Developing Collective Leadership

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Developing Collective Leadership

Developing Collective Leadership

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  • 1.  
  • 2. Workshop Session 1C – Leadership in Context
    • Effective Leadership in Practice
    • The relationship between leadership, management and performance in institutions. How does it work?
    • Alan Bryman
    • Professor Jonathan Gosling
    • Professor Paul Webley (chair)
    • Professor Elaine Thomas (chair)
  • 3. Developing Collective Leadership in HE Richard Bolden, Georgy Petrov & Jonathan Gosling Centre for Leadership Studies University of Exeter
  • 4. Background
    • Leadership:
      • regarded as a key pillar of the modernization of UK Public Services
      • still largely rooted in individualistic and managerialist concepts and practices
      • tension between the rhetoric and experience of ‘distributed leadership’
  • 5. Research Project
    • Developing collective leadership in HE
      • Aim : to explore perceptions and experiences of university leaders/managers about the nature of leadership and its development
      • Focus : academic work of the university
      • Method : 152 interviews in 12 UK universities
  • 6. University structures MODEL 1 Dean of Faculty/School as budget holder Top Management Team - VC Cross-cutting DVCs/PVCs with university-wide roles Territorial/sectoral DVCs/PVCs with responsibility for a cluster of schools/faculties Dean of Faculty/School as a formal management role Head of School/Dept as a semi-formal management role Cross cutting DVCs/PVCs with university-wide roles include those responsible for R, T&L, Strategy, Resources, etc. They do not have formal line-management responsibilities Territorial/sectoral DVCs/PVCs are responsible for a cluster of schools/faculties. They can either have a formal line-management responsibility for Heads/Deans or not. Dean of Faculty/School in this model is a formal role and has the main formal budget holding and line-management responsibility. The Dean may be a member of the VCEG and serve a similar role to that of Territorial/sectoral DVCs/PVC where no such role exists. Head of School/Department in this model is regarded as an informal management role - i.e. it does not carry formal financial and line management responsibilities. In two sample universities this role is not formally recognised in the university management structure despite its existence. Prevalence : this model predominated in 8 of the 12 sample universities. MODEL 2 Head of Department as budget holder Top Management Team - VC Cross-cutting DVCs/PVCs with university-wide roles Dean of Faculty/School as a cross-cutting rather than hierarchical management role Head of School/Dept as a formal management role DVCs/PVCs with cross-cutting roles (R, T&L, Strategy, Resources, etc). In universities of this model, there was no instance of a DVC/PVC with responsibility for faculty and Deans were members of the VCEG. Dean of Faculty/School in this model is a cross-cutting rather than hierarchical management role, with little formal budget-holding or line-management responsibility (but recognized within the university management structure all the same). The role involves coordinating a cluster of fairly autonomous schools/departments and facilitating communication between the levels. In one university Deans have a cross-institutional role apart from being responsible for a faculty and in many cases they serve a leadership role beyond the institution. Head of School/Department in this model is a formal management role and has the main budget-holding and line-management responsibility. Prevalence : this model predominated in 4 of the 12 sample universities.
  • 7. Strategic differentiation Changing student demographic Customer focus Professionalisation of services Political engagement Research/teaching orientation Internationalisation & regionalisation Inter-disciplinarity Vocationalisation & employer engagement Changing nature and context of HE Location Disciplinary mix Strategic alliances Commercial alliances Additional campuses Development challenges Diversity Succession Career pathway Hybrid management Balancing priorities Integration Brand
  • 8. Market pressures Government regulation Organisational restructuring Shift from ‘bureaucratic’ and ‘collegial’ to ‘corporate’ and ‘entrepreneurial’ forms of organisation Devolution of management and leadership Larger business units Balance of vertical and horizontal leadership Tension between roles (e.g. academic vs manager) Lack of clarity for cross-cutting roles Increasing professionalisation & ‘hybrid’ roles Greater executive control at senior & middle management levels Increasing autonomy & control of resources Strategic differentiation & competition between and within universities Streamlining of committee structure Alignment through annual strategic planning exercise Leadership of discipline versus institution Formal & informal influence
  • 9. Distributed/shared leadership Forms
    • Formal
    • Pragmatic
    • Strategic
    • Incremental
    • Opportunistic
    • Cultural
    Benefits Challenges
    • Responsiveness
    • Transparency
    • Convenience
    • Teamwork
    • Fragmentation
    • Lack of role clarity
    • Slow decision-making
    • Individual capability
    Experiences
    • Dislocated
    • Disconnected
    • Disengaged
    • Dissipated
    • Distant
    • Dysfunctional
    Complements rather than replaces individual/hierarchical leadership Leadership may be formally ‘devolved’ or informally ‘dispersed’ Form taken depends on nature of task, organisational structures/processes & personal preference Ability to act is strongly linked to control of/access to resources HE leadership is shared but within constraints HE Leadership requires a combination of both shared and hierarchical leadership . To this extent ‘distributed leadership’ may be more powerful as a rhetorical device than as an accurate description of leadership practice
  • 10. STRATEGIC OPERATIONAL Top Management Team (VCEG) Faculty/School School/Department Broad focus Narrow focus Leadership of institution Leadership of discipline Managerialism (Bureaucracy and Corporation) Collegium and Enterprise PVCs Deans HOS/HOD VC/Principal
  • 11. Culture and context Individual Structural Social Identity & relationships Resources & rewards Participation & communication Leadership practice Values, purpose, goals
  • 12. (2) Taking up a leadership role (3) Sharing leadership Structural/ Organisational Individual Social Contextual (1) Leadership strategies and approaches (4) Future trends and challenges (5) Leadership development
  • 13. Findings
  • 14. Individual Findings
      • Qualities & experience
      • Role & influence
      • Personal & professional identity
  • 15. Leadership in HE
    • VC, pre-1992 university: “I’m looking for somebody who’s able to understand all the pressures that are on an institution and has an ability to lead in their area. I think they must be credible in their delivery and they must have appropriate networks internally and externally[…] I believe you’re not making the appointment of an individual but of a person who has to fit the profile of the team. You don’t want everyone to be the same on the team so you are matching a gap in a jigsaw puzzle as well as just choosing a person.”
  • 16. Individual Findings
      • Informal networks & structures
      • Competing social identities
      • Organisational culture
    Social
  • 17. Leadership in HE
    • HOS, pre-1992 university: “Throughout the dispute… there has been a tendency for there to be a ‘them and us’ and in my situation as a HOS I’m part of ‘them’ and I'm part of ‘us’. I go to meetings where I'm told by management ‘you must do this to them’ where ‘them’ is my colleagues and in fact myself... We are perceived to be part of management by the management and we are perceived to be part of the team by the team. There isn’t a clear divide.”
  • 18. Individual Findings
      • Org systems, processes & practices
      • Access and control of resources
      • Vertical and horizontal roles
    Social Structural
  • 19. Leadership in HE
    • HOD, pre-1992 university: “You have all the responsibilities of running a small business but you have no authority or control. The budgets are there but they’re fixed and you have to work within them… There’s a strong sense that you have all the responsibility but you don’t have the control. Whilst I’m not necessarily saying that if the level of responsibility came with the level of power it would be a good thing, at least you would be a bit more in control of your destiny.”
  • 20. SITUATION/CONTEXT Individual Findings Social Structural
      • Internal & external pressures
      • Context: location , size, strategic focus
      • Increasing executive control
  • 21. SITUATION/CONTEXT Individual Findings Social Structural
      • Indiv, group & org dev
      • Career pathways
      • Strategic priorities
    TIME
  • 22. SITUATION/CONTEXT Individual Findings Social Structural TIME Individual Social Structural Individual Social Structural Organisational development Leadership development Leader development ORGANISATION GROUP PERSON
  • 23. SITUATION/CONTEXT Individual Findings Social Structural TIME Individual Social Structural Individual Social Structural Organisational development Leadership development Leader development ORGANISATION GROUP PERSON Bridging Bonding
  • 24. Conclusions
    • Influence via horizontal and informal memberships = social capital
    • Credibility from hybrid abilities
    • Devolve for entrepreneurialism, invest in identity or risk fragmentation
    • The real squeeze is on HoS level
    • Managerialism now accepted as the norm
    • Distributed leadership is a workable rhetoric
  • 25.
    • As descriptive of leadership practice
    • As a perspective on leadership practice
    • As informing/prescribing leadership practice
    • As a rhetorical device
    The utility of distributed leadership?