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  1. 1.  Definitions and origins of culture Hofstede “software of the mind”, it guides people how to think and behave Is the sum of values, rituals, symbols, beliefs and thought processes that are learned and shared by a group of people International marketers should understand the origin of cultural differences
  2. 2.  Culture is related to values , beliefs and habits held by a member of society.  Culture is values and belief system that govern interaction system.  Culture consists in patterned ways of thinking, feeling and reacting, acquired and transmitted mainly by symbols
  3. 3.  From previous definitions we can summarize the concept of culture in three words: Perception symbolism Behavior
  4. 4.  International marketers should consider cultural adaptation when entering any new market  Several factors should be considered (Geography, history, political economy, technology and social institution)  Social institution such as family roles, religion, education and the media)  How cultural adaption can be done? (Hofstede model)
  5. 5.  Collectivism vs. Individualism (Group and family interest culture vs. self interested culture)  Collectivism vs. Individualism continuum Individualism Ex: UK, France, Germany Collectivism China SpainNew Zealand Turkey
  6. 6.  Power distance dimension (difference in power and wealth )  Power distance continuum Low power distance Ex: UK, France, Germany Italy high power distance EX: ChinaEast Africa Norway
  7. 7.  Uncertainty avoidance continuum France Low Uncertainty avoidance Ex: Singapore, Jamaica High Uncertainty avoidance Ex: GreeceNorwayUK
  8. 8.  Masculine vs. Feminine (culture value performance and achievement vs. Tender and caring culture)  Masculine vs. Feminine continuum Masculine Ex: Japan, Hungary MalaysiaUK Feminine Ex: Sweden Thailand
  9. 9.  Place Egyptian culture on Hofstede’s cultural dimension continuum
  10. 10.  Do you think that web should be culturally adapted why?
  11. 11.  Web is an open network that have a global accessibility  The interactive nature of web make it ideal to create a culturally sensitive dialogue and it’s multimedia capabilities can helps to develop country specific themes, pictures , videos and sounds
  12. 12. Collectivism web interface Individualism web interface Chat rooms Independence picture Images of groups and family Community relations Newsletters Symbols and pictures of national identity •Some examples showing the design for collectivism and individualism cultures
  13. 13.  Some examples showing the design for power distance High power distance web interface Tall hierarchies (new pages open in new windows) in mental models Frequent social roles used to organize information (e.g., a managers' section obvious to all but sealed off from non- managers) Picture of important people, proper people titles
  14. 14.  Some examples showing the design for uncertainty avoidance High uncertainty avoidance web interface Simplicity, with clear metaphors, limited choices, and restricted amounts of data Navigation schemes intended to prevent users from becoming lost Free trials and downloads Customer services
  15. 15.  Some examples showing the design for Masculine and feminine cultures Masculine web interface Feminine web interface Focus on achievements Politeness and soft sell approach Quizzes and games Aesthetics: Communications in high context culture emphasize harmony, beauty, and oneness with nature
  16. 16. individualism culture (Independence pictures) British consumers local home page
  17. 17. Egyptian consumers local home page High uncertainty avoidance culture tender and caring culture (Feminine culture) Collectivism culture(images of national identity
  18. 18. British consumers local home page difference in power and wealth (Low power distance culture) individualism culture (Independence pictures)
  19. 19. Egyptian consumers local home page difference in power and wealth (high power distance culture )
  20. 20.  Select an Egyptian local website, using hofstede model identify any cultural components of the website design. Using a print screen shots point on them and print them out.