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A practical guide to add

  1. 1. Table of Contents A Few Words from Växa’s President ........................... 2 Stanley D. Headley M.D., N.D ..................................... 3 Chapter 1 Introduction & Overview ............................................... 5 Chapter 2 ADD/ADHD Definitions & Causes ................................ 7 Chapter 3 Types of ADD/ADHD .................................................. 10 Chapter 4 Distinguishing Fact from Fiction ................................. 14 Chapter 5 How do ADD/ADHD Kids Learn? ............................... 17 Chapter 6 Learning Techniques for a Child with ADD/ADHD ..... 20 Chapter 7 Parenting a Child with ADD/ADHD ............................ 23 Chapter 8 Pharmaceutical Treatments for ADD/ADHD .............. 26 Chapter 9 Alternative Treatments for ADD/ADHD ...................... 29 Chapter 10 Diet & Exercise .......................................................... 32 Chapter 11 ADD/ADHD Success Stories ..................................... 35 Chapter 12 In Summary................................................................ 37 References................................................................. 39 Index .......................................................................... 40 A Practical Guide for ADD & ADHD 1
  2. 2. A Few Words from Växa’s President… As President of Växa International, it is with great pleasure that we bring you Växa’s Practical Guide to ADD/ADHD. We are extremely fortunate to have Stanley D. Headley M.D., N.D. as Växa’s Chief Medical Officer. The production of this guide was made possible by Dr. Headley’s breadth of knowledge and expertise, in addition to his ability to present complex ideas and subject matter in a concise and user-friendly format. The overabundance of conflicting information regarding ADD/ADHD can make parents feel overwhelmed and leave them feeling more confused. This concise yet comprehensive guide was developed with this in mind. Within this guide, you will find all the information you need in order to help your child reach their full potential. Finally, ask about Växa’s Attend, a homeopathic medicinal for attention difficulties. Jake Kevorkian President Växa International 2 A Practical Guide for ADD & ADHD
  3. 3. Stanley D. Headley M.D., N. D. Chief Medical Officer Stanley D. Headley, M.D., N. D., the Chief Medical Officer of Växa International, an Advanced Nutraceutical company headquartered in Tampa, Florida, started his medical career in pharmaceutical sales, marketing and research. After seven years in the pharmaceutical industry, he decided to study to become the kind of physician that actually empowered his patients to be positive and proactive in maintaining their own health through a lifestyle oriented around preventing disease rather than treating symptoms with pharmaceuticals. After receiving his Doctor of Medicine, Dr. Headley completed his postgraduate training in Nebraska, and attained his Doctor of Naturopathy in Arizona. Dr. Headley joined a Family Practice medical center and after a few years, earned a much appreciated reputation as a physician who not only listened to his patients, but also was open to experiences, approaches, protocols, research, and partnerships with holistic practitioners. He was sought out for his willingness to develop and implement flexible, transferable and effective partnerships to expand traditional pathways of care. Stanley D. Headley, M.D., N.D., is recognized nationally as a visionary in integrative wellness. A board-certified Naturopathic Physician and Doctor of Medicine, with nearly 20 years of clinical, research and medical teaching experience, his career is a model for effective partnership between the best of conventional and complementary medicines. Dr. Headley’s years of clinical experience have taught him that life-threatening, chronic, or acute illness can act as a catalyst for significant inner growth and change and therefore open up patients to seek options for proactive change. He also understands that one’s health can improve only when we decide to re-think much of what we think we know about the human body and the unity of our minds, emotions, spirits, and physical bodies. Over the course of 3 years, his medical teaching and operations training helped his clients to increase patient satisfaction ratings by 83% and treatment effectiveness outcomes by 76.6%. His consulting team worked with practices that started adding in complementary therapies to treat acute and chronic conditions, documenting A Practical Guide for ADD & ADHD 3
  4. 4. Stanley D. Headley M.D., N. D. Chief Medical Officer success in particular for patients with autoimmune disorders, heart disease, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, fibromyalgia and hormone related imbalances. Also experienced in FDA clinical trial development, Dr. Headley uses his expertise to design and lead evidence-based trials for natural medicines. Dr. Headley lectures at conferences, expos, teaching hospitals, clinics, health food stores, on radio and TV about natural and complementary approaches to the major health concerns facing us today. As Chief Medical Officer, Dr. Headley continues his life mission of assisting others with achieving optimal wellness through natural and life affirming ways. At Växa International, his primary role includes: • Educating other physicians, complementary medical practitioners and community members about Växa • Providing in depth support for practitioners and physicians • Providing guideance for implementing comprehensive programs to continuously improve products • Presenting community health information programs • Participating in meetings of professional societies and clinics • Disseminating professional information on new medical concepts, procedures, and techniques affecting Växa’s product line Dr. Headley continues a tradition of leadership and professionalism with a company focused on “Bringing Goodness to the World”. 4 A Practical Guide for ADD & ADHD
  5. 5. CHAPTER 1 Introduction & Overview Welcome to Växa’s Guide to Attention Deficit Disorder/Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADD/ADHD). Understanding ADD/ADHD, in addition to finding safe and effective treatment, can be a daunting quest due to the wealth of conflicting information that is available to us, as well as the variety of differing viewpoints and solutions. Many of us are under the impression that ADD/ADHD is a phenomenon that solely affects our children. While the main focus of this guide is placed upon the relationship between ADD/ADHD and children, it is important to take into consideration that childhood ADD/ADHD can remain with an individual well into adulthood. According to the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), ADHD affects approximately 3-5 percent of American children. To put this in perspective, this means that at least one child is likely to have ADHD out of an average class size of 25-30 children. In order to understand ADD/ADHD, it is important to be aware of the fact that the nature of the human neurological system is complex, and varies wildly from person to person. It experiences constant development and change throughout the span of our life cycles, and is continuously influenced by factors such as genetic disposition and environmental variables. By reading this guide, you will have a much clearer understanding of your child’s ADD/ADHD by being aware of the fact that there are several varieties of this particular neurological condition, and a plethora of viable treatment options and coping mechanisms. This guide will eliminate any misunderstanding pertaining to the actual definition of ADD/ADHD and its causes. This is achieved by providing you with a definition that is widely accepted within the medical community, in addition to providing you with a thorough outline of all possible causes of ADD/ADHD. A Practical Guide for ADD & ADHD 5
  6. 6. Introduction & Overview You will be aware of all the varieties of ADD/ADHD, each carrying their respective symptoms, causes and treatment methods. This is a subject of utmost importance as tailored treatment is the only effective way to cope with ADD/ADHD. Mistaken avenues of treatment can severely hinder progress, and can in fact intensify your child’s symptoms as well as encourage further negative behavior. This guide will effectively dispel any common myths and misconceptions you may have in relation to ADD/ADHD. These misconceptions can be hazardous as they prevent many parents from seeking effective solutions for their children. School can be an extremely difficult time for a child with ADD/ADHD. This guide will educate you on the differences in learning processes between an ADD/ADHD child and a non-ADD/ADHD child, it will provide helpful tips on optimizing their learning process, and you will be aware of all the pressures they face both in the classroom and amongst their peers. Parenting an ADD/ADHD child can be a trying experience when you are not armed with all of the facts. This guide provides you with helpful advice in the form of tried and tested methods of practical parenting techniques and behavioral modification. Treatment for a child with ADD/ADHD will take the form of either pharmaceutical or alternative treatments, or perhaps a combination of both. This guide will give you an outline of all of the options within each category in order to facilitate the relationship between you and your physician when deciding on an appropriate treatment method for your child. In today’s medically advanced world; we are all looking for the “quick fix” in the form of medication to alleviate our ailments. As an alternative, this guide will provide you with effective lifestyle changes for your child in the form of diet and exercise suggestions that can substantially alleviate your child’s ADD/ADHD symptoms. Last but certainly not least; this guide will make you realize that ADD/ADHD is by no means a hindrance to a child. When managed correctly, ADD/ADHD can actually facilitate elevated chances of success in comparison to the non-ADD/ADHD child. Use this guide, understand it, and take the first step in releasing the unlimited potential within your child! 6 A Practical Guide for ADD & ADHD
  7. 7. CHAPTER 2 ADD/ADHD: Definitions & Causes In order to obtain an accurate diagnosis for your child’s condition, an awareness of what ADD/ADHD actually is, and what causes it is imperative. This is easier said than done due to the fact that there are many conflicting viewpoints in existence. There are several subcategories linked to this neurological condition, each carrying their own characteristics, symptoms and treatments. These subcategories will be discussed in greater depth in the following chapter (Chapter 3: Types of ADD/ADHD). For now, we will focus on a broad definition of ADD/ADHD in order to provide us with a solid starting point for further investigation. The definition for ADD most commonly accepted within the medical community is outlined in Merriam-Webster’s Medical Dictionary. The definition is as follows: Attention Deficit Disorder: A syndrome of disordered learning that is not caused by any serious underlying physical or mental disorder and that has several subtypes characterized primarily by symptoms of inattentiveness or primarily by symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsive behavior (as in speaking out of turn) or by the significant expression of all three. Although it may be comforting to know that this behavioral condition is not caused by any serious underlying disorder, if incorrectly managed, the repercussions could indeed be severe. It may seem like the terms ADD and ADHD are used when describing the same thing. They are essentially the same condition, save for the fact that ADHD incorporates the hyperactivity dimension often, but not always, associated with ADD. ADD/ADHD and all its subcategories are inextricably linked to the Reticular Activating System, the center of consciousness that coordinates learning and memory, and which normally supplies the variety of appropriate neural connections necessary for smooth information processing and clear, non-stressful attention. When stimulation within this neural system is sufficient for consciousness A Practical Guide for ADD & ADHD 7
  8. 8. ADD/ADHD: Definitions & Causes but insufficient for attentiveness, ADD results. If too activated, an individual can become over stimulated or hyperactive, often resulting in ADHD. Imbalances within the Reticular Activating System can be attributed to a variety of causes. While a single source could be held accountable, it is much more likely to stem from a combination of several. As a parent, it is perfectly natural to reflect upon your own child- rearing capabilities when your child is experiencing behavioral problems. You will be pleased to hear that although parenting methods can have an impact on existing cases of ADD/ADHD, they are unlikely to be the root cause. According to the National Institute of Mental Health, most peer reviewed scientific studies have found neurobiology and genetic disposition to be the main contributors to ADD/ADHD onset. Understanding the neurobiological causes can be difficult without possessing a medical background. Visualizing the problem as neurological “hardware”, “software” and “wiring” deprivation can simplify the concept. The “hardware” within the neurological system consists of the development of neural connections and the required neural density needed for efficient mental processing. When this is lacking, it subsequently impacts neurotransmitter levels such as dopamine and norepinephrine i.e. the “software” required to turn the “hardware” on and off. “Hardware” deprivation also affects the communication pathways within the neurological system (the “wiring”), making it difficult to keep up with the demand for new neural connections within the Central Nervous System (CNS). Thus, demands for memory and the management of information processing cannot be satisfied. There is mounting evidence attributing the onset of ADD/ADHD to genetic disposition. According to NIMH, “25 percent of the close relatives in the families of ADHD children also have ADHD, whereas the rate is about 5 percent in the general population.” The correlation is clear. While neurobiology and genetics may be the main causes of the development of ADD/ADHD, there are other possible contributing factors that can influence or exacerbate the symptoms of this condition. Diet and exercise, teaching and parenting methods, in 8 A Practical Guide for ADD & ADHD
  9. 9. ADD/ADHD: Definitions & Causes addition to methods of treatment are also widely believed to have a significant impact on a child with ADD/ADHD. These factors will be discussed in more depth within their respective chapters. A Practical Guide for ADD & ADHD 9
  10. 10. CHAPTER 3 Types of ADD/ADHD The fact that ADD/ADHD is a neurological issue leaves it open to interpretation and speculation. This directly results in confusion due to difficulty in obtaining concrete and credible information. If your child has recently been diagnosed with ADD/ADHD, the next natural step is to research the condition in order to fully understand it. Once you embark upon this research, you will notice a couple of things. Firstly, it is sometimes difficult to distinguish whether certain sources are reliable. Secondly, you will find a seemingly infinite list of ADD/ADHD types. For the sake of clarity and reliability, we shall use the types and criteria outlined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR). The types and criteria are as follows: Predominantly Inattentive Type: It is hard for the individual to organize or finish a task, to pay attention to details, or to follow instructions or conversations. The person is easily distracted or forgets details pertaining to daily routines. Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type: The tendency to fidget or talk a lot is prevalent. Younger children may run, jump or climb constantly. Restlessness and impulsivity also factor heavily. This impulsivity is demonstrated through frequent interruption of others, snatching things from people, or speaking at inappropriate times. Combined Type: Symptoms of the aforementioned types are equally predominant in the individual. Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention For diagnosis purposes, the American Psychiatric Association’s DSM-IV-TR has outlined several criteria for all three types of ADD/ 10 A Practical Guide for ADD & ADHD
  11. 11. Types of ADD/ADHD ADHD. These criteria fall into Sections A or B. If your child meets the criteria within Section A for a period of at least 6 months, they are likely to be diagnosed with Predominantly Inattentive Type ADD/ADHD. If your child meets the criteria within Section B for a period of at least 6 months, they are likely to be diagnosed with Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type ADD/ADHD. If your child meets the criteria in both Section A and Section B for a period of over 6 months, they are likely to be diagnosed with Combined Type ADD/ADHD. Please bear in mind that the criteria outlined in this chapter has been modified for ease of understanding. Always consult your physician for accurate diagnosis. Taken from the DSM-IV-TR, the criteria for Sections A and B are as follows: Section A: Six or more of the following symptoms of inattention have been present for at least 6 months to a point that is disruptive and inappropriate for developmental level: Inattention 1. Often does not give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, work, or other activities. 2. Often has trouble keeping attention on tasks or play activities. 3. Often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly. 4. Often does not follow instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties. 5. Often has trouble organizing activities. 6. Often avoids, dislikes, or does not want to do things that take a lot of mental effort for a long period of time, such as homework. A Practical Guide for ADD & ADHD 11
  12. 12. Types of ADD/ADHD 7. Often loses things needed for tasks and activities. 8. Often easily distracted. 9. Often forgetful in daily activities. Section B: Six or more of the following symptoms of hyperactivity- impulsivity have been present for at least 6 months to an extent that it is disruptive and inappropriate for developmental level: Hyperactivity 1. Often fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in their seat. 2. Often gets up from their seat when remaining in their seat is expected. 3. Often runs about or climbs when and where it is not appropriate. 4. Often has trouble playing or enjoying leisure activities quietly. 5. Often “on the go” or often acts as if “driven by a motor”. 6. Often talks excessively. Impulsivity 1. Often blurts out answers before questions have been finished. 2. Often has trouble waiting their turn. 3. Often interrupts or intrudes on others. Should you suspect that you child is exhibiting characteristics consistent with Section A, Section B, or a combination of both, your family physician, pediatrician, psychologist, or psychiatrist will be able to guide you further. 12 A Practical Guide for ADD & ADHD
  13. 13. Types of ADD/ADHD It is worth noting that it is relatively common for ADD/ADHD onset to come hand in hand with other neurological disorders. According to the National Institute for Mental Health, your child may become susceptible to learning disabilities, Tourette syndrome, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, anxiety, depression and bipolar disorder. Although there may not be any cause for further concern regarding your child in particular, it is worth discussing all the possibilities with your health care provider in order to ward off complications before they arise. A Practical Guide for ADD & ADHD 13
  14. 14. CHAPTER 4 Distinguishing Fact from Fiction The development of widely believed myths and misconceptions is inevitable whenever subject matter is perceived to be obscure or difficult to understand. These misconceptions can be particularly damaging within the arena of neurological health. ADD/ADHD is no exception. Many parents dismiss their child’s symptoms and do not seek necessary treatment as a result of several common, yet erroneous beliefs. This not only means that there is a greater chance of ADD/ADHD symptoms worsening, it also entails an increased possibility of the condition progressing into adulthood. There are a vast number of misconceptions regarding ADD/ADHD in circulation. In fact, entire books have been published solely on this matter. For the purposes of this chapter, and to avoid overwhelming you, we shall dispel 10 of the most common misconceptions by counteracting them with proven facts. 1. Fiction: ADD/ADHD is not a medical condition. Fact: ADD/ADHD is a medical condition. Studies have continuously proven that ADD/ADHD is a direct result of neurotransmitter imbalances and deficiencies within the Reticular Activating System. It is as much a neurological condition as depression, bipolar disorder and anxiety. This is discussed in greater depth in Chapter 1. 2. Fiction: Children “outgrow” ADD/ADHD. Fact: According to the National Resource Center on ADHD, studies have consistently shown that 70-80 percent of children with ADD/ ADHD continue to exhibit the symptoms associated with this condition into adulthood. 3. Fiction: ADD/ADHD is over diagnosed. Fact: There is no credible evidence in existence to prove this assertion. In fact, it has been found that the number of children 14 A Practical Guide for ADD & ADHD
  15. 15. Distinguishing Fact from Fiction with ADD/ADHD that do not take medication far outweighs those who have been diagnosed and subsequently placed on a course of treatment. 4. Fiction: ADD/ADHD can only be treated with prescribed med- ication. Fact: While prescribed medication can be an important part of treatment for your child, it is much more effective when it is used in conjunction with other methods such as behavioral therapy in addition to tailored diet and exercise programs. Managing ADD/ADHD should be a team effort. Children are much more likely to achieve success if their parents, teachers and health care providers work together. This is discussed in greater depth in Chapters 8, 9 and 10. 5. Fiction: ADD/ADHD is a result of poor parenting. Fact: While it is natural to reflect upon your own parenting techniques if your child is experiencing behavioral problems, your concerns are completely unfounded. While research has shown that parenting methods have an effect on already present cases of ADD/ADHD they are not the root cause. Studies have demonstrated that genetic disposition and neurobiology are the main causes of ADD/ADHD onset. This is discussed in greater depth in Chapter 2. 6. Fiction: ADD/ADHD predominantly affects boys. Fact: According to the Surgeon General’s Report on Mental Health in 2001, the only reason behind the higher male to female ratio of ADD/ADHD sufferers is the fact that females are under diagnosed and less likely to receive treatment. 7. Fiction: Children with ADD/ADHD always have problems pay- ing attention. Fact: This is untrue. There have been a number of cases where children “hyper-focus”. In other words, they immerse themselves completely in a single activity and find it extremely difficult to shift their focus onto something else. A Practical Guide for ADD & ADHD 15
  16. 16. Distinguishing Fact from Fiction 8. Fiction: Prescribed medication for ADD/ADHD is dangerous and highly addictive. Fact: There are numerous prescribed medications that have the potential to be dangerous and highly addictive if they are misused. Do not disregard potentially effective treatment on these grounds. By working in conjunction with your healthcare provider when examining appropriate avenues of treatment, the chances of your child having an adverse reaction to their medication is significantly lessened. 9. Fiction: Children with ADD/ADHD are lazy – All they have to do is try harder. Fact: The reality is, “trying harder” is not always an option. Studies have shown that the areas of the brain responsible for concentration actually shut down when an attempt is made to focus on something. 10. Fiction: ADD/ADHD is an American invention and is not as prevalent in other countries. Fact: Scientific research from a whole host of countries has not only recognized ADD/ADHD as a medical condition, but it has also found that it exists in the same proportions as the United States. For example, research has shown that as much as 5 percent of school children in the United Kingdom are affected by ADD/ADHD. 16 A Practical Guide for ADD & ADHD
  17. 17. CHAPTER 5 How do ADD/ADHD Kids Learn? The classroom is often the place where the symptoms of a child with ADD/ADHD are most highlighted. In fact, it is common for a child’s behavior in the classroom to be the catalyst for preliminary concerns and suspicions of ADD/ADHD onset. This can be attributed to the fact that a child with ADD/ADHD is fruitlessly forced into fitting into an educational mold that does not allow them to follow their individual learning style. This inevitably results in frustration for you and your child, the exacerbation of symptoms, and an aversion to school and homework. By understanding the learning patterns of a typical child with ADD/ ADHD, you will be taking a fundamental step in developing a tailored educational program for your child. This will alleviate some of the scholastic pressure your child is experiencing by enabling them to keep up with their peers, therefore providing them with a more rewarding academic experience. The somewhat complex task of understanding human learning processes and styles can be simplified by picturing cerebral use as a left to right side of the brain continuum. Individuals who predominantly utilize the right side of their brains process information in much different ways to those who predominantly utilize the left side of their brains. Studies have shown a distinct correlation between “right-brained” children and ADD/ADHD incidence. As you can clearly see from the following characteristics of those who use the left, right, or both sides of the brain to assimilate information, the academic environment is geared towards those who utilize the left side. A Practical Guide for ADD & ADHD 17
  18. 18. How do ADD/ADHD Kids Learn? Characteristics of a “right-, left-, or whole-brained” individual Left Whole Right • Highly logical • Can effectively • Very intuitive in thinkers. utilize both parts of nature. • Extremely the brain. • Memory recall analytical. • Capable of working consists of images • Avid note takers logically and rather than words. and list makers. creatively. • Demonstrates • Memory recall • Can lack the aversion towards consists of names organizational logical or linguistic and words rather superiority of the left- tasks. than images. brained individual. • Exhibits delayed • Prefer to follow • Can lack the level of assimilation of step-by-step creativity associated information while they instructions rather with right-brained convert words into than demonstrations. individuals. mental images. • Easy • Prefers to be taught understanding of through the use of spelling, grammar, demonstrations rather and punctuation. than step-by-step • Excel in tests and instructions. examinations under • Tend to undertake time constraints. several tasks • Thrive in simultaneously. environments where • Demonstrates there are rules and aversion to rules, procedures. procedures and • Comfortable with authority. the familiar and predictable. • Uncomfortable in crisis situations where they are required to be creative. Source: Right-Brained Children in a Left-Brained World, JeffreyFreed, M.A.T., and Laurie Parsons. This in no way means that all children who predominantly utilize the right side of their brain have ADD/ADHD. It simply means that if your child has been diagnosed with ADD/ADHD, their learning styles are likely to be consistent with those who follow that particular pattern of cerebral use. 18 A Practical Guide for ADD & ADHD
  19. 19. How do ADD/ADHD Kids Learn? Now that you have a better understanding of your child’s learning processes, you now have the tools to efficiently work with your child’s teachers in developing the correct scholastic environment for optimum academic growth. The following chapter (Chapter 6) will provide you with useful tips for facilitating your child’s learning, as well as techniques that can enable them to cope with the pressures associated with school. A Practical Guide for ADD & ADHD 19
  20. 20. CHAPTER 6 Learning Techniques for a Child with ADD/ADHD The entire academic experience of a child with ADD/ADHD can be tainted as a result of the numerous sources of pressure they are exposed to during the learning process. This pressure can come from high expectations at home, ineffective teaching techniques from educators and the feeling of isolation from their peers. Now that you can equate your child’s learning style to the characteristics of an individual who predominantly utilizes the right side of the brain to assimilate information, you can convert your child’s learning style from a perceived weakness into a real strength. It is also possible to significantly enhance and facilitate your child’s scholastic experience by discussing these characteristics with their teachers to develop tailored techniques to optimize your child’s learning. Your child’s academic program essentially consists of spelling, math, reading and writing. By using the following tips both at home and at school, your child should be able to master the required skills in each area with more ease. Remember, your child’s method of processing information and memory recall is likely to be in the form of images rather than the mental cataloging of words. Therefore, ensure that you make your child’s learning experience in all four of the aforementioned areas as visual as possible. It is also very important to be aware of the fact that your child’s tendency to abandon projects or activities before completion is not a result of lack of understanding. Task incompletion is a very common behavioral trait in children with ADD/ADHD, often entailing an innate fear of failure. Rather than risk the possibility of failing to meet their own standards, as well as the standards of those around them, a child with ADD/ADHD may choose to not attempt certain tasks, due to their perfectionist nature. It is for this reason that any unnecessary pressure must be removed, whether it is in the form of time constraints for task completion or unrealistically high expectations. The following is a list of practical steps both you and your child’s educators can take to facilitate learning: • When teaching your child spelling, replace traditional phonic teaching methods with more visual methods. Make use of color 20 A Practical Guide for ADD & ADHD
  21. 21. Learning Techniques for a Child with ADD/ADHD to aid your child in their attempt to mentally visualize particular words. For example, when teaching them how to spell a word such as “telephone”, use a sheet of white paper and write te in blue, le in red, and phone in green. • When developing your child’s reading skills, refining their “speed-reading” techniques can produce promising results. “Speed-reading” entails training your child to scan reading material first in order to familiarize themselveswith the key concepts. This taps into the preference of a typical ADD/ADHD child or a “right-brained” individual to understand the “big picture”, as opposed to focusing on the finer details. Speed- reading allows your child to understand the grand scheme of things regarding a particular subject, making it much easier for them to maintain their interest when you encourage them to go back and grasp the details. • When learning basic mathematical concepts, the ADD/ADHD child can easily get overwhelmed and subsequently lose interest if they do not see the “big picture” or the immediate benefit of what they are learning. Resist the temptation to use step- by-step instructions as a teaching method. This simply does not work with a child with ADD/ADHD. Instead, try challenging them with more complex mathematical processes, this provides them with the “big picture” and demonstrates the importance of mastering preliminary mathematical concepts. • The tendency to visualize information in the form of images rather than words will often make writing one of the most challenging areas of your child’s academic experience. The development of writing skills often entails a certain degree of trial and error. Obviously this is a problem for the perfectionist ADD/ADHD child. The use of positive reinforcement is valuable here, ensuring that effort is rewarded as opposed to end results. Be sure to always validate your praise. Utilizing sweeping statements such as “you’re going to get an A+!” will place pressure on your child, taking you right back to square one. A Practical Guide for ADD & ADHD 21
  22. 22. Learning Techniques for a Child with ADD/ADHD Ensuring that your child’s teachers are providing the correct classroom environment is of utmost importance. Arrange a meeting with them and make the following suggestions on behalf of your child: • Their teacher can combat hyperactivity, impulsivity and boredom in ADD/ADHD children by ensuring that all children in the classroom adhere to rules regarding their turn to speak in class. Ensure that tasks and assignments are kept varied. Teachers should use creative and innovative teaching methods to alleviate boredom and maintain interest. • Ensure that your child is seated in an area of the classroom (such as the front) where they are can fully engage themselves with the subject matter, yet where there are minimal distractions. • Request that assignments are kept brief, yet still cover all the essentials. • Suggest that they frequently ask your child questions during class to maintain their focus. • Request that time-constraints be lifted during tests. It is more important that your child focuses on the subject matter, rather than the pressure of finishing a task during a specific timeframe. • Ensure that your child is fully integrated with their classmates in the form of group activities and projects to avoid the feeling of isolation that ADD/ADHD often brings. • Request the maintenance of a daily planner for your child, in addition to regular meetings with their teachers throughout the school year in order to monitor and encourage progress. Lastly, the importance of tutoring at home cannot be stressed enough. ADD/ADHD affects your child both inside and outside of school, twenty-four hours a day. Your understanding and utilization of the aforementioned techniques while working with your child during activities such as homework will significantly enhance their academic progress. 22 A Practical Guide for ADD & ADHD
  23. 23. CHAPTER 7 Parenting a Child with ADD/ADHD First and foremost, a child with ADD/ADHD is by no means an indication of bad parenting. It is this mentality that prevents many parents from seeking much needed help for their child. As discussed in greater detail in Chapter 2, scientific studies have consistently demonstrated that ADD/ADHD is caused by neurobiological inconsistencies and genetic predisposition. While parenting techniques are an integral part of ADD/ADHD management, they are not a cause. Before even considering a revision of your parenting techniques or adopting new ones entirely, you must ensure that you are in the correct mindset to bring out the greatest potential in your ADD/ADHD child. You must really believe that your child’s condition is a source of unlimited potential as opposed to an ongoing hindrance that you must constantly be in combat with. If your perception of ADD/ADHD is a negative one, your child is sure to follow suit. Children are renowned for being human versions of sponges. They absorb and react to everything in their environment. As their primary role model, you are an integral part of this environment. As a parent, it may seem like much of your role centers around developing efficient discipline techniques. Remember, as each child is different, tailored methods of discipline need to be applied to all children, regardless of whether they have ADD/ADHD. By using the following advice when constructing methods of disciplining your child, you will be taking a significant step in encouraging your child’s potential, which directly results in gaining a much happier and more stable child. Disciplinary Tactics • Balanced measures of discipline are more likely to promote balanced behavior in a child with ADD/ADHD. Children with ADD/ADHD are prone to feelings of panic and anxiety when confronted with unexpected situations or disciplinary measures that seem unjust. This can be avoided by ensuring that you remain fair, unwavering and impartial in these measures. A Practical Guide for ADD & ADHD 23
  24. 24. Parenting a Child with ADD/ADHD • In Chapter 6 we discussed learning techniques for the ADD/ ADHD child in school. One of the main points was to maximize your child’s ability to visualize information and concepts. This technique can also be extremely effective when disciplining your child. By encouraging your child to visualize the consequences of their actions, they are more likely to see the relevance and fairness of your actions. Remember, the ADD/ADHD child is not likely to pay attention if they cannot see the “big picture”. Consequence visualization is an effective measure that enables them to do this. • It is common to see parents disciplining their child in public when they are behaving inappropriately. Resist the temptation to do this with your ADD/ADHD child, as the results can be devastating due to their innate fear of failure and humiliation. Removing them from public observers and rationalizing with them is much more likely to produce the desired effect. • Children with ADD/ADHD tend to experience problems with forgetfulness. Instead of reprimanding your child when they forget something, or displaying feelings of frustration towards them, encourage them to write everything down and visualize things they need to remember. You must also ensure that efforts to remember as well as the achievement of remembering things are equally rewarded in order to avoid feelings of failure. Now that you have a firm understanding of these core disciplinary tactics, you are now in the position to develop a suitable behavior modification system for your child. Please bear in mind that the following sample behavior modification system is a general outline to be used solely for guideance purposes. You must consult your child’s healthcare provider for optimum results and tailored treatment. Sample Behavior Modification System • Clearly establish exactly what kind of behavior you are expecting from your child. This could include tidying their room, completion of homework, controlling their temptation to speak out of turn, or any other task or behavior you think is important. 24 A Practical Guide for ADD & ADHD
  25. 25. Parenting a Child with ADD/ADHD • Ensure that the system you develop is kept simple and that relevance is clear. The typical ADD/ADHD child is likely to lose interest rapidly if they find it overly complicated or if they do not see any immediate benefits. • Try and maintain your child’s interest in the system by allowing them to have some input. For example, let them decide how they want to organize their toys when they are tidying their room. • Build a motivating reward system by keeping a tally of your child’s positive behavior in the form of points or chips. This gives your child a feeling of accomplishment as they accumulate points or chips to reach targets and reap rewards. • Make use of this system until the desired behavior is established then gradually diminish its use over 3-4 weeks. Although parenting a child with ADD/ADHD can be complicated and frustrating at times, it can also be extremely rewarding. Seeing your child overcome their difficulties, realize their full potential and have the ability to surpass their peers is nothing short of an outstanding achievement on their part as well as yours. A Practical Guide for ADD & ADHD 25
  26. 26. CHAPTER 8 Pharmaceutical Treatments for ADD/ADHD For the purpose of this chapter, we will focus on pharmaceutical treatments for ADD/ADHD. Chapter 9 will focus on alternative treatments such as supplements and counseling. Although we are discussing each option individually, some children may prosper when using a combination of pharmaceutical and alternative treatment methods. Once your child has been diagnosed with ADD/ADHD, deciding on the correct course of treatment is the most critical, yet often the most difficult task. Before we assess each avenue of treatment individually, it is important to be aware of an important fact. Your child’s condition can be as unique as your child. Therefore, while one treatment method may be the perfect solution for one child, it may in fact cause another child’s condition to deteriorate. The only way to avoid ineffective treatment is to ensure that your child’s healthcare provider conducts a thorough mental and physical evaluation in order to obtain an accurate diagnosis and to tailor their treatment to specific needs. If pharmaceutical treatment is to be incorporated into your child’s treatment regimen, their physician is likely to recommend a course of stimulants. While there is an array of prescribed medication available as options, the three most commonly prescribed varieties are: • Methylphenidate (commonly sold as Ritalin) • Amphetamine (commonly sold as Adderall) • Pemoline (commonly sold as Cylert) While these medications all carry individual benefits and side effects, they also carry several common goals, in addition to some common risks. The common objectives of the aforementioned medications are to: • Diminish distractibility • Diminish hyperactivity • Diminish impulsiveness 26 A Practical Guide for ADD & ADHD
  27. 27. Pharmaceutical Treatments for ADD/ADHD • Facilitate motivation • Increase attention span and facilitate learning • Improve the child’s overall functioning in all facets of their life (school, home etc.) Placing your child on a course of pharmaceutical treatment can leave them susceptible to several documented serious side-effects. These include: • Cardiovascular disease • Suicidal tendencies • Hallucinations • Impaired growth development Moderate side-effects include: • Loss of appetite • Insomnia • Headaches or stomachaches • Irritability, moodiness or emotional upsets Less common side effects include: • Tics • Rapid pulse or increased blood pressure • The development of nervous habits such as picking at the skin. If it is absolutely necessary to place your child on prescription medication, there are several measures you can take in order to alleviate the side effects. If your child is experiencing a loss of appetite, try to administer medications after meals instead of before them. Nutritional supplements are also an effective way of ensuring that your child is consuming all the essential nutrients. If your child is having trouble falling asleep, ask your physician if it is a feasible option to lower the dose of medication later in the day. Ensuring that your child takes their medication with food can alleviate side effects such as headaches or stomachaches. A Practical Guide for ADD & ADHD 27
  28. 28. Pharmaceutical Treatments for ADD/ADHD Side effects such as irritability or moodiness can be an indication that the medication is not suitable for your child. Therefore, you should consult your child’s physician in order to revise the dosage or type of medication. The decision to place your child on a course of prescription medication should not be taken lightly. It is easy to view pharmaceutical treatments as a “quick fix” to ADD/ADHD, but this is not the case. These medications will affect your child’s life socially, academically and emotionally. Therefore it is necessary for your child, your family and your healthcare provider to work together to determine the best course of treatment for your child’s ADD/ADHD. Negative press coverage and warnings from the FDA pertaining to certain medications and their relationship to adverse side effects such as increased suicidal tendencies has caused a great deal of alarm amongst parents. While this can be favorable in the sense that it encourages parents to thoroughly research treatment choices for their child, it can also prevent a child from receiving the necessary treatment for their condition. While pharmaceutical treatments are a viable option, it is important to understand that it is not the only option. There are many other options that you can incorporate into your child’s treatment regime. These will be discussed in further detail in the next chapter. 28 A Practical Guide for ADD & ADHD
  29. 29. CHAPTER 9 Alternative Treatments for ADD/ADHD Recent press coverage regarding conventional pharmaceutical treatment has caused alarm amongst parents, and has caused them to seek alternative treatments for their child’s ADD/ADHD. These treatments are discussed in greater detail in Chapter 8: Pharmaceutical Treatments for ADD/ADHD. While many of these alternative treatments can be extremely effective for alleviating the symptoms of ADD/ADHD, it is vital that you consult your physician before taking any course of action on your child’s behalf. Remember, your child is more likely to benefit from a combination of therapies and treatments, therefore your physician can advise you on which blend will achieve optimum results. The following treatment methods are commonly used as an alternative or as an addition to conventional pharmaceutical drug therapy. Supplements: The use of supplements and certain natural ingredients have been documented to have a positive effect on children with ADD/ADHD by numerous scientific studies. The inclusion of the following natural ingredients in supplemental therapy has the potential to significantly reduce ADD/ADHD symptoms in your child, facilitate the lowering of pharmaceutical medication dosage, or even eliminate their use altogether. This list is by no means exhaustive; it is simply a list of the major ingredients contained within effective supplements. Essential amino acids promote the production of various neurotransmitters critically needed for optimum functioning of the brain. Children with ADD/ADHD often have deficiencies or imbalances of these neurotransmitters. Fatty acids are used by the body to maintain and promote the building of neural pathways. Fatty acids are especially beneficial to those who find it difficult to sustain attention. A Practical Guide for ADD & ADHD 29
  30. 30. Alternative Treatments for ADD/ADHD Pregnenolone is also known as the “memory hormone” and can be effective in reducing the forgetfulness often associated with ADD/ ADHD by enhancing short- and long-term memory function. Ginkgo Biloba is an anti-oxidant for the brain that improves memory by increasing oxygen and circulation to the brain. Studies have demonstrated that it can improve memory, focus and energy. Gama-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a major neural balancer that enhances sustained concentration and ability to focus. It also acts as an anti-anxiety agent. NADH and Phosphatidyl Complex provides energy to the brain in order to support and promote memory and learning functions. { Note: All of the ingredients outlined above are part of Växa’s Attend formulation for attention difficulties. } Biofeedback: This involves the use of a machine that monitors bodily functions such as pulse rate, breathing rate and muscle tension. The aim is to teach the child how to focus and relax, thereby alleviating some of the symptoms of ADD/ADHD. While there have been some positive reports pertaining to biofeedback, the effectiveness of this method is still under heavy debate; therefore it should not be used as a sole treatment method for your child. Psychotherapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Psychotherapy can be used to enable your child to understand and accept their condition, thereby reducing a lot of the confusion and feelings of isolation a child with ADD/ADHD often experiences. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy can encourage your child to consider their motivation and consequences before they act. This type of therapy can be especially useful in children whose condition involves high levels of impulsivity and hyperactivity. There are many other methods in existence that are used to treat ADD/ ADHD; these treatments are the most commonly utilized alternatives or additions to conventional treatment. Diet and exercise alterations and techniques have also been proven to be extremely effective, this is discussed in further detail in Chapter 10: Diet & Exercise. 30 A Practical Guide for ADD & ADHD
  31. 31. Alternative Treatments for ADD/ADHD Again, the use of these alternative treatments and therapies can yield positive results when used individually, but are more likely to have synergistic effects when used in tailored combinations. This was clearly demonstrated in The Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder carried out by the National Institute of Mental Health, which showed that combination therapy is more likely to achieve optimum results in children with ADD/ADHD. A Practical Guide for ADD & ADHD 31
  32. 32. CHAPTER 10 Diet & Exercise Today’s medically advanced world has caused many of us, including parents, to find the quickest and easiest solutions to our health concerns and those of our children. A great number of us simply self- diagnose and choose from the array of over-the-counter medication at pharmacies, or go to our physicians in the hope that they will provide the perfect solution to our ailments in the form of pharmaceutical medication. Parents with ADD/ADHD children are no exception to this rule. Many parents do not realize that adjustments to their child’s lifestyle in the form of diet and exercise modifications can significantly reduce the amount of medication their child requires by diminishing their symptoms. Studies have consistently shown that dietary and exercise amendments play an important role in any coping strategy designed for a child with ADD/ADHD. Please bear in mind that your child’s healthcare provider is in the best position to determine effective treatment methods for your child’s ADD/ADHD. Use the following advice regarding diet and exercise as a guide and as material to discuss in further detail with their physician. Diet A child with ADD/ADHD is likely to have differing dietary needs to those of a child who does not have this condition. It is commonly believed amongst those in the medical arena that certain foods and ingredients can have detrimental effects on an ADD/ADHD child, worsening their symptoms and therefore making treatment more difficult. The opposite is also true; there are certain ingredients that can potentially alleviate the symptoms of ADD/ADHD. In the 1970s, pediatrician Benjamin Feingold, M.D., established what is known today as The Feingold Diet. This diet can be a useful guideline in determining which foods and ingredients should be removed from your child’s diet. The Feingold Diet 1. Do not consume foods that contain artificial colors and flavors. 32 A Practical Guide for ADD & ADHD
  33. 33. Diet & Exercise 2. Try to avoid almonds, currants, plums, prunes, apples (including cider), gooseberries, raspberries, apricots, grapes, raisins, strawberries, blackberries, mint flavors, all tea, cherries, nectarines, tomatoes, cloves, oranges, cucumbers, pickles, and peaches. 3. Try to avoid aspirin containing compounds, medications with artificial colors or flavors, toothpastes containing artificial colors and flavors, and perfumes. In addition, you should also reduce the amount of simple carbohydrates and phosphates in your child’s diet by avoiding sugars, processed or refined grains and carbonated beverages. The following foods and ingredients can alleviate your child’s symptoms: • A healthy supply of fruits and vegetables not listed above. • A healthy supply of proteins. Proteins are an essential source of amino acids for the body. • Complex carbohydrates provide the body with valuable dietary fiber and are found in fruits, beans, vegetables and natural whole grains. • Cold-water fish such as herring, salmon and tuna are excellent sources of the essential fatty acid DHA. Children with ADD/ ADHD often share the common trait of having depleted levels of DHA. Your child’s behavior could also be attributed in part to certain food allergies. In order to highlight any existing allergies, or to discount this as an option, it is advisable to request a food allergy profile blood test from their physician, or place your child on an elimination diet to determine which foods have negative effects on their behavior. Exercise The benefits of incorporating exercise into your child’s daily routine are limitless. Not only will it have a positive effect on their ADD/ ADHD, it will also significantly improve their overall health and emotional well-being. A Practical Guide for ADD & ADHD 33
  34. 34. Diet & Exercise It is recommended that you engage your child in at least 30-45 minutes of exercise at least 5 times a week. This improves circulation of blood to the brain, which in turn can provide the ideal platform for whichever method of treatment is best for your child. Exercise also elevates Serotonin levels in the brain, resulting in a decrease in hyperactive behavior. The moodiness, irritability and lack of motivation commonly associated with ADD/ADHD can also be lessened through exercise due to the release of endorphins and enkephalins (commonly known as “runner’s high”). Aside from the biological benefits of exercise, your child’s emotional state can also be improved through exercise. By involving them in team sports, you will be taking a big step in improving your child’s social skills, removing feelings of isolation and low self-esteem, and instilling a sense of sportsmanship and camaraderie. 34 A Practical Guide for ADD & ADHD
  35. 35. CHAPTER 11 ADD/ADHD Success Stories It is common for parents to despair when their child is diagnosed with ADD/ADHD. Many believe that their child’s condition automatically places them on a path of under-achievement, disappointment and frustration. While it is true that your child’s condition entails tailored treatment and care, if these are correctly matched to their unique needs, their condition should not hinder them in their goals and aspirations. Certain traits of your child’s condition can in fact give them distinct advantages over their non-ADD/ADHD peers. For example, their tendency to view the “big picture” as opposed to getting held back by the details means that they are likely to predict future problems and successes before others can. Their creative nature also gives them the ability to apply original and perhaps more efficient solutions to complex problems and issues. The following high profile ADD/ADHD individuals not only overcame any perceived limitations of their condition, they used their unique traits to surpass their peers and obtain monumental success. David Neeleman Founder, JetBlue Airways “I knew I had strengths that other people didn’t have, and my parents reminded me of them when my teachers didn’t see them. I can distill complicated facts and come up with simple solutions. I can look out on an industry with all kinds of problems and say, ‘How can I do this better?’ My ADD brain naturally searches for better ways of doing things.” Paul Orfalea Founder, Kinko’s “My learning disability gave me certain advantages, because I was able to live in the moment and capitalize on the opportunities I spotted. With ADD, you’re curious. Your eyes believe what they see. Your ears believe what others say. I learned to trust my eyes.” A Practical Guide for ADD & ADHD 35
  36. 36. ADD/ADHD Success Stories “Because I have a tendency to wander, I never spent much time in my office. My job was going store to store, noticing what people were doing right. If I had stayed in my office all the time, I would not have discovered all those wonderful ideas to help expand the business.” Other famous people with ADD/ADHD and other learning disorders: • Albert Einstein • Charles Schwab • Tommy Hilfiger • John Lennon • Beethoven • Richard Branson Teamwork is vital. With a concerted effort between parents, teachers and healthcare providers, your child has the potential to achieve unbridled success. 36 A Practical Guide for ADD & ADHD
  37. 37. CHAPTER 12 In Summary… The undertaking of research into your child’s ADD/ADHD can be overwhelming and confusing. If you bear the following key points in mind, you will be providing yourself with the ideal foundation of knowledge pertaining to your child’s condition; setting you on the right path to discovering the most suitable and most effective course of action. • Familiarize yourself with the correct definition of ADD/ADHD and its causes. This will facilitate discussions with your child’s healthcare provider and teachers when treatment methods and coping mechanisms are being discussed. See Chapter 2: Definition & Causes. • Be aware of all the types of ADD/ADHD. These are Predominantly Inattentive Type, Predominantly Hyperactive- Impulsive Type, and Combined Type. Use the criteria for each type in Chapter 3: Types of ADD/ ADHD as guide. • The numerous misconceptions and myths surrounding ADD/ ADHD can be just as, or even more detrimental to your child’s health than the condition itself. Chapter 4: Distinguishing Fact from Fiction dispels these myths and provides you with facts in their place. • Harness you child’s unique traits by educating yourself on their thinking and learning patterns. ADD/ADHD children are more likely to use the right side of their brain to assimilate information. See Chapter 5: How ADD/ADHD Kids Learn? • Work with teachers to implement effective learning techniques for your child, and therefore increase their chances of academic success. Use the hints in Chapter 6: Learning Techniques for a Child with ADD/ADHD as points for further discussion with your child’s teachers. • While parenting methods do not cause ADD/ADHD, the fact that it can have either a positive or negative effect on your child’s condition is indisputable. Use the techniques outlined in Chapter 7: Parenting a Child with ADD/ADHD to positively influence your child’s learning capabilities and coping mechanisms. A Practical Guide for ADD & ADHD 37
  38. 38. In Summary... • Should pharmaceutical medication become absolutely necessary, educate yourself on all the effects it will have on your child. Use Chapter 8: Pharmaceutical Treatments for ADD/ADHD as a guide to these medications. • Realize that pharmaceutical treatment is not the only option. Be aware of all the alternative treatments that have been shown to positively affect children with ADD/ADHD. Choosing the right combination of these treatments is of utmost importance; therefore ensure that you consult their physician before embarking on any treatment methods. Chapter 9: Alternative Treatments for ADD/ADHD gives valuable insights on the use of supplements, biofeedback, psychotherapy and cognitive behavioral therapy as viable alternatives or complementary additions to your child’s present treatment regime. • Allow your child’s treatment regime to reach its full potential by making tailored diet and exercise adjustments to their daily routine. See Chapter 10: Diet & exercise. • Remember, your child’s condition is not a hindrance. In fact, their unique personality traits can propel them into a life of success. Should you ever doubt this, use the examples shown in Chapter 11: ADD/ADHD Success Stories for inspiration! The importance of teamwork has been repeated throughout this guide again and again. Its importance cannot be emphasized enough. The existence of teamwork between parents, teachers and healthcare providers ensures that all facets of your child’s condition are efficiently addressed; therefore enabling them to reach their full potential, and lead a happy and satisfying life. 38 A Practical Guide for ADD & ADHD
  39. 39. References Amen, Daniel G., M.D. Healing ADD - The Breakthrough Program That Allows You to See and Heal the 6 Types of ADD, 2001, The Berkeley Publishing Group Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, 2003, National Institute of Mental Health Attend, Växa International Balch, Phyllis A., CNC & Balch, James F., M.D. Prescription for Nutritional Healing, Third Edition, 2000, Avery Freed, Jeffrey M.A.T., & Parsons, Laurie Right-Brained Children in a Left-Brained World, Fireside Identifying and Treating Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder - A Resource for School and Home, 2003, U.S. Department of Education Jacobson, Michael F. Ph.D., & Schardt, David M.S. Diet, ADHD & Behavior - A Quarter Century Review, Center for Science in the Public Interest www.additudemag.com www.addresources.org www.vaxa.com www.adhdinfo.com www.bbc.co.uk/health www.healing-arts.org www.help4adhd.org (National Resource Center on AD/HD) A Practical Guide for ADD & ADHD 39
  40. 40. Index Adderall ...................................26 Methylphenidate ......................26 Allergies...................................33 Myths and Misconceptions ......14 Alternative Treatments ............29 NADH and Phosphatyl Complex ..................................30 American Psychiatric Association’s ...........................10 Neurotransmitters ......................8 Diagnostic & Statistical Norepinephrine ..........................8 Manual-IV ................................10 Parenting Techniques ..............23 Amphetamine ..........................26 Pemoline .................................26 Attention Deficit Disorder Pharmaceutical Treatments ....26 Definition ...................................7 Predominantly Hyperactive- Behavior Modification System .24 Impulsive Type ADD/ADHD.....10 Biofeedback.............................30 Predominantly Inattentive Causes ......................................8 Type ADD/ADHD .....................10 Cognitive Behavioral Therapy .30 Pregnenolone ..........................29 Combined Type ADD/ADHD ...10 Psychotherapy ........................30 Complex Carbohydrates .........33 Reading ...................................21 Cylert .......................................26 Reticular Activating System.......7 Diet ..........................................32 Right- Brained Characteristics 18 Discipline .................................23 Left-Brained Characteristics ....18 Dopamine ..................................8 Full-Brained Characteristics ....18 Essential Amino Acids .............29 Ritalin ......................................26 Exercise...................................32 School .....................................22 Fatty Acids ...............................29 Side-effects .............................27 Feingold Diet ...........................32 Spelling....................................20 Gama-aminobutyric Success Stories ......................35 Acid (GABA) ............................30 Supplements ...........................29 Ginkgo Biloba ..........................30 Teacher Suggestions ...............21 Learning Styles........................17 Writing .....................................21 Learning Techniques ...............20 Mathematics ............................21 40 A Practical Guide for ADD & ADHD