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  • Transcript

    • 1. Hawthorne Studies By Emily Sligar
    • 2. What will be covered:
      • Definition
      • Brainstorming Exercise
      • Study background
      • Explanation of findings
      • Real world example
      • An exercise
      • Summary
    • 3. Hawthorne studies defined
      • A series of experiments in which the output of the workers was observed to increase as a result of improved treatment by their managers.
      • Named for their site, at the Western Electric Company plant in Hawthorne, Illinois.
    • 4. Brainstorming Exercise
      • What can a manager do to improve productivity?
    • 5. Study Background
      • Hawthorne studies were conducted from 1927 to 1932 by Harvard Business School Professor Elton Mayo.
      • Purpose of study was to examine what effect monotony and fatigue had on productivity and how to control them with variables such as rest breaks, work hours, temperature, and humidity.
    • 6. Normal conditions
      • Under normal conditions, the work week was 48 hours, including Saturdays. There were no rest pauses.
    • 7. Experiment One
      • The workers were put on piece-work for eight weeks.
      • Output went up.
    • 8. Experiment Two
      • The workers were given two rest pauses, five minutes each, in the morning and afternoon for a period of five weeks.
      • Output went up again.
    • 9. Experiment Three
      • The rest pauses were increased to ten minutes each.
      • Output went up sharply.
    • 10. Experiment Four
      • The workers were given six five minute breaks.
      • Output fell slightly.
      • The workers complained that the work rhythm was broken by frequent pauses.
    • 11. Experiment Five
      • The two original rest pauses were put back in place, and the workers were given a free hot meal by the company.
      • Output went up.
    • 12. Experiment Six
      • The workers were dismissed at 4:30 p.m. instead of 5:00 p.m.
      • Output went up.
    • 13. Experiment Seven
      • The workers were dismissed at 4:00 p.m.
      • Output remained the same.
    • 14. Experiment Eight
      • All improvements were taken away and the workers returned to their original working conditions.
      • Output was the highest ever recorded!
    • 15. Explanation of Findings
      • The experimental group had considerable freedom of movement compared to other workers in the plant.
      • The group developed an increased sense of responsibility and discipline no longer needed to come from a higher authority, it came from within the group.
    • 16. Real World Example
      • Workers improve their productivity when they believe management is concerned with their welfare and pay particular attention to them.
      • Productivity can also be explained by paying attention to the workers’ social environment and informal groupings.
    • 17. An Exercise
      • What kinds of issues affect your productivity?
      • What can a manager do to increase or decrease your productivity?
    • 18. Summary
      • Hawthorne studies defined
      • Study background
      • Explanation of findings
      • Real world example