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AUGUST 2008                                                                            VOL 13 — NO 8 — SUPPL 12CNS SPECTRU...
EXPERT ROUNDTABLE SUPPLEMENT                    An expert panel review of clinical challenges in primary care and psychiat...
EDITORS                                                           EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARDEDITOR                          ...
EXPERT ROUNDTABLE SUPPLEMENT                       An expert panel review of clinical challenges in primary care and psych...
EXPERT ROUNDTABLE SUPPLEMENT                          An expert panel review of clinical challenges in primary care and ps...
EXPERT ROUNDTABLE SUPPLEMENT                       An expert panel review of clinical challenges in primary care and psych...
EXPERT ROUNDTABLE SUPPLEMENT                           An expert panel review of clinical challenges in primary care and p...
EXPERT ROUNDTABLE SUPPLEMENT                                            An expert panel review of clinical challenges in p...
EXPERT ROUNDTABLE SUPPLEMENT                        An expert panel review of clinical challenges in primary care and psyc...
EXPERT ROUNDTABLE SUPPLEMENT                       An expert panel review of clinical challenges in primary care and psych...
EXPERT ROUNDTABLE SUPPLEMENT                   An expert panel review of clinical challenges in primary care and psychiatr...
EXPERT ROUNDTABLE SUPPLEMENT                        An expert panel review of clinical challenges in primary care and psyc...
0808 pp cns_ert_adhd
0808 pp cns_ert_adhd
0808 pp cns_ert_adhd
0808 pp cns_ert_adhd
0808 pp cns_ert_adhd
0808 pp cns_ert_adhd
0808 pp cns_ert_adhd
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  1. 1. AUGUST 2008 VOL 13 — NO 8 — SUPPL 12CNS SPECTRUMS ®T H E I N T E R N AT I O N A L J O U R N A L O F N E U R O P S YC H I AT R I C M E D I C I N E EXPERT ROUNDTABLE SUPPLEMENT BEST PRACTICES IN ADULT ADHD: EPIDEMIOLOGY, IMPAIRMENTS, AND DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS AUTHORS Lenard A. Adler, MD Thomas J. Spencer, MD Mark A. Stein, PhD Jeffrey H. Newcorn, MD ABSTRACT Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is commonly thought to be a pediatric disorder whose symptoms attenuate or disappear in adulthood. In fact, ~4% of adults in the United States have ADHD, and many of these adults are unaware that they have the disorder. Because symptoms of ADHD manifest differently in adults and children, physi- cians who are familiar with childhood ADHD have difficulty identifying the disorder in adults. Adults with ADHD them- selves may be poor informants about their symptoms and impairments. A high prevalence of mood and other co-morbid disorders in adults with ADHD can also complicate diagnosis and treatment. Adults with ADHD experience high rates of anxiety disorders, mood disorders, substance use disorders, and impulse disorders. Adult ADHD is related to impair- ments in executive functioning and adaptive functioning; these patients have unique deficits related to their roles as parents, caregivers, and employees. Physicians should use impairments to guide treatment design. Early identification and treatment of ADHD can alter the developmental course of co-morbid disorders. Unfortunately, metrics for impair- ment in adult ADHD are still in their infancy. This Expert Roundtable Supplement represents part 1 of a 3-part supplement series on adult ADHD led by Lenard A. Adler, MD. In this activity, Thomas J. Spencer, MD, reviews the epidemiology of adult ADHD in the US and around the world; Mark A. Stein, PhD, reviews data on the impairments resulting from adult ADHD; and Jeffrey H. Newcorn, MD, discusses the differential diagnosis of adult ADHD and common co-morbidities. This activity is jointly sponsored by the Mount Sinai School of Medicine and MBL Communications, Inc.Index M e d i c u s c i t a t i o n : C N S S p e c t r © MBL Communications www.cnsspectr ums.com
  2. 2. EXPERT ROUNDTABLE SUPPLEMENT An expert panel review of clinical challenges in primary care and psychiatryAccreditation Statement Target Audience This activity has been planned and implemented in accor- This activity is designed to meet the educational needs ofdance with the Essentials and Standards of the Accreditation primary care physicians and psychiatrists.Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) through the joint sponsorship of the Mount Sinai School of Medicine and MBL Communications, Inc. The Learning Objectives Mount Sinai School of Medicine is accredited by the • Review the epidemiology of attention-deficit/hyperactiv- ACCME to provide continuing medical education for ity disorder (ADHD), including prevalence, persistence, physicians. and co-morbid tendencies. • Explain the common impairments associated with adult ADHD and how to incorporate assessment of impair-Credit Designation ment levels into the diagnostic process. The Mount Sinai School of Medicine designates this edu- • Discuss the differential diagnosis and psychiatric co-mor-cational activity for a maximum of 2 AMA PRA Category 1 bidities that require consideration in the assessment ofCredit(s)TM. Physicians should only claim credit commensurate adult ADHD.with the extent of their participation in the activity. Faculty DisclosuresFaculty Disclosure Policy Statement Lenard A. Adler, MD, is a consultant to and on the advisory It is the policy of the Mount Sinai School of Medicine to boards of Abbott, Cephalon, Cortex, Eli Lilly, Novartis, Ortho-ensure objectivity, balance, independence, transparency, McNeil, Janssen, Johnson and Johnson, Merck, New River,and scientific rigor in all CME-sponsored educational activi- Organon, Pfizer, Psychogenics, sanofi-aventis, and Shire; isties. All faculty participating in the planning or implementa- on the speaker’s bureaus of Eli Lilly and Shire; and receivestion of a sponsored activity are expected to disclose to the grant/research support from Abbott, Bristol-Myers Squibb,audience any relevant financial relationships and to assist Cephalon, Cortex, Eli Lilly, Janssen, Johnson and Johnson,in resolving any conflict of interest that may arise from the Merck, National Institute of Drug Abuse, New River, Novartis,relationship. Presenters must also make a meaningful dis- Ortho-McNeil, Pfizer, and Shire.closure to the audience of their discussions of unlabeled or Jeffrey H. Newcorn, MD, is a consultant to Abbott,unapproved drugs or devices. This information will be avail- Biobehavioral Diagnostics, Eli Lilly, Lupin, Novartis, Ortho-able as part of the course material. McNeil, Psychogenics, sanofi-aventis, and Shire; and receives This activity has been peer reviewed and approved by research support from Eli Lilly and Ortho-McNeil.Eric Hollander, MD, Chair and Professor of Psychiatry at Thomas J. Spencer, MD, is a speaker for Eli Lilly, GlaxoSmithKline,the Mount Sinai School of Medicine. Review Date: July 22, Janssen, Novartis, Ortho-McNeil, and Shire; is on the advi-2008. sory boards of Cephalon, Eli Lilly, GlaxoSmithKline, Janssen, Novartis, Ortho-McNeil, Pfizer, and Shire; and receives research support from Cephalon, Eli Lilly, GlaxoSmithKline, Janssen,Statement of Need and Purpose National Institute of Mental Health, Novartis, Ortho-McNeil, Although attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Pfizer, and Shire.has traditionally been considered a pediatric disorder, upto 65% of children diagnosed with this disorder continue Mark A. Stein, PhD, is a consultant/advisor to Abbott, Novartis,to display behavioral problems and symptoms of the dis- and Pfizer; is a speaker for Novartis and Ortho-McNeil; andorder into their adult lives. ADHD has a deleterious impact receives research support from Eli Lilly, National Institute ofupon the daily functioning of these adults, who often Mental Health, Organon, Ortho-McNeil, and Pfizer.demonstrate functional impairments in multiple domains,including educational performance, occupation, and rela-tionships. Accurate diagnosis of ADHD in adults is challeng- Acknowledgment of Commercial Supporting and requires careful consideration of other psychiatric Funding for this activity has been provided by an educa-and medical disorders. The majority of adults with ADHD tional grant from Shire Pharmaceuticals Inc.exhibit at least one co-morbid psychiatric disorder, whichmay confound a proper ADHD diagnosis. Although adultADHD is a substantial source of morbidity in both psychiat- Peer Reviewer Eric Hollander, MD, reports no affiliation with or financial inter-ric and primary care settings, only 25% of adults with this est in any organization that may pose a conflict of interest.disorder had been diagnosed in childhood or adolescence.Among patients who had not received a prior diagnosis,more than half had complained about ADHD symptoms to To Receive Credit for this Activityother healthcare professionals, without being diagnosed. Read this Expert Roundtable Supplement, reflect on the infor-Recognition and treatment of adult ADHD is often based mation presented, and complete the CME posttest and evalua-on upwardly extended models of child and adolescent care. tion on pages 18 and 19. To obtain credit, you should score 70%However, differing patterns of co-morbidity and symptom or better. Early submission of this posttest is encouraged. Pleaseheterogeneity in adults pose new conceptual, diagnostic, submit this posttest by August 1, 2010 to be eligible for credit.and treatment challenges. Although several organizationshave issued practice guidelines for the assessment of Release date: August 1, 2008adults with ADHD, there remains confusion and a con- Termination date: August 31, 2010tinued need to determine best practices with regard tothese patients. The expert opinions of clinical and research The estimated time to complete this activity is 2 hours.thought leaders in the field provide insight relevant to clini-cians faced with the task of recognizing impairment and A related audio CME PsychCastTM will also be availablediagnosing adult ADHD. online in September 2008 at: cmepsychcast.mblcommunications.com and via iTunes.CNS Spectr 13:8 (Suppl 12) 2 © MBL Communications August 2008
  3. 3. EDITORS EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARDEDITOR NEUROLOGISTS Herbert Y. Meltzer, MDEric Hollander, MD Mitchell F. Brin, MD Vanderbilt University Medical CenterMount Sinai School of Medicine University of California, Irvine Nashville, TNNew York, NY Irvine, CA Stuart A. Montgomery, MD Jeffrey L. Cummings, MD St. Mary’s Hospital Medical SchoolINTERNATIONAL EDITOR University of California, Los Angeles London, United KingdomJoseph Zohar, MD Los Angeles, CA Charles B. Nemeroff, MD, PhDChaim Sheba Medical Center Jerome Engel, Jr., MD, PhD Emory University School of MedicineTel-Hashomer, Israel University of California, Los Angeles Atlanta, GA Los Angeles, CA Humberto Nicolini, MD, PhDASSOCIATE INTERNATIONAL EDITORS Mark S. George, MD National Mexican Institute of PsychiatryEUROPE Medical University of South Carolina Mexico City, MexicoDonatella Marazziti, MD Charleston, SC Stefano Pallanti, MD, PhDUniversity of Pisa Richard B. Lipton, MD University of FlorencePisa, Italy Albert Einstein College of Medicine Florence, Italy Bronx, NY Katharine Phillips, MDMID-ATLANTIC C. Warren Olanow, MD, FRCPC Brown Medical SchoolDan J. Stein, MD, PhD Mount Sinai School of Medicine Providence, RIUniversity of Cape Town New York, NYCape Town, South Africa Harold A. Pincus, MD Steven George Pavlakis, MD Columbia University Maimonides Medical Center New York, NYASIA Brooklyn, NYShigeto Yamawaki, MD, PhD Scott L. Rauch, MDHiroshima University School Stephen D. Silberstein, MD, FACP Massachusetts General Hospitalof Medicine Hiroshima, Japan Thomas Jefferson University Charlestown, MA Philadelphia, PA Alan F. Schatzberg, MDCONTRIBUTING WRITERS Michael Trimble, MD, FRCP, FRPsych Stanford University School of MedicineLenard A. Adler, MD National Hospital for Neurology Stanford, CAJeffrey H. Newcorn, MD and Neurosurgery Thomas E. Schlaepfer, MDThomas J. Spencer, MD London, United Kingdom University of BonnMark A. Stein, PhD Bonn, Germany PSYCHIATRISTS Stephen M. Stahl, MD, PhDFIELD EDITOR Dennis S. Charney, MD University of California, San DiegoMichael Trimble, MD, FRCP FRPsych , Mount Sinai School of Medicine La Jolla, CA New York, NY Norman Sussman, MDCOLUMNISTS New York University Medical SchoolUriel Halbreich, MD Dwight L. Evans, MD University of Pennsylvania New York, NYStefano Pallanti, MD, PhD Philadelphia, PA Michael E. Thase, MDThomas E. Schlaepfer, MD Siegfried Kasper, MD University of Pennsylvania School of MedicineStephen M. Stahl, MD, PhD Philadelphia, PADan J. Stein, MD, PhD University of Vienna Vienna, Austria Madhukar H. Trivedi, MDCME COURSE DIRECTOR Martin B. Keller, MD University of Texas Southwestern Medical CenterEric Hollander, MD Brown Medical School Dallas, TX Providence, RI Karen Dineen Wagner, MD, PhD Lorrin M. Koran, MD The University of Texas Medical Branch Stanford University School of Medicine Galveston, TX Stanford, CA Herman G.M. Westenberg, MD Yves Lecrubier, MD University Hospital Utrecht Hôpital de la Salpêtrière Utrecht, The Netherlands Paris, France Stuart C. Yudofsky, MD Baylor College of Medicine Houston, TXPUBLICATION STAFFCEO & PUBLISHER ASSISTANT EDITOR CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICERDarren L. Brodeur Carlos Perkins, Jr. John SpanoVP, MANAGING EDITOR SENIOR ACQUISITIONS EDITOR STAFF ACCOUNTANTChristopher Naccari Lisa Arrington Diana TanVP, SENIOR EDITOR ACQUISITIONS EDITOR ACCOUNTING INTERNDeborah Hughes Virginia Jackson Stephanie SpanoVP, HUMAN RESOURCES EDITORIAL INTERNS SALES & EVENT COORDINATORKimberly A. Brodeur Jaime Cunningham Kimberly Schneider Michelisa LancheSENIOR GLOBAL RECEPTIONISTACCOUNT DIRECTOR CME DEVELOPMENT MANAGER Kimberly ForbesRichard Ehrlich Shelley Wong INFORMATION TECHNOLOGYSENIOR EDITORS ASSISTANT—ENDURING MATERIALS Clint Bagwell ConsultingPeter Cook—Psychiatry Weekly Sonny SantanaJosé Ralat—CNS Spectrums WEB INTERN ART DIRECTOR Adam SchwartzSENIOR ASSOCIATE EDITOR Derek OscarsonDena Croog—Primary Psychiatry CORPORATION COUNSEL GRAPHIC DESIGNER Lawrence Ross, Esq.ASSOCIATE EDITORS Michael J. Vodilko Bressler, Amery, and RossLonnie Stoltzfoos—Psychiatry WeeklyRebecca Zerzan Publishers of "Translating Research Advances Into Clinical Practice" The Largest Peer Reviewed Psychiatric Journal in the NationCNS Spectr 13:8 (Suppl 12) 3 © MBL Communications August 2008
  4. 4. EXPERT ROUNDTABLE SUPPLEMENT An expert panel review of clinical challenges in primary care and psychiatry EPIDEMIOLOGY, IMPAIRMENTS, AND DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS IN ADULT ADHD: INTRODUCTION By Lenard A. Adler, MDIntroduction In the mid-1970s, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disor- SLIDE 1der (ADHD) was still believed to be a childhood disorder ADHD: Timeline of Definitionsthat disappeared with the onset of adolescence. At this Minimaltime, Wender1 studied a cohort of adults presenting with brain damage Hyperkinetic reaction Adult ADHD studiedADHD-like symptoms, all of whom had been diagnosed First description of of childhood (DSM-II) Attention Deficit/Hyperactivitywith ADHD in childhood. Wender prescribed psycho- ADHD by Still Efficacy of amphetamine Disorder (DSM-III-R)stimulants, which successfully produced a response inthe adults, thus fostering research into adult ADHD. Of 1902 1930 1937 1950 1968 1970 1980 1987 1994his experience, Wender said: Minimal brain dysfunction Hyperactive child syndrome ADHD is probably the most common chronic undiagnosed Attention Deficit Disorderpsychiatric disorder in adults. It is characterized by inattention and Hyperactivity (DSM-III)distractibility, restlessness, labile mood, quick temper, overactiv- Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (DSM-IV)ity, disorganization, and impulsivity. It is always preceded by achildhood diagnosis, a disorder that is rarely inquired about andusually overlooked.1 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Criteria Wender’s predictions were later corroborated There are five major criteria for adult ADHD in the(although labile mood and quick temper are not defined DSM-IV (Slide 2).5 The first criterion is significantas core features in the Diagnostic and Statistical presence of six out of nine inattentive symptoms and/Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition-Text or hyperactive/impulsive symptoms over the past 6Revision [DSM-IV-TR]).2 The National Co-morbidity months. Patients with six of nine inattentive symptomsSurvey Replication has demonstrated that the preva- have the inattentive subtype of ADHD. Patients withlence of ADHD in adults in the United States is ~4.4%, six of nine of the hyperactive/impulsive symptomsbut that only 11% of these patients receive treatment.3 have the hyperactive/impulsive subtype of ADHD.Self-report data from Barkley and colleagues4 showed Patients with six of nine of both symptom types havea 4.7% ADHD prevalence rate among adults applying the combined subtype.for driver’s licenses. Four percent of adult college stu- The second criterion is age of onset. Patients must havedents met DSM-IV 5 criteria for ADHD.6 Though Wender onset of at least some symptoms before 7 years of age.had specified that adult ADHD is always preceded bya childhood diagnosis, for many individuals the condi-tion is overlooked during childhood and the diagnosis SLIDE 2is never made. However, it is true that all cases of full ADHD: DSM-IV Criteria5adult DSM-IV ADHD are preceded by childhood onset A. Symptoms must be present for the past 6 monthsof significant symptoms. • Inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsivity ADHD has been described over time in such terms B. Some symptoms must be present before 7 years of ageas “minimal brain dysfunction” and “minimal braindamage” (Slide 1). ADHD was originally described in C. Some impairment from symptoms must be present in two or more settings (eg, school and home)1902 by Still,7 whose clinical descriptions of childrenclosely resemble today’s diagnostic criteria for ADHD. D. Significant impairment: social, academic, or occupationalThe first treatment for this disorder was a racemic E. Symptoms cannot be accounted for by another mentalmixture of amphetamine in 1937 A full adult diagnosis . disorderof active ADHD would not be included in the DSM-III-R DSM-IV=Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition.8 until 1987.Dr. Adler is associate professor of psychiatry and child and adolescent psychiatry, and director of the Adult ADHD Program, both at the New YorkUniversity Langone School of Medicine.Disclosures: Dr. Adler is a consultant to and on the advisory boards of Abbott, Cephalon, Cortex, Eli Lilly, Novartis, Ortho-McNeil, Janssen, Johnson andJohnson, Merck, New River, Organon, Pfizer, Psychogenics, sanofi-aventis, and Shire; is on the speaker’s bureaus of Eli Lilly and Shire; and receivesgrant/research support from Abbott, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Cephalon, Cortex, Eli Lilly, Janssen, Johnson and Johnson, Merck, National Institute of DrugAbuse, New River, Novartis, Ortho-McNeil, Pfizer, and Shire.CNS Spectr 13:8 (Suppl 12) 4 © MBL Communications August 2008
  5. 5. EXPERT ROUNDTABLE SUPPLEMENT An expert panel review of clinical challenges in primary care and psychiatryThis is best obtained by taking a longitudinal history and to observe how adults deal with their symptoms. Adultsobtaining collaterals (information from surviving parents have a higher cognitive load than children, so it is notor older siblings or old report cards, when available). Third, surprising that the inattentive symptoms become moresome impairment from the symptoms must be present problematic as one reaches adulthood.in two or more settings, ie, school, work, or in social set- Hyperactivity symptoms also change over a patient’stings. It is important to note that the impairment can be lifetime. The childhood symptoms are squirming and fidg-relative (ie, underperformance relative to the expected eting, not staying seated, running about, climbing, not play-capabilities of the individual). Fourth, the impairment must ing/working quietly, being “on the go” or “motor-driven, or ”be significant and fall in the realm of social, academic, or talking excessively. This aimless restlessness in childhoodoccupational deficit. Finally, symptoms should not be bet- migrates to purposeful restlessness in adulthood. Adultster accounted for by another mental health disorder. If the often cope with this sense of restlessness by working twosymptoms of ADHD only appear during the active phase jobs, working long hours, or selecting active jobs. Familyof another mental health disorder, they should be coded tension is often a consequence of this constant activity.for that disorder and not ADHD. There may be consequences to the individual’s excess Longitudinal history is critical for making the diagnosis activity; for example, long hours at work may compromiseof ADHD. Although the disorder is highly co-morbid (ie, time spent with family. These are common complaints.50% to 75% in adults),3 the onset of ADHD symptoms Adults with ADHD tend to avoid low-activity situations,and those of other disorders will often distinguish them- such as circumstances in which they would have to sitselves over an extended period of time—with the ADHD still, or they might plan breaks for such circumstances.symptoms generally preceding those of other disorders. The frank hyperactivity is often felt rather than manifested because obvious manifestations, such as constantly mov-Symptoms Manifestation in Adulthood ing about in the workplace, can be stigmatizing. Symptoms change over the course of a patient’s life-time. The symptoms noted in the DSM-IV are specific Impairments in Adult ADHDto childhood. Clinicians are therefore left to interpret The consequences of ADHD symptoms are sig-how those symptoms will manifest in adults. Childhood nificant, and the impairments are notable. Barkley andinattention symptoms, such as difficulty sustaining atten- colleagues10 compared the adult adaptive outcomestion, not listening, not following through, not organizing, of nearly 140 patients with and without ADHD, follow-losing things, and easy distraction, more often present ing subjects for 13 years. They found that adults withas poor time management, trouble initiating and com- untreated ADHD are four times as likely to contractpleting tasks, trouble with multitasking, procrastination, a sexually transmitted disease and three times asand avoiding activities that demand attention in adults likely to be unemployed. In a population survey of 500(Slide 3).9 Many adults do not recognize that inattention ADHD adults and 501 gender- and age-matched adultscan significantly impact their lives. Adults cope with their without ADHD, Biederman and colleagues11 found thatsymptoms and tend to adapt to them by self-selecting adults with ADHD were twice as likely to be divorced,active lifestyles and using support staff. It is important and twice as likely to have been arrested. Adults with untreated ADHD are 78% more likely to be addicted to tobacco and are less likely to quit a tobacco habit. SLIDE 3 Inattention Symptoms and their Manifestation in Adults References Many adults do not recognize that inattention severely 1. Wender PH. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Adults. New York, NY: impairs their lives Oxford University Press; 1995. 2. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th ed text rev. Washington, DSM-IV Common Adult DC: American Psychiatric Association; 2000. 3. Kessler RC, Adler L, Barkley R, et al. The prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD Symptom Domain Manifestation in the United States: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Am J Psychiatry. 2006;163(4):716-723. Difficulty sustaining • Poor Management 4. Barkley RA, Murphy KR, Kwasnik D. Motor vehicle driving competencies and risks attention Difficulty in teens and young adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Pediatrics. • Initiating/completing 1996;98(6 Pt 1):1089-1095. Does not listen 5. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th ed. Washington, DC: tasks American Psychiatric Association; 1994. No follow-through • Changing to another 6. Heiligenstein E, Conyers LM, Berns AR, Miller MA. Preliminary normative data task when required on DSM-IV attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in college students. J Am Coll Health.1998;46(4):185-188. • Multi-tasking 7. Still GF. Some abnormal psychical conditions in children. Lancet. 1902;1:1008- 1012,1077-1082,1163-1168. Cannot organize Procrastination 8. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 3rd ed rev. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 1987. Loses important items Avoids tasks that 9. Weiss M, Trokenberg L, Hechtman L, Weiss G. ADHD in Adulthood: A Guide to demand attention Current Theory, Diagnosis and Treatment. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press; 1999. Easily distractible, Adaptive behavior 10. Barkley RA, Fischer M, Smallish L, Fletcher K. Young adult outcome of hyperactive forgetful • Self select lifestyle children: adaptive functioning in major life activities. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2006;45(2):192-202. • Support staff 11. Biederman J, Faraone SV, Spencer TJ, Mick E, Monuteaux MC, Aleardi M. Functional impairments in adults with self-reports of diagnosed ADHD: A controlled study of 1001 adults in the community. J Clin Psychiatry. 2006;67:524-540.CNS Spectr 13:8 (Suppl 12) 5 © MBL Communications August 2008
  6. 6. EXPERT ROUNDTABLE SUPPLEMENT An expert panel review of clinical challenges in primary care and psychiatry THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF ADULT ADHD By Thomas J. Spencer, MDIntroduction persistence into adulthood. Remarkably, 70% of sub- Until recently, little was known about the epidemiol- jects who endorsed childhood ADHD responded thatogy of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) they continued to have ADHD. In a careful follow-upin adults. Bottom-up studies following children with and re-interview, 100 individuals who met the ADHDADHD into adolescence had shown variable rates of criteria and 50 who did not were directly interviewed topersistence, some of which depended on the defini- confirm the validity of the findings. Several rating scalestions used.1 The traditional diagnosis was complicated were used, including the Adult ADHD Self-Reportby the introduction of the Diagnostic and Statistical Scale, which was expanded and validated for this sur-Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition,2 which vey. (Some of these tools are available free online.6) Thestated that ADHD could be diagnosed with inattentive subjects determined by this survey to have adult ADHDsymptoms alone. This resulted in diagnostic inconsis- had experienced full childhood ADHD—meeting sixtency as earlier investigations demanded the presence out of nine criteria in childhood—and showed currentof hyperactivity while others did not. Diagnosis also persistent symptoms and impairment. There is concerndepended on the site, the cohort, whether interviews that these criteria were developed for childhood andversus rating scales were employed, and whether the may be too restrictive for adults. They may exclude indi-subject or their parent were the source of information. viduals who would benefit from interventions targeting According to a meta-analysis by Faraone and col- the disorder.leagues,1 ~50% of children with ADHD continue to The various correlates and impairments found in theexperience symptoms into adolescence and adult- NCS-R mirrored those found in survey studies and inhood. The epidemiology of childhood ADHD is ~5% clinical studies of adults with ADHD presenting for treat-to 8%, which extrapolates to a prevalence of ~4% for ment: There were more men than women with ADHD,adult ADHD. but a much lower ratio overall among adults than that observed in childhood. Adults with ADHD had lower edu- cation levels, were less likely to be employed, and wereEpidemiologic Studies: more likely to be separated or divorced. There were alsoThe National Co-morbidity Survey Replication interesting correlates between subpopulations regarding Two quasi-epidemiologic studies provided much of endorsement, where African-American patients had lessthe data regarding adult ADHD, but these samples endorsement of symptoms (Slide 1).5were relatively limited. Barkley and colleagues3 sur-veyed adults applying for driver’s licenses, yielding a~4.7% prevalence of adult ADHD. Heilegenstein and Psychiatric Co-morbidities of Adult ADHDcolleagues4 surveyed college students, producing an In epidemiologic samples, the subject pool is notestimated prevalence of 4%. However, there had ascertained by people seeking treatment. Thus, therebeen no truly systematic studies of the epidemiology is no referral bias. These surveys are less affected byof ADHD until Kessler and colleagues5 conducted the Berkson’s bias, in which patients are more likely to seeNational Co-morbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). a doctor if they have two disorders. In the case of the The NCS-R is a definitive epidemiologic study of NCS-R, because subjects were assessed independent-numerous psychiatric disorders, including ADHD. It ly, one would expect to find less severe illness and lesssurveyed a probability sample of 9,282 individuals with co-morbidity. Surprisingly, there appeared to be veryinitial questionnaires, conducted follow-ups depend- high rates of co-morbidity, mirroring those reported ining on subjects’ answers, and calculated back rates clinical samples.of different disorders. Subjects were 18–44 years of The NCS-R sample was meant to independentlyage (since confounders were thought to be present assess all co-morbid disorders, using state-of-the-artin individuals >44 years of age). The survey contained technology and highly trained interviewers. The ratesquestions about childhood ADHD and a question about of other disorders in the population were determinedDr. Spencer is associate professor of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School and associate director of the Clinical and Research Program in PediatricPsychopharmacology at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston.Disclosures: Dr. Spencer is a speaker for Eli Lilly, GlaxoSmithKline, Janssen, Novartis, Ortho-McNeil, and Shire; is on the advisory boards of Cephalon,Eli Lilly, GlaxoSmithKline, Janssen, Novartis, Ortho-McNeil, Pfizer, and Shire; and receives research support from Cephalon, Eli Lilly, GlaxoSmithKline,Janssen, National Institute of Mental Health, Novartis, Ortho-McNeil, Pfizer, and Shire. CNS Spectr 13:8 (Suppl 12) 6 © MBL Communications August 2008
  7. 7. EXPERT ROUNDTABLE SUPPLEMENT An expert panel review of clinical challenges in primary care and psychiatryby the sample. Individuals with ADHD were more Epidemiologic studies tend to discover individuals wholikely to have a co-morbid disorder than not. Lifetime suffer silently. Subjects are often unaware they have aprevalence rates were 45% for mood disorder, 59% disorder but may be aware of impairments. In the NCS-for anxiety, 36% for substance abuse, 70% for impulse R sample, those with ADHD symptoms experienceddisorders (antisocial personality, oppositional defiant impairment in virtually every domain. There were highconduct, and intermittent explosive disorder); and 89% rates of occupational failure, low social functioning, andfor any psychiatric disorder. In addition, 67% had cur- low cognitive functioning (Slide 3).5 Approximately 40%rent psychiatric disorder (present within the previous of individuals with ADHD were being treated for mental12 months) (Slide 2).5 or substance problems, but only ~10% were receiving treatment for ADHD.5 This is a much lower treatment rate than for anxiety, mood, or substance disorders. It SLIDE 1 is likely that some patients were being treated inappro- Demographic Correlates of Adult ADHD5 priately for medical disorders that mirrored or masked % OR the ADHD. The high impairment rates among ADHD Sex subjects may be a reflection of the chronicity of the dis- Female 35.9 1.0 order (many other psychiatric disorders are fluctuant) in Male 64.1 1.8* addition to the low treatment rates. Age 18–29 43.5 1.0 30–44 56.5 1.1 SLIDE 3 Education (years) Impairments in 30-Day Functioning Associated With Adult <12 18.1 1.7* ADHD5 12 26.7 1.1 13–15 37.3 1.6 % ADHD % No ADHD OR ≥16 17.9 1.0 High time out of role 15.8 6.0 2.9* Employment Low role functioning 15.0 6.1 2.7* Working 71.1 1.0 Student 4.9 0.9 Low social functioning 18.7 5.9 3.7* Homemaker 4.8 1.2 Low cognition 23.3 5.5 5.2* Retired 0.7 4.8 Other 18.6 2.4* Low mobility 8.3 4.7 1.8 Race Low self-care 6.1 4.0 1.6 Caucasian 73.5 1.0 *P=.05. OR=odds ratio. African-American 6.2 0.3* Hispanic 15.0 0.7 Other 5.3 0.7 Marital Cross-National Prevalence and Correlates of Married/cohabitates 52.5 1.0 Adult ADHD Separated/divorced 12.1 1.7* An epidemiologic study by Fayyad and colleagues7 Never married 35.5 1.2 investigated populations in 10 countries, including the *P=.05. OR=odds ratio. United States, using a methodology modeled on the NCS-R. The researchers retrospectively assessed child- hood-onset, persistent ADHD in 11,432 respondents 18–44 years of age (Slide 4).7 Rates of adult ADHD SLIDE 2 varied from country to country. The average prevalence Psychiatric Comorbidities of Adult ADHD5 rate was 3.4%. While there was general agreement between most countries, there were some outliers. 12-Month Lifetime For example, the rate reported in France was >7%, sta- % OR % OR tistically greater than the average, and in lower-income countries—Lebanon, Colombia, and Mexico—the rates Any mood 29.9 3.5* 45.4 3.0* were statistically lower. Spain was the only country Any anxiety 47.0 3.4* 59.0 3.2* with a higher income that also had a lower rate of Any substance 14.7 2.8* 35.8 2.8* ADHD prevalence. In general, however, the same find- ings reported in the NCS-R were reported in this study. Any impulse† 35.0 5.6* 69.8 5.9* The demographics were similar: ADHD was more Any psychiatric 66.9 4.2* 88.6 6.3* common among males and those with less education. *P=.05. OR=odds ratio. It appears that ADHD may have prevented successful † Includes antisocial personality disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, con- matriculation into later grades and resulted in a lesser duct disorder, intermittent explosive disorder, bulimia, and gambling. occupation. The study also found higher rates of separa-CNS Spectr 13:8 (Suppl 12) 7 © MBL Communications August 2008
  8. 8. EXPERT ROUNDTABLE SUPPLEMENT An expert panel review of clinical challenges in primary care and psychiatrytion and divorce among international adults with ADHDsimilar to those in the US. SLIDE 6 Prevalence of Comorbid Disorders in ADHD7 40 OR 4.0* SLIDE 4 35 Cross-national Prevalence and Correlates of Adult ADHD7 % With Co-morbid Disorder 30 OR 3.9* Average 3.4 25 Lebanon 20 Colombia Mexico 15 OR 4.0* Belgium 10 Spain 5 Netherlands 0 Mood Anxiety Substance Abuse Italy Germany *P=.05. OR=odds ratio. France USA 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Treatment by a professional varied widely by country. Among respondents with adult ADHD, treatment rates over the previous 12 months for disorders other than Fayyad and colleagues7 also examined rates of ADHD were: 50% in the US; 20% to 24% in Spain,ADHD among people with other disorders. These rates Belgium, and the Netherlands; 9% to 13% in otherwere substantial, but lower than rates of other disor- countries; and 1.1% in Lebanon. While there appearedders in populations with ADHD. Approximately 10% of to be significant amounts of professional treatment inindividuals with a significant mood disorder had ADHD, this population, there was seldom treatment specifical-an odds ratio of almost four. The prevalence of ADHD ly for ADHD. Rates of 12-month professional treatmentwas also higher in populations with anxiety disorder for ADHD among respondents with adult ADHD were:and substance abuse than in the general population, 13.2% in the US; 3.2% in Spain; and 1.9% in Mexicowhich implies that there is some interaction between and Lebanon.the disorders, perhaps genetic, environmental, or acombination (Slides 5 and 6).7 These data are similar to Conclusionthose described in the US sample. Epidemiologic studies of ADHD reveal that while it is a common disorder, it is largely unrecognized in spite of its considerable associated impairments. ADHD is not SLIDE 5 a benign condition. Rather, it affects all areas of life, and Prevalence of ADHD in Other Disorders7 has a substantial correlation with educational, occupa- tional, and social impairment. A broader appreciation of 14 OR 4.0* ADHD will be necessary to reduce the frequency and 12 OR 3.9* severity of these damaging impairments. OR 4.0* 10 % with ADHD 8 References 6 1. Faraone SV, Biederman J, Mick E. The age-dependent decline of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a meta-analysis of follow-up studies. Psychol 4 Med. 2006;36(2):159-165. 2 2. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 3rd ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association; 1980. 0 Mood Anxiety Substance Abuse 3. Barkley RA, Murphy KR, Kwasnik D. Motor vehicle driving competencies and risks in teens and young adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. *P=.05. OR=odds ratio. Pediatrics. 1996;98(6 pt 1):1089-1095. 4. Heiligenstein E, Conyers LM, Berns AR, Miller MA. Preliminary normative data on DSM-IV attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in college students. J Am Coll Health.1998; 46(4):185-188. Higher rates of these co-morbid disorders were found 5. Kessler RC, Adler L, Barkley R, et al. The prevalence and correlates of adultin the ADHD sample; 25% had a significant mood dis- ADHD in the United States: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Am J Psychiatry. 2006;163(4):716-723.order, >38% had an anxiety disorder, and 12% had a 6. Adult ADHD Self-Report Scales (ASRS), National Comorbidity Replicationsubstance abuse disorder. Impairments in functioning Survey. Available at: www.hcp.med.harvard.edu/ncs/asrs.php. Accessed July 16, 2008.associated with adult ADHD included low occupational 7. Fayyad J, De Graaf R, Kessler R, et al. Cross-national prevalence and cor-function (time out of role), low cognitive function, low relates of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Br J Psychiatry.social function, low physical mobility, and low self-care. 2007;190:402-409.CNS Spectr 13:8 (Suppl 12) 8 © MBL Communications August 2008
  9. 9. EXPERT ROUNDTABLE SUPPLEMENT An expert panel review of clinical challenges in primary care and psychiatry IMPAIRMENT ASSOCIATED WITH ADULT ADHD By Mark A. Stein, PhDIntroduction abuse disorder. They also tend to have unique deficits Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is relating to their specific roles, whether those roles arepresent in 4% to 6% of adults in the United States. student, parent, caregiver, or employee. In addition,In the National Co-morbidity Survey Replication,1 a much impairment seems to be related to the co-morbiddiagnosis of ADHD was associated with greater marital characteristics of the disorder in adults. For example, anproblems, unemployment, difficulties in the workplace, adult with ADHD and co-morbid antisocial personalityand frequent workplace absence. Despite these find- may experience legal difficulties.ings, the body of knowledge regarding impairment inadult ADHD is far from complete. Building upon ourknowledge of impairment in adults with ADHD will SLIDE 1result in a broader range of treatment outcomes which Adult ADHD: Domains of Impairmentmay be measured and targeted. • Academic/School • Adaptive Functioning • FunctioningSymptoms and Impairment • Substance Use When considering ADHD, most lay people picture Domains of • Health/Injury Impairment • Occupational Functioningthe most prominent symptoms of childhood ADHD— • Social Functioninghyperactivity. However, diagnosis of the disorder • Self-Esteemrequires ADHD symptoms and impairment. Experiencewith childhood ADHD clarifies that there is only a Agemodest correlation between symptoms and impair-ment.2 Less is known about the relationship between • Hyperactivity • InattentionADHD symptoms and impairment in adults. Although ADHD Symptomshyperactivity and impulsivity symptoms often declinewith age, impairment may actually increase as lessstructure is provided outside of school. Moreover, thecumulative effect of untreated or undertreated ADHDin adults contributes to increased academic, occupa-tional, and social difficulties. In addition to symptomsdeclining with age, symptoms may also change in formand become more subtle. However, a contrary trend Follow-Up and Cross Sectional Studies ofarises with impairments: they tend to accumulate, and ADHD-Related Impairmentstherefore may be more obvious than ADHD symptoms Deficiencies in adaptive functioning relative to abil-once a patient reaches adulthood. ity occur in individuals with ADHD at all age levels. In Boys Annual Impairment occupies a wider range of domains a 1993 longitudinal study by Weiss and Loss Hechtman,3in adults than in children or adolescents (Slide 1). ~20% of adults with ADHD reported that they experi-Impairment in children typically begins with problems enced difficulties with sexual adjustment. Barkley andin school and often extends to circumstances beyond colleagues4 delineated some of the sexual difficultiesschool and academics as children get older. Adults in a longitudinal study of hyperactive children, mostlywith ADHD tend to perform poorly at work, resulting boys, who were followed into young adulthood. These Girlsin severe consequences. Difficulty at work can cause hyperactive children were compared to socioeconomicfinancial stress and may be compounded if the individual status-matched controls. Children with ADHD, in theirhas several jobs or experiences problems in multiple adolescence and adulthood, tended to have sex 1 yearareas of work, such as poor relationships with supervi- earlier, and tended to be more promiscuous, than con-sors, trouble with deadlines, and absenteeism. Adults trols.5 Sixteen percent of the adolescents and young adults with ADHD were treated for a sexually trans-with ADHD, like children with ADHD, may be more acci- mitted disease, versus 4% of the controls. The ADHDdent-prone. Moreover, adults tend to overutilize medical group was also less likely to use contraception; 38% ofresources and may have more health difficulties. Adults those with ADHD had an unplanned pregnancy, versuswith ADHD, like children, have higher rates of substanceDr. Stein is professor in the Department of Psychiatry a the University of Illinois in Chicago and director of the Adult ADHD Clinic.Disclosures: Dr. Stein is a consultant/advisor to Abbott, Novartis, and Pfizer; is a speaker for Novartis and Ortho-McNeil; and receives researchsupport from Eli Lilly, National Institute of Mental Health, Organon, Ortho-McNeil, and Pfizer.CNS Spectr 13:8 (Suppl 12) 9 © MBL Communications August 2008
  10. 10. EXPERT ROUNDTABLE SUPPLEMENT An expert panel review of clinical challenges in primary care and psychiatry4% of controls.4,5 Among those with children, 54% did tion, most of the subjects in these studies were male.not have custody. Consequently, much less is known about the impair- Longitudinal studies indicate that young adults and ments experienced by females and by those with theadults with ADHD seem to have more academic and inattentive subtype.vocational underachievement (Slide 2). For example,college completion for an individual with ADHD often Case Examplesrequires 5–6 years rather than 4 years, if college is com- Three cases illustrate common impairments associ-pleted at all. This, along with the aforementioned risk of ated with adults who present for ADHD evaluation andsubstance abuse, early and risky sexual behavior, and how clinicians might address them.impairments in adaptive functioning, creates a pattern of Tom was a 24-year-old student in his 6th year ofinstability. Often, adults with ADHD become demoralized college. He had attended community college and twoand convinced that failure is externally determined. 4-year schools, and had changed his major ~7 times. His grade-point average was 1.7 He drank heavily, often . slept in, and missed many classes. His parents were SLIDE 2 What Do We Know About Impairment? very upset that his tuition costs were not yielding any concrete benefits. Tom was also unable to balance his Longitudinal studies of children with ADHD, combined type budget, and constantly ran out of money as a result. • Academic and vocational underachievement However, these behaviors were not new: Tom has exhibited childhood symptoms of inattention and impul- • Substance use and abuse sivity. He had graduated high school at the bottom half • Early and risky sexual behavior of his class. Tom clearly exhibited both child and adult • Poor adaptive skill performance symptoms of ADHD and significant impairments. • Poor executive functioning Stephanie was a 25-year-old second-year medical student. She had been diagnosed with ADHD in col- • Less stability in life lege, during which stimulant treatment had resulted • Demoralization and low self esteem in a dramatic improvement in her grades. Stephanie • Caveat: may be less severe for inattentive type had been very driven and had excelled in her under- graduate courses. Because of her diagnosis, she had received accommodations during the Medical College Similarly, a cross-sectional study by Murphy and Admission Test and was subsequently admitted intoBarkley6 examined the presenting complaints of a group medical school. In her second year, she seemed toof adult patients seeking treatment for difficulty at struggle. During a surgery rotation, her supervisorwork, school, or with relationships (Slide 3). Many had rated her performance as unsatisfactory. Stephanieemotional problems such as low self-esteem, antisocial was forgetful and disorganized. She requested furtherbehaviors, substance abuse, and criminality. The major- accommodations on some of her testing.ity had deficits in adaptive functioning. William was a 31-year-old investment banker. He was a little disorganized, but was very successful financially. He was generally happy with his career and his social SLIDE 3 life. His parents requested that he be evaluated for Chart Review of Presenting Symptoms of ADHD Adults 6 ADHD out of concern about his high activity level and Poor school/work performance his single marital status. These three examples exemplify the range and sever- Poor interpersonal skills (few friends, marital dissatisfaction) ity of impairment and symptom presentation. Tom Emotional problems (low self-esteem) showed clear signs of impairment early on, which has Antisocial behavior (substance abuse, crime) continued. In contrast, the diagnosis of ADHD was less certain in Stephanie’s case. Stephanie did not show clear Adaptive deficits signs of impairment until challenged by medical school, • Less educated than others of cognitive ability and would likely require additional evaluation to deter- • Poor financial management mine if ADHD is the primary cause of her difficulties. • Chaotic personal and family life (divorces, moves) Although William displayed some ADHD symptoms, there is no evidence of impairment as he seemed to successfully compensate for his high activity level. In There are some limitations to ADHD studies as the this situation, treatment decisions are guided more bymajority of the longitudinal studies were conducted impairment than ADHD symptoms per se.prior to development of the Diagnostic and StatisticalManual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition7 criteria Measuring Impairmentand consisted primarily of individuals with the com- After obtaining the patient’s history, clinicians shouldbined subtype (inattention plus hyperactivity). In addi- consider acquiring their adult patient’s medical and edu-CNS Spectr 13:8 (Suppl 12) 10 © MBL Communications August 2008
  11. 11. EXPERT ROUNDTABLE SUPPLEMENT An expert panel review of clinical challenges in primary care and psychiatrycational records. However, it should keep in mind thatoften patients may not recall their childhood symptoms SLIDE 4or impairments. Consequently, it is also useful to talk to Issues Related to Impairmentother informants, such as spouses or parents. In casessuch as Stephanie’s, in which a patient may require Criteria for diagnosiseducational accommodations, psychological or neu- • Symptoms without impairment is not ADHDropsychological testing can be helpful. In Stephanie’s • Performance enhancement versus treatment of a psychi-case, further investigation demonstrated that she had atric disorderan above-average IQ with attentional skills consistent Often the chief complaint (eg, cannot keep job, unstablewith her IQ. Her attention difficulties may have mat- relationships, low self esteem) should be the focus or goaltered less than the poor match between her expecta- of treatmenttions and capabilities. • Impairment guides treatment planning Metrics for impairment in adult ADHD, and even • Patient may not be best informant (“lots of friends”)childhood ADHD, are still in their infancy. Typically, clini-cians use global measures such as the Clinical Global Few standardized impairment measures for adultsImpression-Severity scale. There are also quality of life • Often related to ADHD symptoms plus impairments inmeasures that have been used successfully in children executive and adaptive functioningand adolescents with ADHD.8,9 A new measure, the Overlap of co-morbidity with impairmentAdult ADHD Quality of Life scale, has been validated inadults with ADHD.10 In addition, the Weiss FunctionalImpairment Rating Scale-Self Report (WFIRS-S) is as helpful measures of improvement. Treatment mustanother useful gauge.11 The WFIRS-S is a brief ques- be adequate in focus, duration, and intensity, not justtionnaire that offers a snapshot of patients’ own views to reduce ADHD symptoms but with the ultimate aimof their impairments in the following domains: family, of reducing impairment (Slide 5).work, school, life skills, self-concept, social, and risk.Influence of Impairment on Diagnosis and SLIDE 5Treatment Influence of Impairment on Treatment In recent years, the field has been accused of over- Consider the setting where impairments occurdiagnosing ADHD. Although this may occur in some Consider duration or time (at work, after work, socially)cases, there is even stronger evidence that ADHD isoften underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed. The disorder Operationalize impairment and monitoring strategy (eg, percentage of bills paid, listening to spouse, improvedis most certainly undertreated, especially in adults. marital satisfaction, attendance record)However, physicians must be careful to distinguishbetween treating actual impairing psychiatric disorders Beyond symptom improvement, is treatment adequate inand offering medications for the purposes of perfor- focus, duration, or intensity to reduce impairment?mance enhancement. Patients experiencing symptomsof ADHD but not impairment should not be diagnosedwith ADHD. Defining the impairment, therefore, is the References 1. Kessler RC, Adler L, Barkley R, et al. The prevalence and correlates of adultkey clinical issue. ADHD in the United States: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Impairment is vital to diagnosis and treatment. Often, Replication. Am J Psychiatry. 2006;163(4):716-723. 2. Gordon M, Antshel K, Faraone S, et al. Symptoms versus impairment. J Attenimpairment is not specific to the ADHD, but is related Disord. 2006;9:465-475.to the overlap of ADHD and the co-morbidity. Typically, 3. Weiss G, Hechtman L. Hyperactive Children Grow Up: ADHD in Children,adult ADHD is related to impairments in executive and Adolescents and Adults. 2nd ed. New York, NY: The Guilford Press; 1993. 4. Barkley RA, Fischer M, Edelbrock CS, Smallish L. The adolescent outcome ofadaptive functioning. Other areas of impairment are hyperactive children diagnosed by research criteria: I. An 8-year prospectiverelated to the overlap of ADHD and the co-morbid con- follow-up study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1990;29(4):546-557. 5. Fischer M, Barkley RA, Smallish L, Fletcher K. Young adult follow-up of hyperactivedition (Slide 4). children: self-reported psychiatric disorders, comorbidity, and the role of childhood Impairment should be at the forefront of the clinician’s conduct problems and teen CD. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2002;30(5):463-475.mind during diagnosis, and should be the physician’s 6. Murphy K, Barkley RA. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder adults: comor- bidities and adaptive impairments. Compr Psychiatry. 1996;37(6):393-401.central focus when designing a treatment strategy. We 7. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th ed. Washington,recommend writing out the chief complaint, operation- DC: American Psychiatric Association; 1994.alizing the impairment, and then confirming the targets 8. Perwien AR, Faries D, Kratochvil CJ, Sumner C, Kelsey D, Allen AJ. Improvement in health-related quality of life in children with ADHD: An analysis of placeboof treatment with the patient. If a patient has problems controlled studies of atomoxetine. J Dev Behav Ped. 2004;25:264-271.financially, for example, the percentage of bills paid 9. Klassen AF, Miller A, Fine S. Health-related quality of life in children andon time can become a useful measure for both the adolescents who have a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Pediatrics. 2004;14(5):e541-547.patient and the clinician. If communication or marital 10. Brod M, Johnston J, Able S, Swindle R. Validation of the adult attention-defi-satisfaction are chief complaints, spouses can help cit/hyperactivity disorder quality-of-life scale (AAQoL): A disease-specific quality-of-life measure. Quality of Life Res. 2006;15:117-129.gauge improvement. If the problem is work attendance 11. CADDRA: Canadian ADHD Practice Guidelines. Available at: www.caddra.caor school attendance, attendance records can function (p.100). Accessed July 16, 2008.CNS Spectr 13:8 (Suppl 12) 11 © MBL Communications August 2008
  12. 12. EXPERT ROUNDTABLE SUPPLEMENT An expert panel review of clinical challenges in primary care and psychiatry CO-MORBIDITY IN ADULTS WITH ADHD By Jeffrey H. Newcorn, MDIntroduction Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is high-ly co-morbid across the life span. However, co-morbidity SLIDE 2is not uniform across time; individual co-morbid condi- Why Focus on Co-morbidity in Adults with ADHD?tions tend to occur at different times developmentally, ADHD remains highly co-morbid across the lifespanwith rates often reflecting lifetime occurrence (Slide1).1,2 In addition to changes in the rates of co-morbidity, The nature of co-morbidity may differ in adolescents andthe nature of co-morbidity may also differ in late ado- adults with ADHD compared to children with ADHDlescence/adulthood, when co-morbid conditions can be Impairment from co-morbidity increases with ageespecially impairing (eg, antisocial disorder, substance Co-morbidity should inform treatment decisions because:use disorder [SUD], more severe mood disorders). • Co-morbidity may alter the response to ADHD therapy • Co-morbid disorders often require treatment independent of, and distinct from, therapy for ADHD SLIDE 1 • Co-morbidity may alter the sequence of interventions Developmental Trajectory of ADHD Symptoms: From Childhood to Adulthood • Prevention of co-morbidity should be a goal of treatment The nature and frequency of ADHD symptoms changes with age Co-morbidity Rates in Adult ADHD The National Co-morbidity Survey Replication (NCS- Children Motoric hyperactivity R) by Kessler and colleagues3 found that 38.3% of Aggressiveness respondents with ADHD had a co-morbid mood dis- Low frustration tolerance order; 47.1% had a co-morbid anxiety disorder; 15.2% Impulsiveness had a SUD; and 19.6% had other impulse-control dis- Adolescents Easily distracted orders (Slide 3). Inattentiveness Shifts activities SLIDE 3 Easily bored Co-morbidity of Other DSM-IV Disorders with ADHD3 Adults Impatient National Co-morbidity Survey Replication (N=3,199) Restlessness 50 47.1 Prevalence of Other Disorder (%) 45 Mood disorders Anxiety disorders 40 38.3 Substance abuse disorders 35 Impulse-control disorders It is important to identify co-morbidity because the 30presence of co-morbid disorders can alter response 25 19.6 20to ADHD therapy or require treatment independent 15.2 15of, and distinct from, the treatment for ADHD. In the 10latter case, physicians must decide which condition 5to treat first. In some instances, treating ADHD may 0 Among respondents with ADHD, reported co-morbid disorder within the previous 12 monthsproduce improvement or even alleviation of a co-mor- DSM-IV=Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourthbid condition, suggesting that the particular condition Edition.developed as a result of untreated ADHD. The reverseis also possible—treatment of the co-morbid disorder Similarly, the prevalence of ADHD is higher amongmay produce improvement in ADHD symptoms. Thus, individuals with other disorders: 13.1% of adults withtreating co-morbidity or minimizing its developmental mood disorders have ADHD, approximately threeimpact can be an important goal of ADHD treatment times the prevalence seen in the general adult popu-(Slide 2). lation; 9.5% of adults with anxiety disorders haveDr. Newcorn is associate professor in the Department of Psychiatry at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York City.Disclosures: Dr. Newcorn is a consultant to Abbott, Biobehavioral Diagnostics, Eli Lilly, Lupin, Novartis, Ortho-McNeil, Psychogenics, sanofi-aventis, andShire; and receives research support from Eli Lilly and Ortho-McNeil.CNS Spectr 13:8 (Suppl 12) 12 © MBL Communications August 2008

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