Hawthorne2

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  • Hawthorne2

    1. 1. Hawthorne Studies By Emily Sligar
    2. 2. What will be covered: <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorming Exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Study background </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation of findings </li></ul><ul><li>Real world example </li></ul><ul><li>An exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Summary </li></ul>
    3. 3. Hawthorne studies defined <ul><li>A series of experiments in which the output of the workers was observed to increase as a result of improved treatment by their managers. </li></ul><ul><li>Named for their site, at the Western Electric Company plant in Hawthorne, Illinois. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Brainstorming Exercise <ul><li>What can a manager do to improve productivity? </li></ul>
    5. 5. Study Background <ul><li>Hawthorne studies were conducted from 1927 to 1932 by Harvard Business School Professor Elton Mayo. </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose of study was to examine what effect monotony and fatigue had on productivity and how to control them with variables such as rest breaks, work hours, temperature, and humidity. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Normal conditions <ul><li>Under normal conditions, the work week was 48 hours, including Saturdays. There were no rest pauses. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Experiment One <ul><li>The workers were put on piece-work for eight weeks. </li></ul><ul><li>Output went up. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Experiment Two <ul><li>The workers were given two rest pauses, five minutes each, in the morning and afternoon for a period of five weeks. </li></ul><ul><li>Output went up again. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Experiment Three <ul><li>The rest pauses were increased to ten minutes each. </li></ul><ul><li>Output went up sharply. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Experiment Four <ul><li>The workers were given six five minute breaks. </li></ul><ul><li>Output fell slightly. </li></ul><ul><li>The workers complained that the work rhythm was broken by frequent pauses. </li></ul>
    11. 11. Experiment Five <ul><li>The two original rest pauses were put back in place, and the workers were given a free hot meal by the company. </li></ul><ul><li>Output went up. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Experiment Six <ul><li>The workers were dismissed at 4:30 p.m. instead of 5:00 p.m. </li></ul><ul><li>Output went up. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Experiment Seven <ul><li>The workers were dismissed at 4:00 p.m. </li></ul><ul><li>Output remained the same. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Experiment Eight <ul><li>All improvements were taken away and the workers returned to their original working conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Output was the highest ever recorded! </li></ul>
    15. 15. Explanation of Findings <ul><li>The experimental group had considerable freedom of movement compared to other workers in the plant. </li></ul><ul><li>The group developed an increased sense of responsibility and discipline no longer needed to come from a higher authority, it came from within the group. </li></ul>
    16. 16. Real World Example <ul><li>Workers improve their productivity when they believe management is concerned with their welfare and pay particular attention to them. </li></ul><ul><li>Productivity can also be explained by paying attention to the workers’ social environment and informal groupings. </li></ul>
    17. 17. An Exercise <ul><li>What kinds of issues affect your productivity? </li></ul><ul><li>What can a manager do to increase or decrease your productivity? </li></ul>
    18. 18. Summary <ul><li>Hawthorne studies defined </li></ul><ul><li>Study background </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation of findings </li></ul><ul><li>Real world example </li></ul>

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