been raining since at six o’clock (-) She had not been cooking a vegetable when he came (-) It has not been raining since at six o’clock (?) had she been cooking a vegetable when he came? (?) Has it been raining since at six o’clock?
  • 7. 4. (+) When I came, his father had been leaving for six hours 5. (+) When my uncle comes tomorrow, my grandmother will have left my house (-) When I came, his father had not been leaving for six hours (-) When my uncle comes tomorrow, my grandmother will not have left my house (?) When I came, had his father been leaving for six hours? (?) When my uncle comes tomorrow, will my grandmother have left my house? 5. (+) I had been waiting for you since at seven o’clock b. Fungsi Future Perfect Tenses (-) I had not been waiting for you since at seven o’clock (?) Had I been waiting for you since at seven o’clock? 1. Digunakanuntukmenyatakansuatuperbutan yang akanselesai, Sebelumwaktu yang lain dimasamendatang. Ex: (+) By next week he will have read this book b. FungsiPastperfectContinous Tenses (-) By next week he will not have read this book (?) Will by next week he have read trhis book? 1. Digunakanuntukmenyatakansuatukejadian yang berlangsung lama sebelumkejadian yang lain di masa yang lampaujuga. 2. Jugadigunakanuntukmenyatakansuatuperistiwaaknselesaisebelumperbuatanlain, Ex: (+) I had been looking for the Ichigo for two week before we meet dimasa yang akandatang. (-) I had not been looking for the Ichigo for two week before we meet Ex: (+) When I comes, my uncle will have left my house (?) Had I been looking for the Ichigo for two week before we meet? (-) When I comes,my uncle will not have left my house (?) Will when I comes,my uncle have left my house? c. Time Signal c. Time Signal 1. When Ex: I finished my dinner, Peter had been 1. By the end of Ex: John will have done his work by the end of this week12. FUTURE PERFECT TENSES 2. By next Ex: By next week he will have read this book a. *Rumus: 13. FUTURE PERFECT CONTINOUS TENSES 1. (+): S+will/shall+have+V3+O 2. (-) : S+will/shall+not+have+V3+O a. *Rumus: 3. (?): Will/shall+S+have+V3+O 1. (+): S+shall/will+have+been+Ving+O 2. (-): S+shall+will+not+have+been+Ving+O *Example: 3. (?):Shall/will+S+have+been+Ving+O 1. (+) She will have written his lesson by time he go out (-) She will not have written his lesson by time he go out *Example: (?) Will she have written his lesson by time he go out? 1. (+) I shall have been writing a letter at this time tomorrow (-) I shall not have been writing a letter at this time tomorrow 2. (+) The game will finished by the time he get three (?) Shall I have been writing a letter at this time tomorrow? (-) The game will not finished by the time he get three (?) Will the game finished by the time he get three? 2. (+) By next fast day I shall have been teaching here six mounths (-) By next fast day I shall not have been teaching here six mounths 3. (+) I shall have written a letter by eight o’clock tomorrow (?) By next fast day shall I have been teaching here six mounths? (-) I shall not have written a letter by eight o’clock tomorrow 3. (+) Next moon Hevy will have been studying here for two years (?) Shall I have written a letter by eight o’clock tomorrow? (-) Next moon Hevy will not have been studying here for two years (?) Next moon will Hevy have been studying here for two years? 4. (+) We shall have played a basketball when he came (-) We shall not have played a basketball when he came 4. (+) Next week Bu Yusni will have been teaching at SMK 2 MEI school for one (?) Shall we have played a basketball when he came? years (-) Next week Bu Yusni will not have been teaching at SMK 2 MEI school for one year
  • 8. (?) Next week will Bu Yusni have been teaching at SMK 2 MEI school for one (?) Would they be having examination at this time the following year? year? 5. (+) He will have been working in the office at this time tomorrow (-) He will not have been working in the office at this time tomorrow b. Fungsi Future Past Continous Tenses (?) Will he have been working in the office at this time tomorrow? 1. Digunakanuntukmenyatakansuatukejadian yang akansedangdilakukanpadamasa yang lampau. b. Fungsi Future Perfect Continous Tenses Ex: I should be taking an examination at this time the following day 1. Digunakanuntukmenyatakansuatukejadian yang sudahdikerakanpadamasa yang lampau,danmasihberlangsungpadawaktutertentudimasa yang akandatang. c. Time Signal Ex: By the end of this year we shall have been studying Jerman for five year 1. Last week Ex: At six o’clock last week, I should be buying in this supermarket c. Time Signal 15. FUTURE PAST PERFECT TENSES 1. By the end of this year Ex: by the end of this year we shall have been studying Jerman for four year a. *Rumus: 2. By the end of this month Ex: By the end of this month, I shall have been working in this office for five years 1. (+): S+should/would+have+V2+O14. FUTURE PAST CONTINOUS TENSES 2. (-): S+should/would+not+have+V2+O 3. (?): Should/would+S+not+have+V2+O a. *Rumus: *Example: 1. (+): S+should/would+be+Ving+O 1. (+) I should have paif if I had come here 2. (-): S+should/would+not+be+V.ing+O (-) I should not have paif if I had come here 3. (?): Should/would+S+be+V.ing+O (?) Should I have paif if I had come here? 2. (+) He would have sucses if he had worked here *Example: (-) He would not have sucses if he had worked here 1. (+) I should be finishing this home work at this time following week (?) Would he have sucses if he had worked here? (-) I should not be finishing this home work at this time following week (?) Should I be finishing this home work at this time following week? 3. (+) She would have graduated if she had studied hard (-) She would not have graduated if she had studied hard 2. (+) We should be going to beach the following week (?) Would she have graduated if she had studied hard? (-) We should not be going to beach the following week (?) Should we be going to beach the following week? 4. (+) I hoped that you would have married before you worked here (-) I hoped not that you would have married before you worked here 3. (+) He would be flag ceremony at this time the following day (?) Would I hoped that you have married before you worked here? (-) He would not be flag ceremony at this time the following day (?) Would he be flag ceremony at this time the following day? 5. (+) I hoped that you would have paif before you come here (-) I hoped not that you would have paif before you come here 4. (+) She would be finishing this job at this time following moon (?) Would I hoped that you have paif before you come hare? (-) She would not be finishing this job at this time following moon (?) Would she be finishing this job at this time following moon? 5. (+) They would be having examination at this time the following year b. Fungsi Future Past Perfect Tenses (-) They would not be having examination at this time the following year
  • 9. 1. Digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu pengandaian yang tidak mungkin terjadi karena syarat yang tidak terpenuhi, namun hanya sebagai bayangan saja. c. Time signal Ex: (+) He would have graduated if he had studied hard (-) He would not have graduated if he had studied hard (?) Would he have graduated if he had studied hard? 1. By the end of this week Ex: By the ed of this week, I should have come here 2. c. By the end of this mounth Time signal Ex: By the end of this mounth, He would have graduated studie 1. If he had studied hard Ex: They would have graduated if they had studied har16. FUTURE PAST PERFECT CONTINOUS TENSES a. *Rumus: 1. (+): S+should/would+have+been+V.ing+O 2. (-): S+should/would+not+have+been+V.ing+O 3. (?): Should/would+S+have+been+V.ing+O *Example: 1. (+) By last Febuary I should have been working this restaurant for one year (-) By last Febuary I should not have been working this restaurant for one year (?) should by last Febuary I have been working this restaurant for one year? 2. (+) By last July we should have been studying this school for three years (-) By last July we should not have been studying this school for three year (?) Should by last July we have been studying this school for three years? 3. (+) By last fast day he would have been living this apartement for five years (-) By last fast day he would not have been living this apartement for five years (?) Would by last fast day he have been living this apartement for five years? 4. (+) She would have been teaching English for one years by last Friday (-) She would not have been teaching English for one years by last Friday (?) Would she have been teaching English for one years by last Friday? 5. (+) The magazine would have been red by Anis (-) The magazine would not have been red by Anis (?) Would the magazine have been red by Anis? b. Fungsi Future Past Perfect Tenses 1. Digunakanuntukmenyatakansuatukejadian yang sudahsedangberlangsungpadawaktu yang lampau. Ex: (+) By last lebaran I should have been working in that office for five years (-) By last lebaran I should not have been working in that office for five years (?) Should by last lebaran I have been working in that office for five years?