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Fca tskills

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    Fca tskills Fca tskills Presentation Transcript

    • FCAT Skills for Successful Reading Comprehension
    • FCAT tests a student’s ability to apply various skills to the reading process. FCAT Skills Cluster 1: Words and Phrases Cluster 2: Main Idea, Plot, and Purpose Cluster 3: Comparisons & Cause/Effect Cluster 4: Cluster 4: Reference and Reference and Research Research
    • Cluster 1: Words and Phrases   The student should select and use strategies to understand words and texts, and to make and confirm inferences from what is read, including interpreting diagrams, graphs, and statistical illustrations. Content/focus  Analyze words/text  Context  Conclusions/Inferences  Interpret graphical information
    • Cluster 1: Words and Phrases – Context Clues    You will be asked vocabulary questions on the FCAT, and these questions have you figure out a word’s meaning by looking at the context of the word—that is, the words and sentences around it. Without a context (and a dictionary), it’s difficult to figure out the meaning of challenging words. For example, try defining these words:  Feigned  Illicit  Morbid
    • Cluster 1: Words and Phrases – Context Clues cont’d.   With a context (when the word is surrounded by other words in a sentence), it is easier to figure out its meaning. For example, determine the meaning of the word based on the word’s context:  Keith feigned being sick, so he could stay home from school. Feigned means _________________  The thief kept his illicit wealth locked in a closet in the basement. Illicit means ____________________  After watching the sad movie, the teenager was plagued with morbid thoughts. Morbid means __________________
    • Cluster 1: Words and Phrases – Context Clues Strategies Comma Clues Word’s Meaning Context Clues Charge Clues (Connotations)
    • Cluster 1: Words and Phrases – Context Clues strategies cont’d. Strategies for determining the meaning of a word from its context: 1. Comma clues – Commas are used to link concepts. When you see a comma, it indicates that a clue is being given to help you determine the word’s meaning.  For example: Cockatiels, small gray Australian parrots, make excellent pets. OR One witness was convicted of perjury; that is, he lied under oath. [Notice the word clues are set off by commas.]
    • Cluster 1: Words and Phrases – Context Clues strategies cont’d. 2. Context clues – Certain linking words can provide keys to the meaning of a word.  Synonym clues – Your word may be similar to another word in the sentence. Look for these clues: and, so, completely, thoroughly.    Antonym clues – Your word may be the opposite of another word in the sentence. Look for these clues: but, nevertheless, despite, though, although, in spite of, on the other hand, however.    Rusty and unreliable, the old car was thoroughly in need of a glemgebog. Glemgebog probably means “overhaul” or” repair.” Although Scott likes potatoes, his sister Margie snargles them. Snargles probably means “hates.” Cause and effect clues – Your word may have a causal relationship with another word. Look for these clues: because, as a result of, led to.   Because the singer was so popular, the audience blemmled when she appeared. Blemmled probably means “screamed” or “cheered.”
    • Cluster 1: Words and Phrases – Context Clues strategies cont’d. 3. Charge clues (connotations – the positive, negative, or neutral associations surrounding a word) – Context clues and an understanding of the sentence as a whole should tell you whether the tested word has a positive or negative “charge.”  Some words have a charge all by themselves:  Disgusting has a negative word charge; lovely has a positive word charge; table may not have a charge (it’s usually neutral).  Some words have a charge based on the context of the sentence:  Every time I think of her, my heart is filled and my soul sings.  Word Charge can help you on the FCAT:  If you know that a mystery word has a positive charge, you can eliminate any answer choices that are ____ or ____.  If you know that the mystery word should have a negative charge, you can eliminate any answer choices that are ____ or ____.  If the mystery word is fairly neutral, you can eliminate any answer choices that have strong ____ or ____ charges.
    • Cluster 1: Words and Phrases – Context Clues strategies cont’d. 3 Tips:  Look for Context Clues in the sentence.  Use commas to link the word to the rest of the sentence.  Use Word Charge to predict whether the word is positive, negative, or neutral.
    • Cluster 1: Words and Phrases – Context Clues strategies cont’d.   Putting them all together (the 3Cs): There are three things that will help you figure out the definition of a word: context, comma, and charge. Clue Word: Although indicates contrast ? Although at first my coach intimidated me, he turned out to be a nice, relaxed man who cared about his team. Comma clue – the result of the sentence is not what was expected. Word charge: This is what the coach was like—so what did the writer think he would be like?
    • Cluster 1: Words and Phrases – Interpreting graphical information  Let’s take a look at what we need to do when interpreting graphs, charts, etc. There are 3 simple steps:  Read the title (to know the topic/subject of the graphic)  Read the main headings (to know what the author is trying to illustrate)  Go to the questions [Read the questions being asked.]
    • Cluster 1: Words and Phrases – Interpreting graphical information Title Detected Primary Drinking Water Constituents (mg/L unless specified) Contaminate Contaminate Level Maximum Detected Contaminate Level Allowed by Law Arsenic (in ug/L) 4 50 Fluoride 1 2 Lead 20 15 Copper 760 1300 Headings Questions 1. According to the table, which element is contaminating the water to an unsafe level? 2. What kind of article might this table accompany?
    • Cluster 1: Words and Phrases – Interpreting graphical information cont’d.  Let’s look at some more charts…[Obtain the handouts on interpreting graphical information.]
    • Cluster 1: Words and Phrases – Making Inferences An inference is an educated guess based on textual evidence.  The way an inference question is worded can tell you a lot about the kinds of connection you should make to the passage.  See the following chart: 
    • Cluster 1: Words and Phrases – Making Inferences When the Question Says You Should What is the tone? What is the mood? What feeling is created? Underline words that give sensory descriptions: sights, sounds, smells, tastes. How do those descriptions make you feel? How does that feeling connect to the main idea? What does this event mean? Why is this event important? Connect the detail in question to the main idea. Does it fit within that main idea? Does it support or prove the main idea? Is it a contradiction or a challenge to it? What importance does this event have in the context of the main idea? You are the main character… You have decided to … How would you … Connect the scenario posed in the question to the main idea of the passage. How can you apply the ideas in the passage to this new situation? What is similar between the two situations? Where are there differences? Why did the character do something? What was the cause of this event? What was the result of this action? Use strategies for determining cause and effect.
    • Cluster 1 (Words & Phrases) & Cluster 4: (Reference & Research): Making Inferences and Synthesizing Let’s take a look at what we need to do when interpreting graphs, charts, etc.  [Obtain the handouts on interpreting graphical information.] 
    • Reading Between the Lines Making Inferences Or Drawing Conclusions
    • Inferences are: Logical conclusions not directly stated by the author  Based on clues from text and personal connections made by the reader  Logical conclusions made with the mind, not the heart  “Reading between the lines”  “Putting two and two together” 
    • Inferences are not: Explicitly stated in the text (you cannot find the answer on the page – the answer is in your head)  Based on opinion 
    • Inferences come from: Clues in the text  Knowledge you already have from experience or prior knowledge 
    • Inferences = textual clues + background knowledge (or personal experiences)
    • Example: You see a manatee in one of Florida's coastal rivers. You notice that it has several deep scars on its back. Background knowledge: you know many motorboats cruise the waterway. Inference: A motorboat propeller caused the scars.
    • Steps to help readers infer meaning: 1. 2. 3. 4. Ask yourself a question (I wonder what . . . I wonder why . . . I wonder how . . .) OR Choose an inference-type question from the test. Consider textual evidence left by the author that may represent important clues that pertain to your question. Think about what you know about the evidence. Using clues in the text and your background knowledge about the topic, try to answer the original question.
    • Read the short story on page 188 1. Question: I wonder: why would someone steal bones? 2. Textual evidence: - Thieves attempted to steal a Tyrannosaurus Rex in northern Montana. - Residents raised $55,000 for a museum to house the fossil.
    • 3. Background knowledge: - thieves steal items of value - museums hold historical artifacts and items of value 4. Therefore: - the fossil must be valuable (it has historical value and monetary value)
    • FCAT tests a student’s ability to apply various skills to the reading process. FCAT Skills Cluster 1: Words and Phrases in Context Cluster 2: Main Idea, Plot, and Purpose Cluster 3: Comparisons & Cause/Effect Cluster 4: Reference and Research
    • Cluster 4: Reference and Research   Locates, gathers analyzes and evaluates written information for a variety of purposes including research projects, real-world tasks, and self-improvement. Analyzes the validity and reliability of primary source information and uses the information appropriately. Synthesizes information from multiple sources to draw conclusions. Content/focus    Analyze/evaluate information Validity/reliability of information Synthesizes information (from multiple sources and within text)
    • Cluster 4: Reference and Research – Gathering, Analyzing, and Evaluating Information from Different Sources   On the FCAT, you will be asked questions about the validity and reliability of an author’s claims in a passage. For instance, what makes a particular author qualified to write about a subject? Or what does the author use to support the main points of the essay? (For instance, does the author use personal opinions, common knowledge, or expert opinions?)
    • Cluster 4: Reference and Research – Gathering, Analyzing, and Evaluating Information from Different Sources Cont’d. Source Primary or Secondary Type of Information Questions to ask about the Source Almanac Secondary Facts, statistics, dates, & current events. Is it up to date? Atlas Secondary Maps, geographical information Is it current and accurate? Autobiography Primary An account of a person’s life written by that person Is it authentic? Diary Primary A personal record of events or reflections. Why is this record important? Do the observations seem accurate? Encyclopedia Secondary information arranged alphabetically. Is it current and complete? Newspaper Both Daily publication containing news & ads. Is the writing objective or biased? Are the quotes authentic? Speech Primary An oral presentation. Is the content fact or opinion? Textbook Secondary Contains subject-area info. for school use. Is it up to date? Does it represent facts or opinions? World Wide Web Both System of connected documents. Is it objective? Is the site linked to a legitimate source? Literary Work Primary Original work of literature. Is this an accurate version or edition?
    • Short and Extended Responses