Interest In Dar Al Harb
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Interest In Dar Al Harb

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BY Abrar Mirza...

BY Abrar Mirza
Student, Dārul Iftā’
Camperdown, South Africa
2 ShaɈbān, 1430 – July 25, 2009
Checked and Approved:
Muftī Ebrahim Desai
Dārul Iftā’, Madrasah InɈāmiyyah

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  • 1. As-Salāmu ɈAlaykum, What is the ruling on interest in Dār al-Ḥarb? ª‫א‬ ‫ق وא‬ ‫و א‬ ‫אو‬ ª‫א א‬ Wa-ɈAlaykum as-Salām, Introduction In the Qur’ān, Allāh Taʿālā instructed the believers in numerous places to perform certain duties and to refrain from others. Yet, one hardly finds a warning more severe than the warning against dealing in interest, where Allāh Taʿālā declared war1 on behalf of Himself and His Messenger ‫ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‬against such a person. Despite this warning, amongst the various other warnings mentioned in the Qur’ān and aḥādīth, some people argue on its permissibility in the modern day non-Muslim countries. It is important to understand the reasoning behind such an argument and weight its strength in order to make sure that people are not being convinced into dealings which will entail the wrath of Allāh Taʿālā. Interest in Dār al-Ḥarb The argument of permissibility to deal with interest in non-Muslim countries stems from the difference of opinion in the permissibility of interest (ribā) in a Dār al-Ḥarb (“Country of War”). The Ḥanafī ʿulamā’ have differed in this since the time of Imām Abū Ḥanīfah. According to Imām Abū Yūsuf, only those transactions that are permissible between Muslims are permitted between Muslims and non-Muslims in Dār al-Ḥarb, whereas Imām Abū Hanīfah and Imām Muḥammad permit interest-bearing transactions between a Muslim and non-Muslim in a Dār al-Ḥarb.2 ١ (٢٧٩ :‫ﻮﻥ )ﺍﻟﺒﻘﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺗﻈﻠ‬ ‫ﻮﻥ ﻭﻟﹶﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻈﻠ‬ ‫ﻟﻜﻢ ﻟﹶﺎ‬‫ﺍ‬‫ﺘﻢ ﻓﻠﻜﻢ ﺭ ُﻭﺱ ﹶﺃﻣﻮ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﺗ‬ ‫ﻟﻪ ﻭﹺﺇﻥ‬‫ﻮ‬ ‫ﻮﺍ ﹺﺑﺤﺮﺏﹴ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﻭﺭ‬‫ﺗﻔﻌﹸﻮﺍ ﻓﺄﺫ‬ ‫ﻓﺈﻥ ﹶﻟﻢ‬ ‫ ﹾﹶﻤ ﹶ‬ ‫ﻤ ﹶ‬‫ ﹾ‬ ‫ ﹸ‬  ‫ﺀ‬  ‫ ﹶﹶ ﹸ‬ ‫ ﹾ‬  ‫ﺳ‬   ‫ ﱠ‬    ‫ﻠ ﹶ ﹾ ﹶﻧ‬ ‫ ﹾ‬ ‫ﹶﹺ ﹾ‬ ٢ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ: ﺫﻛﺮ ﻋﻦ ﻣﻜﺤﻮﻝ ﻋﻦ ﺭﺳﻮﻝ ﺍﷲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ ﻗﺎﻝ: "ﻻ ﺭﺑﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻭﺑﲔ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﳊﺮﺏ ﰲ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﳊﺮﺏ" ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﳊﺪﻳﺚ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﺮﺳﻼ‬ ‫ﻓﻤﻜﺤﻮﻝ ﻓﻘﻴﻪ ﺛﻘﺔ ﻭﺍﳌﺮﺳﻞ ﻣﻦ ﻣﺜﻠﻪ ﻣﻘﺒﻮﻝ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺩﻟﻴﻞ ﻷﰊ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﳏﻤﺪ ﺭﲪﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﷲ ﰲ ﺟﻮﺍﺯ ﺑﻴﻊ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﻫﻢ ﺑﺎﻟﺪﺭﳘﲔ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳊﺮﰊ ﰲ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﳊﺮﺏ ﻭﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﰊ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ‬ (‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﺭﲪﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﷲ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ )ﺍﳌﺒﺴﻮﻁ ﻟﻠﺴﺮﺧﺴﻲ، ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻮﻉ: ٤١/٨٩؛ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺮ‬
  • 2. ‫‪Nonetheless, the difference of opinion is only between a Muslim and a ḥarbī (“warrior,” resident of a Dār‬‬ ‫‪al-Ḥarb). All the Imāms agree that Muslims who have entered into a Dār al-Ḥarb are not allowed to‬‬ ‫‪deal in interest amongst each other.3 Furthermore, a Muslim may not pay an additional amount in‬‬ ‫.‪interest.4 The difference of opinion is only in taking extra money in interest‬‬ ‫‪Defining Dār al-Ḥarb‬‬ ‫-‪In addition to the difference of opinion on the permissibility of interest between a Muslim and a non‬‬ ‫‪Muslim (ḥarbī) in a Dār al-Ḥarb, the matter is further complicated due to the differences of opinion in‬‬ ‫5:‪what constitutes a Dār al-Ḥarb. Some of the various definitions of a Dār al-Ḥarb include‬‬ ‫‪1. Where Muslims live in fear of the non-Muslims‬‬ ‫‪2. Land under a non-Muslim ruler’s control and where his orders are implemented‬‬ ‫‪3. Land under a non-Muslim ruler where not a single Muslim law is enacted and Muslims no‬‬ ‫)‪longer enjoy the safety they used to (before being taken over by a non-Muslim ruler‬‬ ‫-‪4. Where non-Muslim rulers’ laws are implemented and the land is bordered by another Dār al‬‬ ‫‪Ḥarb, such that there is no Dār al-Islām (“Land of Islām”) between the two‬‬ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺩﺧﻞ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﳊﺮﺏ ﺑﺄﻣﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻐﲑ ﺃﻣﺎﻥ ﻭﻋﻘﺪ ﻣﻊ ﺣﺮﰊ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺎ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﻯ ﺩﺭﳘﺎ ﺑﺪﺭﳘﲔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﻯ ﺩﺭﳘﺎ ﺑﺪﻳﻨﺎﺭ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺟﻞ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﻉ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﲬﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺧﻨﺰﻳﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻴﺘﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺩﻣﺎ ﲟﺎﻝ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﳏﻤﺪ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻛﻠﻪ ﺟﺎﺋﺰ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﳊﺮﺏ ﰲ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﳊﺮﺏ ﺇﻻ ﻣﺎ ﳚﻮﺯ ﻣﻦ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ )ﺍﶈﻴﻂ ﺍﻟﱪﻫﺎﱐ، ﻛﺘﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻑ، ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺮﻭﻥ: ٠١/٩٨٤؛ ﺇﺩﺍﺭﺓ(‬ ‫ﻗﻮﻟﻪ ) ﻭﻻ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳊﺮﰊ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﲦﺔ ( ﺃﻱ ﻻ ﺭﺑﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﰲ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﳊﺮﺏ ﻋﻨﺪﳘﺎ ﺧﻼﻓﺎ ﻷﰊ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ )ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺮ ﺍﻟﺮﺍﺋﻖ، ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻮﻉ، ﺃﺑﻮﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻢ: ٦/٧٤١؛ ﺍﳌﻌﺮﻓﺔ(‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ) ﻭﺑﲔ ﺍﳊﺮﰊ ﻭﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﲦﺔ ( ﺃﻱ ﻻ ﺭﺑﺎ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﰲ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﳊﺮﺏ ﻭﻛﺬﻟﻚ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺗﺒﺎﻳﻌﺎ ﺑﻴﻌﺎ ﻓﺎﺳﺪﺍ ﰲ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﳊﺮﺏ ﻓﻬﻮ ﺟﺎﺋﺰ ﻭﻫﺬﺍ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﰊ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﻭﳏﻤﺪ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ‬ ‫ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ )ﺗﺒﻴﲔ ﺍﳊﻘﺎﺋﻖ، ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻮﻉ: ٤/٧٩؛ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺐ(‬ ‫ﻭﻻ ﺭﺑﺎ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﳊﺮﰊ ﰲ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﳊﺮﺏ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻓﲔ ﺧﻼﻓﺎ ﻷﰊ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ )ﳎﻤﻊ ﺍﻷ‪‬ﺮ، ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺎ: ٣/٧٢١-٨٢١؛ ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ(‬ ‫ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻷﺻﻞ ﳜﺮﺝ ﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺩﺧﻞ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﳊﺮﺏ ﺗﺎﺟﺮﺍ ﻓﺒﺎﻉ ﺣﺮﺑﻴﺎ ﺩﺭﳘﺎ ﺑﺪﺭﳘﲔ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑ ﺫﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺎﺋﺮ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺳﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺃﻧﻪ ﳚﻮﺯ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﰊ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﻭﳏﻤﺪ ﻭﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﰊ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ )ﺑﺪﺍﺋﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﺋﻊ، ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻮﻉ، ﺷﺮﺍﺋﻂ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺎ: ٤/٦١٤؛ ﺩﻳﻮﺑﻨﺪ(‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻝ )ﻻ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﳊﺮﰊ ﰲ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﳊﺮﺏ( ﺧﻼﻓﺎ ﻷﰊ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﻭﺍﻟﺸﺎﻓﻌﻲ )ﺍﳍﺪﺍﻳﺔ، ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻮﻉ، ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺎ: ٣/٦٨؛ ﺷﺮﻛﺔ ﻋﻠﻤﻴﺔ(‬ ‫ﺩﺧﻞ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺫﻣﻲ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﳊﺮﺏ ﺑﺄﻣﺎﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺑﻐﲑﻩ ﻭﻋﻘﺪ ﻣﻊ ﺍﳊﺮﰊ ﻋﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺎ ﺑﺄﻥ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﻯ ﺩﺭﳘﺎ ﺑﺪﺭﳘﲔ ﺃﻭ ﺩﺭﳘﺎ ﺑﺪﻳﻨﺎﺭ ﺇﱃ ﺃﺟﻞ ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺑﺎﻉ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﲬﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﺧﻨﺰﻳﺮﺍ ﺃﻭ ﻣﻴﺘﺔ‬ ‫ﺃﻭ ﺩﻣﺎ ﲟﺎﻝ ﻓﺬﻟﻚ ﻛﻠﻪ ﺟﺎﺋﺰ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻟﻄﺮﻓﲔ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺿﻲ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﺍﳊﺮﰊ ﲦﺔ ﺇﻻ ﻣﺎ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺑﲔ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ )ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺎﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻜﲑﻳﺔ، ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻑ، ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ،‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ: ٣/٨٤٢؛ ﺭﺷﻴﺪﻳﺔ(‬ ‫٣‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻮ ﺩﺧﻞ ﻣﺴﻠﻤﺎﻥ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﳊﺮﺏ ﻓﺘﺒﺎﻳﻌﺎ ﺩﺭﳘﺎ ﺑﺪﺭﳘﲔ ﺃﻭ ﻏﲑﻩ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻮﻉ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﺳﺪﺓ ﰲ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻻ ﳚﻮﺯ )ﺑﺪﺍﺋﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﺋﻊ، ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻮﻉ، ﺷﺮﺍﺋﻂ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﺎ: ٤/٧١٤؛‬ ‫ﺩﻳﻮﺑﻨﺪ(‬ ‫٤‬ ‫ﻫﺬﺍ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﻼﻑ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﻯ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺩﺭﳘﲔ ﺑﺪﺭﻫﻢ ﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﺷﺘﺮﻯ ﻣﻨﻬﻢ ﺩﺭﳘﺎ ﺑﺪﺭﳘﲔ ﻓﻼ ﳚﻮﺯ ﺑﺎﻻﺗﻔﺎﻕ ﻛﺬﺍ ﰲ ﺍﶈﻴﻂ )ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺎﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻜﲑﻳﺔ، ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺼﺮﻑ، ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺍﳋﺎﻣﺲ، ﺍﻟﻔﺼﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ: ٣/٨٤٢؛ ﺭﺷﻴﺪﻳﺔ(‬ ‫٥‬ ‫)ﻗﺘﺎﻭﻯ ﳏﻤﻮﺩﻳﺔ، ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻮﻉ، ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻮﺍ: ٦١/٢٥٣-٦٥٣؛ ﻓﺎﺭﻭﻗﻴﺔ(‬
  • 3. 5. Where non-Muslim rulers’ laws are implemented, regardless of being bordered by another Dār al-Ḥarb or not, and Muslims do not enjoy the safety they used to One of the reasons behind the numerous definitions of a Dār al-Ḥarb is the disagreement between Imām Abū Ḥanīfah and his two main students, Imām Abū Yūsuf and Imām Muḥammad, on the conditions for a land to become Dār al-Ḥarb. According to Imām Abū Yūsuf and Imām Muḥammad, as long as non-Muslim establish their non-Muslim laws in a country, the country will be classified as a Dār al-Ḥarb. Imām Abū Ḥanīfah, on the other hand, lists three conditions:6 1. Implementation of the laws of the non-Muslims openly and that no rule of Islām is implemented any longer 2. Bordering another Dār al-Ḥarb 3. No Muslim remains safe as he was before the non-Muslims took power Furthermore, the purpose behind indentifying a land as either a land of Islām (Dār al-Islām) or a land of disbelief (Dar al-Ḥarb) is not Islām or disbelief in itself. Rather, the goal is to identify the land as either one of safety for the Muslims or of fear. Therefore, if Muslims are generally safe in a land and not in fear, then it cannot be classified as a Dār al-Ḥarb.7 Conclusion Taking into consideration the differences of opinions in what constitutes a Dār al-Ḥarb and its numerous conflicting definitions, it is from one’s taqwā (God-consciousness) that he/she stays away from any interest in all countries.8 This is even more important in countries where the Muslims do not live in fear, which is one of the purposes of identifying a land as a Dār al-Ḥarb. Instead, they enjoy freedom to practice their religion and participate in electing government representatives. ٦ ‫) ﻻ ﺗﺼﲑ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺣﺮﺏ ﺇﻻ ( ﺑﺄﻣﻮﺭ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ) ﺑﺈﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺃﻫﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﺮﻙ ﻭﺑﺎﺗﺼﺎﳍﺎ ﺑﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﳊﺮﺏ ﻭﺑﺄﻥ ﻻ ﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﺃﻭ ﺫﻣﻲ ﺁﻣﻨﺎ ﺑﺎﻷﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ( ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‬ (‫)ﺍﻟﺪﺭ ﺍﳌﺨﺘﺎﺭ، ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﳉﻬﺎﺩ: ٤/٤٧١-٥٧١؛ ﺳﻌﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﻠﻢ ﺃﻥ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﳊﺮﺏ ﺗﺼﲑ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺑﺸﺮﻁ ﻭﺍﺣﺪ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺇﻇﻬﺎﺭ ﺣﻜﻢ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﻝ ﳏﻤﺪ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﰲ ﺍﻟﺰﻳﺎﺩﺍﺕ ﺇﳕﺎ ﺗﺼﲑ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﳊﺮﺏ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺃﰊ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﱃ ﺑﺸﺮﻭﻁ ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﺃﺣﺪﻫﺎ ﺇﺟﺮﺍﺀ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﺒﻴﻞ ﺍﻻﺷﺘﻬﺎﺭ ﻭﺃﻥ ﻻ ﳛﻜﻢ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﲝﻜﻢ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺘﺼﻠﺔ ﺑﺪﺍﺭ ﺍﳊﺮﺏ ﻻ ﻳﺘﺨﻠﻞ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺑﻠﺪ‬ ،‫ﻣﻦ ﺑﻼﺩ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﺆﻣﻦ ﻭﻻ ﺫﻣﻲ ﺁﻣﻨﺎ ﺑﺄﻣﺎﻧﻪ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﺍﻟﺬﻱ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺛﺎﺑﺘﺎ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﺳﺘﻴﻼﺀ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺎﺭ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﻠﻢ ﺑﺈﺳﻼﻣﻪ ﻭﻟﻠﺬﻣﻲ ﺑﻌﻘﺪ ﺍﻟﺬﻣﺔ )ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺎﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﳌﻜﲑﻳﺔ‬ (‫ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﲑ، ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺱ: ٢/٢٣٢؛ ﺭﺷﻴﺪﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺎ ﻻ ﺗﺼﲑ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﺇﻻ ﺑﺜﻼﺙ ﺷﺮﺍﺋﻂ ﺃﺣﺪﻫﺎ ﻇﻬﻮﺭ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﱐ ﺃﻥ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻣﺘﺎﲬﺔ ﻟﺪﺍﺭ‬‫ﺎ ﲟﺎﺫﺍ ﺗﺼﲑ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﺇ‬‫ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻠﻔﻮﺍ ﰲ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﺃ‬ ‫ﺎ ﺗﺼﲑ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﺑﻈﻬﻮﺭ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‬‫ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ ﺃﻥ ﻻ ﻳﺒﻘﻰ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻣﺴﻠﻢ ﻭﻻ ﺫﻣﻲ ﺁﻣﻨﺎ ﺑﺎﻷﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﻭﻝ ﻭﻫﻮ ﺃﻣﺎﻥ ﺍﳌﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻭﻗﺎﻝ ﺃﺑﻮ ﻳﻮﺳﻒ ﻭﳏﻤﺪ ﺭﲪﻬﻤﺎ ﺍﷲ ﺇ‬ (‫)ﺑﺪﺍﺋﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﺋﻊ، ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﲑ: ٧/٠٣١؛ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ‬ ٧ ‫ﻭﺟﻪ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺃﰊ ﺣﻨﻴﻔﺔ ﺭﲪﻪ ﺍﷲ ﺃﻥ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﻣﻦ ﺇﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺭ ﺇﱃ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﻟﻴﺲ ﻫﻮ ﻋﲔ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﻭﺇﳕﺎ ﺍﳌﻘﺼﻮﺩ ﻫﻮ ﺍﻷﻣﻦ ﻭﺍﳋﻮﻑ ﻭﻣﻌﻨﺎﻩ ﺃﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻥ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻤﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻃﻼﻕ ﻭﺍﳋﻮﻑ ﻟﻠﻜﻔﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻃﻼﻕ ﻓﻬﻲ ﺩﺍﺭ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻭﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻟﻠﻜﻔﺮﺓ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻃﻼﻕ ﻭﺍﳋﻮﻑ ﻟﻠﻤﺴﻠﻤﲔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻃﻼﻕ ﻓﻬﻲ ﺩﺍﺭ‬ (‫ﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﻭﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﻣﺒﻨﻴﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﳋﻮﻑ ﻻ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﺳﻼﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻜﻔﺮ ﻓﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﻣﺎﻥ ﻭﺍﳋﻮﻑ ﺃﻭﱃ )ﺑﺪﺍﺋﻊ ﺍﻟﺼﻨﺎﺋﻊ، ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺴﲑ: ٧/٠٣١-١٣١؛ ﺍﻟﻌﺮﰊ‬ ٨ (‫)ﺇﻣﺪﺍﺩ ﺍﻷﺣﻜﺎﻡ، ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻮﺍ ﻭﺍﻟﻘﻤﺎﺭ: ٣/٩٦٤؛ ﻛﺮﺍﺗﺸﻲ‬
  • 4. Furthermore, despite the view in the Ḥanafī madhhab, the opinion of the majority of the ʿulamā’, including Imām Abū Yūsuf, Imām ShāfiɈī, and others, is on the impermissibility of dealing in interest- bearing transactions even in a Dār al-Ḥarb.9 One should rather risk not making a few extra dollars than to risk waging a self-destructive war against Allāh and His Messenger ‫.ﺻﻠﻰ ﺍﷲ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﻭﺳﻠﻢ‬ And Allāh knows best. Abrar Mirza Student, Dārul Iftā’ Camperdown, South Africa 2 ShaɈbān, 1430 – July 25, 2009 Checked and Approved: Muftī Ebrahim Desai Dārul Iftā’, Madrasah InɈāmiyyah ٩ (‫)ﻗﺘﺎﻭﻯ ﳏﻤﻮﺩﻳﺔ، ﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﻮﻉ، ﺑﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﺮﺑﻮﺍ: ٦١/٧٧٢؛ ﻓﺎﺭﻭﻗﻴﺔ‬