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Mesopotamia
Sumerians
Sumer, Kish, Eridu, Uruk, Ur (Near the Persian Gulf)
3500BCE
Writing- Pictographs Cuneiform, stylus
ziggurats ...
Cuneiform: “Wedge-Shaped”
Writing
Gilgamesh Epic Tablet:
Flood Story
Ziggurat at Ur
 Temple
 “Mountain
of
the Gods”
Babylonians
Akkad, Babylon
1792 BCE
Active Traders- wealthy city
Adopted culture of Sumerians when
they conquered them
Ast...
Hammurabi’s [r. 1792-1750 B. C. E.]
Code
Hammurabi
Hittites
Asia Minor, IndoEuropean Language
invade from Asia Minor
Looted city of Babylon
Retreat to West Fertile Crescent
...
A Balance of Power: 1200 B. C. E.
Assyrians
Ashur, Upper Tigris River, Ninevah
2000BCE, 900-650BCE, 700BCE Loot/destroy Babylon, 635BCE Civil War
Semetic Sp...
Jewish Captives: 8c BCE
Chaldeans
Nineveh, Babylon
612BCE capture Nineveh
Conquer most of Fertile Crescent
Trade, canals, buildings
Hanging Garden...
Persians
Indo-European language, Empire Indus R. to Europe
539-331BCE Finally defeated by Greeks and Alexander the Great
...
Persian “Royal Road”
Zarathustra [Zoroaster], 7c
BCE:
Good Thoughts, Good Deed, Good Words
“Tree of Life”
Extent of Zoroastrianism
Phoenicians
West Fertile Crescent, “Phoenicia”, Tyre and Sidon =
Seaports, Carthage in Africa - Traders
1000BC
Ships high...
Phoenician Sea Routes
A Phoenician Bireme Ship
The “Royal Purple” Dye
Carthage: Phoenicia’s
Mightiest Colony
Lydians
Asia Minor, West Asian Minor = Lydia
600BC no empire
1st to use coined money  created a money economy
Barter = tr...
Hebrews/Jews
Canaan, Enslaved in Egypt
After 100BCE Hyksos kicked out Jews are made slaves in Egypt for
400 yrs
Founder  ...
Moses and the 10 Commandments
A new “covenant”
with Yahweh
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Transcript of "1 meso group pp"

  1. 1. Mesopotamia
  2. 2. Sumerians Sumer, Kish, Eridu, Uruk, Ur (Near the Persian Gulf) 3500BCE Writing- Pictographs Cuneiform, stylus ziggurats  temples Invented- plow, arches, sailboat, circle in 360 degrees, wheel Irrigation- Used levees and canals Separate City-State  each had god(s) Monarch king, high priests, (nobles, merchants, scholars, peasants, farmers, slaves) Upper-class boys attended school Polytheism – gods – forces of nature no reward or punishment after death Flood Story – gods are unhappy with human life, send a flood Epic of Gilgamesh
  3. 3. Cuneiform: “Wedge-Shaped” Writing
  4. 4. Gilgamesh Epic Tablet: Flood Story
  5. 5. Ziggurat at Ur  Temple  “Mountain of the Gods”
  6. 6. Babylonians Akkad, Babylon 1792 BCE Active Traders- wealthy city Adopted culture of Sumerians when they conquered them Astronomy/Astrology  Horoscope Hammurabi Law Code  “eye for an eye” Hammurabi – efficient leader, cared about people, wanted Justice Polytheistic  had Sumerian gods would sacrifice to gods for favors Priests could tell future wealthy
  7. 7. Hammurabi’s [r. 1792-1750 B. C. E.] Code
  8. 8. Hammurabi
  9. 9. Hittites Asia Minor, IndoEuropean Language invade from Asia Minor Looted city of Babylon Retreat to West Fertile Crescent 1st to smelt iron Only major crimes received death penalty You could pay fines for penalties Had significant religious freedom 1600BCE-1200BCE A warlike people
  10. 10. A Balance of Power: 1200 B. C. E.
  11. 11. Assyrians Ashur, Upper Tigris River, Ninevah 2000BCE, 900-650BCE, 700BCE Loot/destroy Babylon, 635BCE Civil War Semetic Speaking from North Mesopotamia Adopt Sumerian culture Fierce effective warriors, 1st to use cavalry, had a standing army Expand power into Egypt/Fertile Crescent height of power  Meso, Syria, Palestine, Nile Valley Latitude//Longitude, Used circle, Medical Science, Mail service Used terror to control enemies, enslaved people they conquered, killed enemy soldiers, deport populations cultural diffusion Governed large Empire Respect/feared other people’s gods Gods controlled everything King of Assyria  responsible only to God Ashur Nineveh is Capital – double walled for protection Library at Nineveh thousands of clay tablets (Gilgamesh)
  12. 12. Jewish Captives: 8c BCE
  13. 13. Chaldeans Nineveh, Babylon 612BCE capture Nineveh Conquer most of Fertile Crescent Trade, canals, buildings Hanging Gardens of Babylon Skilled astronomers predict solar/lunar eclipse Calculate length of the year Gate of Ishtar - Goddess Nebuchadnezzar – Great Leader, builds Hanging Gardens of Babylon for his homesick wife
  14. 14. Persians Indo-European language, Empire Indus R. to Europe 539-331BCE Finally defeated by Greeks and Alexander the Great Empire stretched from Indus River to Europe Road System was used to connect Empire together Imperial Bureaucracy- gov’t organized into different levels and tasks with a king at the top. Cyrus, Darius, Xerxes  expanded Empire Collected taxes  laws fairly executed Conquered people  let them keep their religion and laws Secret Agents  Keep king informed, governors and military leaders were kept in check Zoroastrianism  good vs. evil, either rewarded or punished in the afterlife. Had influence of Judaism and Christianity
  15. 15. Persian “Royal Road”
  16. 16. Zarathustra [Zoroaster], 7c BCE: Good Thoughts, Good Deed, Good Words “Tree of Life”
  17. 17. Extent of Zoroastrianism
  18. 18. Phoenicians West Fertile Crescent, “Phoenicia”, Tyre and Sidon = Seaports, Carthage in Africa - Traders 1000BC Ships highly skilled sailors, greatest traders Lumber, skilled metal workers, invented glass blowing and purple dye Phoenician Alphabet  spread throughout Mediterranean. Model for later Western alphabets City-Stateeach with a different King Copied culture and government of others (Egyptian and Babylonians) Afterlife sacrifice to please the gods, even children (extreme cases)
  19. 19. Phoenician Sea Routes
  20. 20. A Phoenician Bireme Ship
  21. 21. The “Royal Purple” Dye
  22. 22. Carthage: Phoenicia’s Mightiest Colony
  23. 23. Lydians Asia Minor, West Asian Minor = Lydia 600BC no empire 1st to use coined money  created a money economy Barter = trading goods or services for other commodities
  24. 24. Hebrews/Jews Canaan, Enslaved in Egypt After 100BCE Hyksos kicked out Jews are made slaves in Egypt for 400 yrs Founder  Abraham Moses  Leads Exodus from Egypt, 10 Commandments Yahweh (God)  monotheistic Diaspora  the spreading out (forced or voluntary migration) of Jews from their homeland. Torah (1st 5 books of Old Testament)
  25. 25. Moses and the 10 Commandments A new “covenant” with Yahweh
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