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Sci rev Presentation Transcript

  • 1. The Scientific Revolution 42a - explain the scientific contributions of Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler and Newton and how these ideas changed the European world view
  • 2. The Scientific Revolution
    • The Scientific Revolution occurred at the same time as the Renaissance and Reformation in Europe.
    • People began to challenge accepted theories about the universe and nature.
  • 3. Turn to a neighbor…
    • Discuss why people would begin questioning these accepted theories.
  • 4. Astronomy
    • In the Middle Ages people thought the Earth was at the center of the universe. (idea came from Ptolemy & Aristotle)
    • According to this theory, the sun, planets, and moon all moved around earth in circular orbits.
    • This is called the geocentric model of the universe.
    (geo = earth; centric = center)
  • 5. Stop and Think
    • Why do you think this theory was accepted for so long?
  • 6. Nicolaus Copernicus
    • Polish astronomer
    • Said geocentric model didn’t explain movements of the sun, moon, and planets.
    • After studying this problem for 30 years, he proposed a new model for the universe – the heliocentric model.
  • 7. Nicolaus Copernicus
    • In the heliocentric model, the sun is in the center of the universe. ( helio = sun; centric = center)
    • This was the first new model of the universe in 2000 years!!
    • Copernicus’ work angered religious leaders in the Catholic and Protestant churches.
  • 8. Turn to a neighbor
    • Discuss why the religious leaders were upset with Copernicus.
  • 9. Johannes Kepler
    • His observations proved the heliocentric model of the universe was true.
    Johannes Kepler
  • 10. Johannes Kepler
    • Kepler also proposed three laws of planetary motion based upon his observations:
    • Planets move in elliptical orbits around the sun.
    • Planets move more rapidly as their orbits approach the sun.
    • The time it takes a planet to orbit the sun is proportional to its distance from the sun.
  • 11. Turn to a Neighbor
    • Discuss how awesome Kepler’s contributions are to our bank of knowledge today.
  • 12. Scientific Method
    • During the Scientific Revolution, people began to use the scientific method.
    • The scientific method is an organized way of solving problems:
        • Observe nature and formulate a problem or question.
        • Make a hypothesis (a guess about the answer to the problem/question).
        • Design an experiment to test the hypothesis.
        • Analyze the data collected.
        • Draw a conclusion – the hypothesis will either be proved true or false.
  • 13. Stop and Think
    • Which Greek philosopher contributed to the development of the Scientific Method?
  • 14. Galileo Galilei
    • Galileo was an Italian math professor who set out to prove many of Aristotle’s theories about nature wrong.
      • Tested Aristotle’s ideas about pendulums and found them wrong.
      • Found objects accelerate at a predictable and fixed rate
      • Proved that heavy objects fall at the same rate as lighter ones.
      • Galileo made improvements to the telescope and was one of the first to improve it enough to use it to observe the sky.
  • 15. Galileo Galilei
    • Galileo used the telescope to study sunspots, the moon’s surface, and Jupiter’s moons.
    • The four moons of Jupiter that Galileo discovered, Io, Ganymede, Callisto, and Europa are called the Galilean moons in his honor.
  • 16. Galileo’s Telescope
  • 17. Galileo and the Catholic Church
    • The church did not agree with Galileo’s research. They wanted him to stop working.
    • Galileo refused to stop his research.
    • Finally, when the church threatened to torture Galileo, he signed a confession stating that the heliocentric model was heresy and therefore untrue.
    • He was kept locked in his house until he died (house arrest).
  • 18. Turn to a Neighbor
    • Discuss why Galileo’s contributions were so important.
  • 19. Isaac Newton & the Law of Gravity
    • Law of universal gravitation: every object in the universe attracts every other object
    • Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy : universe was like a giant clock; all its parts worked together perfectly in ways that could be expressed mathematically; believed God was the creator of this orderly universe (the clockmaker)
  • 20. Other Scientific Advancements
    • Anatomy and Medicine
      • Circulation of blood
    • Tools
      • Microscope
      • Thermometer
      • Barometer
  • 21. Turn to a Neighbor
    • Do you think gravity existed before Newton? If you said yes, explain why people really didn’t think about it before.