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Work Study & Productivity


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Work Study & Productivity

Work Study & Productivity

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  • 1. Work
    BY Eng . Ahmad Bassiouny
    Evelean William
  • 2.
  • 3. Work study definition
    A generic term for those techniques, particularly method study and work measurement, which are used in the examination of human work in all its contexts, and which lead systematically to to the investigation of all the factors which affect the efficiency and economy of the situation being reviewed, in order to effect improvement'
    British Standards Institution approved definition B.S. 3138: 1959:
  • 4. Work study definition
    Work Study is the systematic study of an operation or process to ensure the best possible use of the human and material resources available. The prime aim is to improve productivity. The application of Work Study to a department or company is made to improve the existing method of operation, as a result change will occur which will affect all personnel - irrespective of status.
  • 5. Work study objectives
    The object of  applying Work Study is to obtain the optimum use of the human and material resources, which are available to it. The benefits may stem from improvements in one or more of the following:
    Increased production and productivity
    Reduced costs - labor, material, overheads
    Improvement of conditions, which involve an element of excessive fatigue or danger
    Improved quality     
    Better control of costs
  • 6. Work study benefits
    Work Study can considerably increase productivity. People can benefit from, less tiring work, better working conditions and, because an efficient company can meet competition successfully, better employment prospects.
    Work Study raises efficiency by RE-ORGANISATION OF WORK. It therefore need involve little or no capital expenditure. Yet, where such an outlay is desirable, Work Study can ensure that it is spent to the best advantage.
    Work Study is systematic; its procedures are designed to ensure that no factors affecting the situation are overlooked.
  • 7. Work study benefits
    It is the best means available for setting STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE, and although often seen as the basis for incentives, the real value lies in the information provided for work scheduling, estimating deliveries and for accurate costing.
    Work Study produces savings very quickly and these gains continue as long as the improved methods evolved are maintained.
    Work Study is a UNIVERSAL TOOL, it is not confined to the workshops but can be equally effective in the office, warehouse, and in distribution, etc.
    Work Study is the most searching technique available because it takes every fact into account.  It reveals weaknesses often overlooked in the day to day working.
  • 8. Work study techniques
  • 9. Work study techniques
    WORK STUDY : Consists of Two parts:
    To find the best method of operation, making full use of all resources available.
    To find the time required to carry out the operation at a defined level of activity.
    Method Study is defined as:
    The systematic recording and critical examination of existing and proposed ways of doing work, as a means of developing and applying easier and more effective methods and reducing costs.British Standard 3138
    The basic approach of method study is to follow a simple six step procedure:
    SELECT The work to be studied.
    RECORD All the relevant facts.
    EXAMINE The facts critically.
    DEVELOP The most effective method.
    INSTALL That method.
    MAINTAIN By regular checks.
  • 11. Work Measurement
    A brief description of the various techniques used in work measurement is given in the following paragraphs /pages. They may be used separately or in combination depending on the nature of the work. The Work Study Engineer must assess which technique or combination of techniques should be used in a given situation.
  • 12. Time Study Definition :
    The application of techniques designed to establish the time for a qualified worker to carry out a specified job at a defined level of performance. (BS 3138: 1979).
    Work Measurement
  • 13. Time Study Definition
    Direct (Time Study) Measurement
    Time Study is a technique for recording the times and rates of working for the elements of a specified job carried out under specified conditions, and for analyzing the data so as to obtain the time necessary for carrying out the job at a defined level of performance.
  • 14. Activity sampling
    Activity sampling is the name given to the process of collecting information about machine or human activities by making a large number of instantaneous observations of the subject . This technique provides a rapid and effective means of studying the pattern of almost any type of activity and its usefulness increases as the number of subjects to be observed becomes greater.
    The degree of confidence and accuracy in the results can be varied at will to known levels by varying the number of observations in accordance with a statistical formula.
  • 15. Activity sampling
    If  the stage of activity or inactivity only is recorded, the process is called ‘Activity Sampling’ and this may be used to obtain estimates off:
    The utilization of plant or labor and the reasons for losses in utilization .
    The proportion of a given period that machines or persons are occupied by specific activities .
    If, in addition to the state of activity, an estimate of the working pace of the operators is recorded, the technique becomes known as
    ‘Rated Activity Sampling’ And this may be used for:
    Setting standard times for work in which several people are engaged as a team
    Checking the overall validity of existing time standards for a number of products or activities.       
  • 16. Pre-determined times system
    PMTS is an organized body of information, procedures and techniques employed in the study of evaluation of work elements performed by human power in terms of the method or motions used, their general and specific nature, the conditions under which they occur, and the application of predetermined times which their performance requires.
  • 17. Pre-determined times system
    The development of the pre-determined Time System commenced in 1930 - 1940.In this period, MTA (Motion-Time Analysis)Work Factor and MTS (Motion-Time Standards)were evolved.
    The 1940’s in the USA brought rapid war mobilization with shortage of material and manpower. There was little time in which to achieve tremendous increases in productivity. During this period, MTM (Method Time Measurement) originated and development began.