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Workstudy
 

Workstudy

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Workstudy

Workstudy

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    Workstudy Workstudy Presentation Transcript

    • Managing Efficiency, Processes & Productivity
    • Work Study
      • generic term for management services and system engineering techniques, used to investigate
        • methods of performing work (method study) and improve its efficiency and economy
        • the time taken to do it (work measurement) with a view to rationalization, routinisation, utilisation, cost and incentive improvement
      • the worker-work system-technology relationship: how this is best designed and improved (ergonomics and the human-machine-information interfaces)
    • Productivity
      • a measure of performance.
      • broadly a ratio of output to input, i.e. comparing amount produced (output) with resources used (input)
      • materials, machinery, labour, capital, energy --- a combination
      • What improvements have there been over the last 50 years in
        • construction productivity
        • payroll processing
        • Car servicing
        • banking
      • How do we evaluate productivity levels and identify areas for improvement?
    • A work study curriculum - 1
      • historical development & commitments of Work Study
      • basic concepts, objectives and procedures
      • Method Study approaches and tools of Method Analyst
        • Flow Diagrams & Process Charts etc
        • Critical questioning techniques
      • Work Measurement and calculating times for Jobs
        • Defining job elements & calculating
        • performance rating and standard/basic times
        • Determining allowances: fatigue, unavoidable & avoidable delays, extra allowances
      • various incentive plans
    • A work study curriculum - 2
      • examining worker-machine relationships
        • workload & line balancing & staff/machine inefficiencies
        • material handling, human controls, tools and devices
        • Workstation layout & design (EU work-station directive)
        • Occupation Health & Safety:signals, reaction times, eyes, backs, RSI safety criteria, preventing accidents
      • Ergonomics & human-machine-environment interfaces
        • use of visual displays for dynamic information
        • Designing for: lighting systems, industrial noise, thermal controls, vibration etc
      • Systems analysis the human-machine information system
        • data capture and processing
        • design of the user interface
      • Business process re-engineering (BPR)
    • System relationships Process analysis Method study Plant layout Incentive rewards Time study Jobs Work breakdowns standard times Engineer workflows Design work station & information arrangements
    • Nature of the Theory
      • organised common sense, human ingenuity & creation of tools
      • functional and assumed to be neutral/unemotional
      • critical questioning & taking nothing for granted
      • focus on efficiencies, utilisation and costs
      • predictability and control over quality
      • maximise use (utilisation) of compliant labour & capital - unit costing
      • machine & economic man vs. social/sentient
      Separation of worker from means of production
    • Opposition to Work Study
      • All work is different - idiographic vs/ nomothetic
      • Large firm/employer and large engineered systems only
      • Work study is obsolete
      • It is exploitative of workers
      • It has never been and never will be accepted here
      Is this so? What is the evidence of work study in the world around you
    • Pioneers of efficiency measurement & systems
      • Gunpowder manufacture
      • Chinese ceramics industry
      • Adam Smith observations of French - pin making
      • Pioneers of agrarian and industrial revolutions
      • Abraham Derby & Josiah Wedgwood
      • Madame Guillotine, Springfield Rifle
      • F W Taylor at Bethlehem Steel work
      • Henry Gantt
      • Frank and Lillian Gilbreth
        • Time and motion study
      • Charles Bedaux
        • Work measurement
    • Methods, times and systems for performance
      • improve methods - get it right:
        • Method study
        • O & M & Ergonomics
        • Industrial & systems engineering
      • define & maintain work standards
      • incentive schemes e.g. piece work & measured day work
      • human-computer interface & systems analysis & design
      • rationalisation, automation & substitution of machine technologies for people
      Braverman and de-skilling in the labour process
    • Method study
      • Select job/process to be examined & observe current performance
        • high process cost, bottlenecks, tortuous route, low productivity, erratic quality
      • Record & document facts
        • activities performed
        • operators involved - how etc
        • equipment and tools used
        • materials processed or moved
      • apply critical examination - challenge job components & necessity (purpose, place, sequence, method).
      • develop alternative methods & present proposals
      • document as base for new work system
      • Install, monitor (slippage) & maintain
      Process re-engineering? Risk assessment for safety?
    • ASME Symbols and Process Charting Operation Move Delay Store Inspect/ process Decision
    • Traditional O&M critical examination questions
      • Purpose
        • What, Why, What else might & Should be done ?
      • Place
        • Where, Why, Where else & Where should it be done ?
      • Sequence
        • When, Why then, When else could & When should ?
      • People
        • Who, Why, Who else might & should do it?
      • Method
        • How, Why, How else could, How else should
      • a sound reason for every activity
      • no assumptions so double check
      • quality, safety and health must not compromised
    • Other types of process modelling
      • multiple activity charts
      • string diagrams
      • 3-dimensional models
      • recording methods - video,etc
      • computer-based modeling
    • Measuring Work
      • Why define/measure work?
        • standard, reliable methods
        • control performance & quality
        • obtain predictability
        • defined labour costs & performance
        • set pay rates & provide data for effort-reward relationship
      • Why set standard times
        • assumptions about competent, motivated workers
        • be clear about "allowances" & fatigue
      • Toyota Avensis 10000 mile service
      • MOT testing
      • Service times & queue management
        • Banks
        • Airline check-in
        • Call centres
        • Out-sourcing & service level agreements
      • Work-load balancing
      • Work related bonuses
    • Work Measurement
      • techniques to establish the time for a qualified, motivated worker to carry out a task at a defined rate of working.
      • time Study:
        • establish standard times - management knowledge
        • rate operator performance - criteria for appraisal
        • gather information to calculate production capabilities & data for capacity planning.
        • define/cost work content of finished goods and services e.g. for charging & estimating
    • A Time Study
      • select job & identify the work tasks
      • check the method - is it efficient/agreed?
      • start a Time Study sheet & break work task into "units"
      • several times with a stop watch & for a sample of workers, time measure
        • completion times for each unit of work in the job sequence
        • average for each worker
        • determine & apply worker effort rating for each worker (BSI scale)
        • Apply fatigue, personal & other allowances
      • From the observation data (worker average times) calculate standard time for the task
      • Assumes: set sequence, routine work cycle (all workers), little discretion, 100% effort rating - trained/qualified, motivated/committed, working at normal pace & not fatigued
      • Fix standard time and enter into measured work manual/database
    • Example standard time calculation 13.39 minutes Standard time Total 4.55 110% + 15% 3.60 3 5.81 110% + 5% 4.80 2 3.03 110% +10% 2.50 1 Standard time Effort % Relaxation % Basic time Element
    • Incentive Schemes
      • What are incentives?
      • Effort-reward relationships
      • Economic orientation & motivation
        • Time rates of pay & assumptions/requirements
        • Piecework
        • Measured day work
        • Group Schemes
      • Incentive scheme problems
      • Criticism and prevalence
      • cost savings ?
      • economy of operation ?
      • easily understood ?
      • maintain safety standards ?
      • equitable to all ?
      • control and improve effectiveness & standards ?
      • common goal ?
    • Process Analysis and BPR
      • Management services & business process re-engineering
      • how work is done & data for planning, staffing & control functions.
      • applied across a wide range of industrial/commercial activity: manufacturing, office, service industries, facilities layout, materials handling, logistics, IT and IS
      • Identify process components & interrelationships (inputs, processes/transformations, rules, outputs, interfaces
      • break down the process into its logical sub processes (work breakdown structure)
      • map using
        • process flow charts etc
      • describe the business process & jobs at sub process levels
      • document for: capacity planning, quality (zero defects & process orientation, inspection), operator intervention, safety, accounting/cost, planned maintenance, JIT purposes
      Clearly represented in the development and adoption of on-line computer systems
    • From Work Study to Systems Analysis and Design Information modelling Analysis & design Socio-tech Human activity Keep in mind Our focus
    • Analysis, Design, Build Projects
      • Implement
      • Fine-tune
      • Conversion
      • Training
      • Cut-over
      • Build & test
      • databases
      • programs
      • HCI
      • Hardware
      • Design
      • databases
      • programs
      • HCI
      • Hardware
      • security
      Design Specification Business Situation & Information Processing Requirement
      • Feasibility
      • Technological
      • Financial
      • Organisational
      • Analysis
      • data flows
      • d-structures
      • events
      BSOs, TSOs Requirements
      • New system
      • Add modules
      • Review performance
      • Devel. Team dispersed
      • Maintenance
      Accept Continuity contracts Contribution/VfM? Prototyping
    • System Development Costs
    • Modelling the Information System Our 'model' of the information system Input - triggers activities
      • Requirements
      • information processing functions
      • data to store
      Output to activities which use the processed information Data items
    • Data Flow Modelling (DFDs)
      • Data flows across the system boundary & within the system
      • Processes (functions that process data)
      • Data stores
      • Sources/sinks (external entities)
      • Functional decomposition (levels & modularisation)
      • Do not show
        • Time (when things happen & sequence)
        • Decisions (see process specification)
      • System boundary
      • Diagrams - better than narrative
      • CASE tools to draw and record details
    • Context DFD - Level 0
    • Level 1 DFD
    • DFDs - Levelling Consistency of data flows between levels. Are the diagrams consistent?
    • Logical Data Modelling
      • data captured by the system
      • Analyse the data entities, attributes and relationships
        • Entities things (physical or conceptual) of interest that the system needs to store information about.
        • Attributes The data items stored in each occurrence of an entity
        • Relationships how the data in one entity may be related (for functional purposes) to another)
      • Create database schema for developers and DB managers
        • system processes use the data - jobs, calculations, reports
        • maintain the access rules, security and integrity of the data
    • Events acting on data applies interviewed final accept/reject enrols/pays assessed graduates leaves
      • Identify all processes
      • Map against the LDM
      • Data updates
      • Referential integrity & validation
      • Menus, screens, reports
    • Example: Dabbs plc
      • Customers place sales orders
      • A single order may contain several products
      • Each customer is in one of 500 areas
      • Each customer is serviced by one of 6 depots
      • Each customer is allocated a depot depending on their area location
      • All products are stocked at all depots
    • Entity occurrence - 1
      • Entity: Footballer
      • Occurrence: David Beckham
      • Attributes
        • DOB, height, weight, position, skills, goals scored, next of kin, address, salary, contract dates, sending-offs, number of international caps
      • Relationships with
        • Games, team sheets, payments, club TV appearances, insurance policies, contracts, agents, injuries, treatments
    • Entity occurrence - 2
      • Entity: Patient
      • Occurrence: Chris Woodhead
      • Attributes
        • Name, age, address, NHS number, allergies, next-of-kin, {medical conditions}, {treatments}, private health care
      • Relationships with
        • Treatments, appointments, medical conditions, allergies, GP, clinics, medical staff, private health payments