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  • 1. The Scientific Revolution 42a - explain the scientific contributions of Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler and Newton and how these ideas changed the European world view
  • 2. The Scientific Revolution  The Scientific Revolution occurred at the same time as the Renaissance and Reformation in Europe.  People began to challenge accepted theories about the universe and nature.
  • 3. Turn to a neighbor…  Discuss why people would begin questioning these accepted theories.
  • 4. Astronomy  In the Middle Ages people thought the Earth was at the center of the universe. (idea came from Ptolemy & Aristotle)  According to this theory, the sun, planets, and moon all moved around earth in circular orbits.  This is called the geocentric model of the universe. (geo = earth; centric = center)
  • 5. Stop and Think  Why do you think this theory was accepted for so long?
  • 6. Nicolaus Copernicus  Polish astronomer  Said geocentric model didn’t explain movements of the sun, moon, and planets.  After studying this problem for 30 years, he proposed a new model for the universe – the heliocentric model.
  • 7. Nicolaus Copernicus  In the heliocentric model, the sun is in the center of the universe. (helio = sun; centric = center)  This was the first new model of the universe in 2000 years!!  Copernicus’ work angered religious leaders in the Catholic and Protestant churches.
  • 8. Turn to a neighbor  Discuss why the religious leaders were upset with Copernicus.
  • 9. Johannes Kepler  His observations proved the heliocentric model of the universe was true. Johannes Kepler
  • 10. Johannes Kepler  Kepler also proposed three laws of planetary motion based upon his observations: 1. Planets move in elliptical orbits around the sun. 2. Planets move more rapidly as their orbits approach the sun. 3. The time it takes a planet to orbit the sun is proportional to its distance from the sun.
  • 11. Turn to a Neighbor  Discuss how awesome Kepler’s contributions are to our bank of knowledge today.
  • 12. Scientific Method  During the Scientific Revolution, people began to use the scientific method.  The scientific method is an organized way of solving problems: 1.Observe nature and formulate a problem or question. 2.Make a hypothesis (a guess about the answer to the problem/question). 3.Design an experiment to test the hypothesis. 4.Analyze the data collected. 5.Draw a conclusion – the hypothesis will either be proved true or false.
  • 13. Stop and Think  Which Greek philosopher contributed to the development of the Scientific Method?
  • 14. Galileo Galilei  Galileo was an Italian math professor who set out to prove many of Aristotle’s theories about nature wrong.  Tested Aristotle’s ideas about pendulums and found them wrong.  Found objects accelerate at a predictable and fixed rate  Proved that heavy objects fall at the same rate as lighter ones.  Galileo made improvements to the telescope and was one of the first to improve it enough to use it to observe the sky.
  • 15. Galileo Galilei  Galileo used the telescope to study sunspots, the moon’s surface, and Jupiter’s moons.  The four moons of Jupiter that Galileo discovered, Io, Ganymede, Callisto, and Europa are called the Galilean moons in his honor.
  • 16. Galileo’s Telescope
  • 17. Galileo and the Catholic Church  The church did not agree with Galileo’s research. They wanted him to stop working.  Galileo refused to stop his research.  Finally, when the church threatened to torture Galileo, he signed a confession stating that the heliocentric model was heresy and therefore untrue.  He was kept locked in his house until he died (house arrest).
  • 18. Turn to a Neighbor  Discuss why Galileo’s contributions were so important.
  • 19. Isaac Newton & the Law of Gravity  Law of universal gravitation: every object in the universe attracts every other object  Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy: universe was like a giant clock; all its parts worked together perfectly in ways that could be expressed mathematically; believed God was the creator of this orderly universe (the clockmaker)
  • 20. Other Scientific Advancements  Anatomy and Medicine  Circulation of blood  Tools  Microscope  Thermometer  Barometer
  • 21. Turn to a Neighbor  Do you think gravity existed before Newton? If you said yes, explain why people really didn’t think about it before.