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Ancient Egypt
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  • People have been living along the Nile River since the Paleolithic Era
  • Sufficient food supplies and protection allow Egypt to develop their unique culture
  • The Nile River provided Egypt with easy means of transportation and communication. Villages along the Nile had frequent exchanges with one another Populations increased and villages became cities…these cites emerged into two kingdoms : Upper and Lower In 3000 Menes unties upper and lower into one kingdom, memphis, dynastyThe last dynasty to rule Egypt was the 30th in 343 BCE
  • They had control over everybody and everything They were worshipped as gods Built many structures that stil last todayPromoted trade with others

Transcript

  • 1. “The Gift of the Nile” ANCIENT EGYPT
  • 2.  Longest river in the world- 4,132 miles long!  From Falls Church to San Francisco, CA is 2,811 miles!  Located in Africa  Dumps into the Mediterranean Sea  Floods leave behind fertile soil  Warm climate THE NILE RIVER
  • 3. Irrigation  Enables farmers to grow a variety of crops and feed a large number of people.  Wheat, barley, flax, cotto n Transportation  Flows South to North!  Paddle down river with water currents  Sail up river with wind currents! THE NILE Upper Lower
  • 4. The Sahara Desert and surrounding seas provide protection from invaders. PROTECTION
  • 5. Ancient Egyptian form of writing Around 3000 BCE 600 signs that represent words and objects Carved in stone  Difficult to produce Made paper from papyrus Made ink from soot, water, plant juice HIEROGLYPHICS
  • 6. Stone found with 3 languages written on it Greek, Egyptian Hieroglyphics, and Demotic This stone was used to unlock the secret of the hieroglyphics! THE ROSETTA STONE
  • 7.  Before 3400 BCE: two kingdoms  Upper Egypt (south)  Lower Egypt (north)  Menes (Namer) King of Upper Egypt unites Upper and Lower Egypt and establishes a ruling dynasty  Dynasty-a series of rulers from the same family or line.  They rule Egypt from about 3200-300BCE EGYPTIAN KINGDOMS
  • 8.  Kings of Egypt were called Pharaohs.  They were political AND religious leaders= Theocracy  Absolute, or unlimited power  “divine right”- could so whatever they wanted!  They were regarded as godlike and temples were built in their honor!  They were mummified and placed in tombs  Sometimes in Pyramids to protect them and help escort them into the afterlife PHARAOHS
  • 9. Menes united Egypt Memphis= capital During the Old Kingdom many of the pyramids were built!  The Great Pyramid of Giza was built as a tomb for the pharaoh Khufu There were also many great advancements in science and the arts. THE OLD KINGDOM
  • 10.  Peasants, farmers, army, labor (most production goes to king) >> little/ NO social mobility  Pharaoh, royal family, priests, scribes, government officials >> eventually form a noble class  The pharaoh had helpers to help him rule over the large empire.  Nobles gained more power and have a power struggle with the pharaoh! < Internal Strife THE OLD KINGDOM
  • 11.  Mentuhotep- 2040 BCE Re-united Egypt!  He created a central monarchy and made Thebes the new capital!  The Pharaoh once again had all the power in the land!  Known as the “Golden Age” and a period of stability and prosperity.  Egypt experienced a period of expansion. Traders went to neighboring lands.  PROJECTS:  A) Draining of swamp land in the Nile Delta>> New Farmland  B) Digging of a canal to connect the Nile to Red Sea> increase trade and transportation THE MIDDLE KINGDOM
  • 12.  The Middle Kingdom comes to an end when foreigners from western Asia known as Hyksos came into the country with their horse drawn chariots and superior weapons and ruled over Egypt for about 100 years!
  • 13.  Eventually leaders in Egypt drove out the Hyksos and were re- united by a line of strong pharaohs.  Ruled strong and strict  Gained land, build an empire >> when an individual or single people rule over many other people and their territories THE NEW KINGDOM
  • 14. female Pharaoh Kept boarders secure and increased trade with other lands Built a huge temple Deir el Bahri HATSHEPSUT 1503 BCE- 1482 BCE
  • 15. (stepson/nephew) Great conquests and trade ruled at the height of Egypt’s power Called “the conquerer” THUTMOSE III 1482-1450 BCE
  • 16.  Believed in 1 god, the sun god Ra (re, Aten,Aton ect.)  He tries to being about religious and social changes.  Tries to get all Egyptians to only worship Ra  Changes his name to Aknetaton> “He who pleases Aton”  Not successful!  Many believed that destroying the Egyptian gods was the same as destroying Egypt  Nefertiti was his wife  Monotheism- the belief in one god  Polytheism- the belief in many gods  Most Egyptians were polytheistic AMENHOTOP IV
  • 17.  A boy Pharaoh  Undoes Akhenaton’s changes and restores polytheism back to Egypt  His tomb was found untouched in the “Valley of the Kings” TUTANKHAMEN (KING TUT)
  • 18.  Ramses II 1279-1213 BCE- Ordered temples and monuments to be built  Also called Ramses the Great!  Unable to re-establish strong borders  The Pharaoh’s that followed were not strong leaders and the next thousand years, Egypt was dominated by outsiders.  Cleopatra VII- tried to re-establish Egypt’s independence in the 1st century BC but was unsuccessful and Egypt became a providence in Rome’s empire. EGYPT’S DECLINE
  • 19. LETS TAKE A TOUR OF A THE NILE!
  • 20. CAIRO MUSEUM OF EGYPTIAN ANTIQUITIES