M Learning Welcome to the Mobile Web

4,212 views
4,110 views

Published on

Provides an overview of mLearning in the context of critical pedagogy and problem-posing education.

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
4,212
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
13
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
134
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • References:

    AL-Fahdi, A., Al-siyabi, K., & tech4101. (2008). mobile learning. Slideshow, . Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/tech4101/mobile-learning-presentation-805226
    Au, W. (2010). The Idiocy of Policy: The Anti-Democratic Curriculum of High-Stakes Testing. Critical Education, 1(1), 1-16. Retrieved from http://m1.cust.educ.ubc.ca/journal/index.php/criticaled/article/view/60/0  

    Cobcroft, R. S., Towers, S. J., Smith, J. E., & Bruns, A. (2006). Mobile learning in review: Opportunities and challenges for learners, teachers, and institutions. In Online Learning and Teaching (Vol. 2006, pp. 21-30). Presented at the Proceedings Online Learning and Teaching (OLT) Conference 2006, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia: QUT ePrints. Retrieved from http://eprints.qut.edu.au/5399/

    Freire, P. (2008). Pedagogy of the oppressed (30th ed.). Continuum International Publishing Group.   

    Fromm, E. (1964). The heart of man, its genius for good and evil (1st ed.). New York, NY: Harper & Row.

    Goodell, J. (1994, June 16). From the Archives: A Revealing Interview with Steve Jobs. Rolling Stone, (684). Retrieved from http://www.rollingstone.com/news/story/31896381/from_the_archives_a_revealing_interview_with_steve_jobs

    Kim, S. H., Holmes, K., & Mims, C. (2004). Mobile wireless technology use and implementation: Opening a dialogue on the new technologies in education. TechTrends, 49(3), 54-63. doi:10.1007/BF02763647  

    Morris, B., & Jobs, S. (2008, March 7). Steve Jobs Speaks out On the Birth of the iPhone. Retrieved from http://money.cnn.com/galleries/2008/fortune/0803/gallery.jobsqna.fortune/index.html

    Motiwalla, L. F. (2007). Mobile learning: A framework and evaluation. Computers & Education, 49(3), 581-596. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2005.10.011  

    Muyinda, P. B. (2007). MLearning: pedagogical, technical and organisational hypes and realities. Campus-Wide Information Systems, 24(2), 97-104. doi:10.1108/10650740710742709

    Sharples, M., Corlett, D., & Westmancott, O. (2002). The Design and Implementation of a Mobile Learning Resource. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 6(3), 220-234. doi:10.100s007790200021  

    Traxler, J. (2009). Chapter 1: Current State of Mobile Learning. In Ally, M (Ed), Mobile Learning (eBook). Athabasca, Canada: Athabasca University Press. Retrieved from http://www.aupress.ca/index.php/books/120155


  • Traxler, J. (2009). Chapter 1: Current State of Mobile Learning. In Ally, M (Ed), Mobile Learning (eBook). Athabasca, Canada: Athabasca University Press. Retrieved from http://www.aupress.ca/index.php/books/120155
  • Muyinda, P. B. (2007). MLearning: pedagogical, technical and organisational hypes and realities. Campus-Wide Information Systems, 24(2), 97-104. doi:10.1108/10650740710742709

  • “Learning that used to be delivered just-in-case can now be delivered just-in-time, just enough, and just-for-me”
    “Finding information rather than possessing it or knowing it becomes the defining characteristic of learning generally, and of mobile learning especially, and this may take learning back into the community”
    Traxler, J. (2009). Chapter 1: Current State of Mobile Learning. In Mobile Learning (eBook.). Athabasca, Canada: Athabasca University Press. Retrieved from http://www.aupress.ca/index.php/books/120155
  • Reference:
    Viereck, G. S. (1929, October 26). What Life Means to Einstein. The Saturday Evening Post, 202(17), 17.
  • Fromm, E. (1964). The heart of man, its genius for good and evil (1st ed.). New York, NY: Harper & Row.
  • Elaborate what you mean by just in time, and lifelong, also why is it disruptive, do other students lose out in some way, do educators?

  • References:

    Freire, P. (2008). Pedagogy of the oppressed (30th ed.). Continuum International Publishing Group.   


  • References:

    Freire, P. (2008). Pedagogy of the oppressed (30th ed.). Continuum International Publishing Group.   


  • References:

    Freire, P. (2008). Pedagogy of the oppressed (30th ed.). Continuum International Publishing Group.   


  • References:

    Freire, P. (2008). Pedagogy of the oppressed (30th ed.). Continuum International Publishing Group.   


  • References:

    Freire, P. (2008). Pedagogy of the oppressed (30th ed.). Continuum International Publishing Group.   


  • References:

    Freire, P. (2008). Pedagogy of the oppressed (30th ed.). Continuum International Publishing Group.   


  • If it’s so hard why can you define it in such a concise manner, maybe hard to define in concrete terms because it is ever evolving?
  • mLearning:
    People engaging in self-expression, action, reflection, communication, dialogue, critical thinking, transformation, and interaction in an exercise of freedom situated in authentic contexts that utilizes creativity and imagination in the process of design and development mediated by mobile technology and mobile devices.


  • Goodell, J. (1994, June 16). From the Archives: A Revealing Interview with Steve Jobs. Rolling Stone, (684). Retrieved from http://www.rollingstone.com/news/story/31896381/from_the_archives_a_revealing_interview_with_steve_jobs
  • References:

    Au, W. (2010). The Idiocy of Policy: The Anti-Democratic Curriculum of High-Stakes Testing. Critical Education, 1 (1), 1-16. Retrieved from http://m1.cust.educ.ubc.ca/journal/index.php/criticaled/article/view/60/0  

    Freire, P. (2008). Pedagogy of the oppressed (30th ed.). Continuum International Publishing Group.
  • References:

    Freire, P. (2008). Pedagogy of the oppressed (30th ed.). Continuum International Publishing Group.




  • References:

    Freire, P. (2008). Pedagogy of the oppressed (30th ed.). Continuum International Publishing Group.
  • References:

    Freire, P. (2008). Pedagogy of the oppressed (30th ed.). Continuum International Publishing Group.



  • Cobcroft, R. S., Towers, S. J., Smith, J. E., & Bruns, A. (2006). Mobile learning in review: Opportunities and challenges for learners, teachers, and institutions. In Online Learning and Teaching (Vol. 2006, pp. 21-30). Presented at the Proceedings Online Learning and Teaching (OLT) Conference 2006, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia: QUT ePrints. Retrieved from http://eprints.qut.edu.au/5399/
  • Cobcroft, R. S., Towers, S. J., Smith, J. E., & Bruns, A. (2006). Mobile learning in review: Opportunities and challenges for learners, teachers, and institutions. In Online Learning and Teaching (Vol. 2006, pp. 21-30). Presented at the Proceedings Online Learning and Teaching (OLT) Conference 2006, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia: QUT ePrints. Retrieved from http://eprints.qut.edu.au/5399/


  • Cobcroft, R. S., Towers, S. J., Smith, J. E., & Bruns, A. (2006). Mobile learning in review: Opportunities and challenges for learners, teachers, and institutions. In Online Learning and Teaching (Vol. 2006, pp. 21-30). Presented at the Proceedings Online Learning and Teaching (OLT) Conference 2006, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia: QUT ePrints. Retrieved from http://eprints.qut.edu.au/5399/
  • Cobcroft, R. S., Towers, S. J., Smith, J. E., & Bruns, A. (2006). Mobile learning in review: Opportunities and challenges for learners, teachers, and institutions. In Online Learning and Teaching (Vol. 2006, pp. 21-30). Presented at the Proceedings Online Learning and Teaching (OLT) Conference 2006, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia: QUT ePrints. Retrieved from http://eprints.qut.edu.au/5399/
  • Cobcroft, R. S., Towers, S. J., Smith, J. E., & Bruns, A. (2006). Mobile learning in review: Opportunities and challenges for learners, teachers, and institutions. In Online Learning and Teaching (Vol. 2006, pp. 21-30). Presented at the Proceedings Online Learning and Teaching (OLT) Conference 2006, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia: QUT ePrints. Retrieved from http://eprints.qut.edu.au/5399/
  • Kim, S. H., Holmes, K., & Mims, C. (2004). Mobile wireless technology use and implementation: Opening a dialogue on the new technologies in education. TechTrends, 49(3), 54-63. doi:10.1007/BF02763647  

    Audio on Positive and Negative Implications, talk about how costs have decreased over the years, 15 years ago email being irrelevant, facebook not existing

  • Motiwalla, L. F. (2007). Mobile learning: A framework and evaluation. Computers & Education, 49(3), 581-596. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2005.10.011  
  • Motiwalla, L. F. (2007). Mobile learning: A framework and evaluation. Computers & Education, 49(3), 581-596. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2005.10.011  
  • Mention the kid in the back of the class who never raises his hand when faced with others, but will write a novel on a discussion board
  • Muyinda, P. B. (2007). MLearning: pedagogical, technical and organisational hypes and realities. Campus-Wide Information Systems, 24(2), 97-104. doi:10.1108/10650740710742709

    Elaborate on what exactly these criticism are, possibly explain how exactly one might go about bringing to forefront, yes the aforementioned things, but used in what ways?
  • Sharples, M., Corlett, D., & Westmancott, O. (2002). The Design and Implementation of a Mobile Learning Resource. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 6(3), 220-234. doi:10.100s007790200021  

    And How can they be measured in terms of effectiveness?
  • In what ways, or what types of devices would not do this?





  • Audio, give historical examples of this….

  • Myth-creating irrationality- Nazism, maybe?
  • Continue with stories of what was done to Nazi soldiers, how American and European soldiers would shatter these myths, i.e. The Bear Jew, Inglorious Basterds...
  • Morris, B., & Jobs, S. (2008, March 7). Steve Jobs Speaks out On the Birth of the iPhone. Retrieved from http://money.cnn.com/galleries/2008/fortune/0803/gallery.jobsqna.fortune/index.html




  • M Learning Welcome to the Mobile Web

    1. 1. mLearning & Critical Pedagogy Viva the Mobile Web 2.0 Learning Revolution! Alexandra R. Dolan
    2. 2. “I've always been attracted to the more revolutionary changes. I don't know why. Because they're harder. They're much more stressful emotionally. And you usually go through a period where everybody tells you that you've completely failed” - Steve Jobs (Jobs, as cited in Goodell, 1994).
    3. 3. What is mLearning? • Mobile Learning • Learning Anytime, Anywhere • Learning in Action • Learning with Wireless Handheld Devices • Do we define mLearning (mobile learning) in terms of its technologies, or user experiences? (Traxler, 2009, pp. 13-14)
    4. 4. Defining mLearning: • Muyinda (2007) defines mLearning as eLearning that utilizes wireless communication devices to deliver content and learning support (p. 97). • Note ‘communication’ was included in mobile device description, which implies interactivity, and Web 2.0 nature of mLearning • mLearning is a process of giving and receiving feedback Muyinda, P. B. (2007). MLearning: pedagogical, technical and organisational hypes and realities. Campus-Wide Information Systems, 24(2), 97-104. doi:10.1108/10650740710742709
    5. 5. Who/What puts the ‘m’ in mLearning? Is it the learner? or Is it the device?
    6. 6. Takin’ it to the Streets! • Bringing learning back to the community - authentically situated contexts. No more sitting in a classroom learning for ‘someday’ - when you could be learning for today! • Knowing where to find the answer becomes more important than knowing it or having it. (Traxler, 2009, p. 14) Traxler, J. (2009). Chapter 1: Current State of Mobile Learning. In Ally, M (Ed.), Mobile Learning (eBook.). Athabasca, Canada: Athabasca University Press. Retrieved from http://www.aupress.ca/index.php/books/120155
    7. 7. Pedagogical Heresy? “Imagination is more important than knowledge. For knowledge is limited, whereas imagination embraces the entire world, stimulating progress, giving birth to evolution" - Albert Einstein Viereck, G. S. (1929, October 26). What Life Means to Einstein. The Saturday Evening Post, 202(17), 17.
    8. 8. mLearning: Freedom ‘to’: "If love for life is to develop, there must be freedom 'to': freedom to create, and to construct, to wonder, and to venture.  Such freedom requires that the individual be active and responsible, not a slave or a well-fed cog in the machine" (Fromm, 1964, p. 52). Fromm, E. (1964). The heart of man, its genius for good and evil (1st ed.). New York, NY: Harper & Row.
    9. 9. The Nature of mLearning: • Learner-centered. • Just-in-time. • Lifelong. • Disruptive to formal institutionalized educational settings.
    10. 10. “With our technology, with objects, literally three people in a garage can blow away what 200 people at Microsoft can do. Literally can blow it away. Corporate America has a need that is so huge and can save them so much money, or make them so much money, or cost them so much money if they miss it, that they are going to fuel the object revolution” (Jobs, as cited in Goodell, 1994).
    11. 11. “True dialogue cannot exist unless the dialoguers engage in critical thinking - thinking which discerns an indivisible solidarity between the world and the people and admits of no dichotomy between them - thinking which perceives reality as a process, as transformation, rather than a static entity - thinking which does not separate itself from action, but constantly immerses itself in temporality without fear of the risks involved” (Freire, 2008, p. 92). Freire, P. (2008). Pedagogy of the oppressed (30th ed.). Continuum International Publishing Group.
    12. 12. “Critical thinking contrasts naive thinking, which sees historical time as a weight, a stratification of the acquisitions and experiences of the past, from which the present should emerge normalized and well-behaved. For the naive thinker, the important thing is accomodation to the normalized today. For the critic, the important thing is the continuing transformation of reality, in behalf of continuing humanization of men” (Freire, 2008, p. 92). Freire, P. (2008). Pedagogy of the oppressed (30th ed.). Continuum International Publishing Group.
    13. 13. Action + Reflection The The Essence of = Word Dialogue “To speak a true word is to transform the world” (Freire, 2008, p. 87). Freire, P. (2008). Pedagogy of the oppressed (30th ed.). Continuum International Publishing Group.
    14. 14. “Without dialogue, there is no communication, and without communication there can be no true education” (Freire, 2008, pp. 92-93). Freire, P. (2008). Pedagogy of the oppressed (30th ed.). Continuum International Publishing Group.
    15. 15. “The world which brings consciousness into existence becomes the world of that consciousness” (Freire, 2008, p. 82). Freire, P. (2008). Pedagogy of the oppressed (30th ed.). Continuum International Publishing Group.
    16. 16. “In problem-posing education, people develop their power to perceive critically the way they exist in the world with which and in which they find themselves; they come to see the world not as a static reality, but as a reality in process, in transformation” (Freire, 2008, p. 83). Freire, P. (2008). Pedagogy of the oppressed (30th ed.). Continuum International Publishing Group.
    17. 17. Defining mLearning: • New field that is evolving as technology advances… • Concept is evolving and advancing with the technology… • Hard to define...
    18. 18. mLearning Involves : • People • Creativity • Mobile Technology • Transformation • Mobile Devices • Interaction • Engagement • Imagination • Action • Design • Reflection • Development • Communication • Authentic Context • Dialogue • Freedom • Critical Thinking • Self-Expression
    19. 19. My Working Definition of mLearning: People engaging in self-expression, action, reflection, communication, dialogue, critical thinking, transformation, and interaction in an exercise of freedom situated in authentic contexts that utilizes creativity and imagination in the process of design and development mediated by mobile technology and mobile devices.
    20. 20. People Matter Most. • In this definition, technology is just a tool. • Technology is the medium through which all else is facilitated. • The technology is only important as far as what is made possible by its use. • Technology is the support structure, that supports learning in action.
    21. 21. “Technology is nothing. What's important is that you have a faith in people, that they're basically good and smart, and if you give them tools, they'll do wonderful things with them. It's not the tools that you have faith in — tools are just tools. They work, or they don't work. It's people you have faith in or not.Yeah, sure, I'm still optimistic I mean, I get pessimistic sometimes but not for long” (Jobs, as cited in Goodell, 1994).
    22. 22. People matter: How radical is that? • In mLearning, the people are primary. • In today’s current institutionalized educational climate, people have been reduced to objects, mere things quantified and labeled according to the results of high-stakes tests. Au, W. (2010). The Idiocy of Policy: The Anti-Democratic Curriculum of High-Stakes Testing. Critical Education, 1 (1), 1-16. Retrieved from http://m1.cust.educ.ubc.ca/journal/index.php/criticaled/article/view/60/0   Freire, P. (2008). Pedagogy of the oppressed (30th ed.). Continuum International Publishing Group.
    23. 23. Oppressive Pedagogy: “Any situation in which some individuals prevent others from engaging in the process of inquiry is one of violence. The means used are not important; to alienate human beings from their own decision- making is to change them into objects” (Freire, 2008, p. 85). Freire, P. (2008). Pedagogy of the oppressed (30th ed.). Continuum International Publishing Group.
    24. 24. “Banking Education” • Students are taught • Students know nothing • Students listen • Students comply • Students are powerless to act • Students conform • Students are mere objects in the learning landscape (Freire, 2008, p. 73)
    25. 25. “Education is suffering from a narration sickness. The teacher talks about reality as if it were motionless, static, compartmentalized, and predicatable. Or else he expounds on a topic completely alien to the existential experience of his students. . .” (Freire, 2008, p. 71).
    26. 26. “His task is to ‘fill’ the students with the contents of his narration - contents which are detatched from reality, disconnected from the totality that engendered them and could give them significance. Words are emptied of their concreteness and become a hollow, alienated, and alienating verbosity” (Freire, 2008, p. 71).
    27. 27. “This is the ‘banking’ concept of education, in which the scope of action allowed to the students extends only as far as receiving, filing and storing the deposits. They do it is true, have the opportunity to become collectors of the things they store. But in the last analysis, it is the people themselves who are filed away through the lack of creativity, transformation, and knowledge in this (at best) misguided system.” (Freire, 2008, p. 72).
    28. 28. Banking v. Problem-Posing: “Banking education (for obvious reasons) attempts, by mythicizing reality to conceal certain facts which explain the way human beings exist in the world; problem-posing education sets itself to the task of demythologizing. Banking education resists dialogue; problem-posing education regards dailogue as indispensable to the act of cogntion which unveils reality” (Freire, 2008, p. 83). Freire, P. (2008). Pedagogy of the oppressed (30th ed.). Continuum International Publishing Group.
    29. 29. The Bottom Line on Banking: “Banking education treats students as objects of assistance; problem-posing education makes them critical thinkers. Banking education inhibits creativity and domesticates (although it cannot completely destroy) the intentionality of consciousness by isolating consciousness from the world” (Freire, 2008, pp. 83-84). Freire, P. (2008). Pedagogy of the oppressed (30th ed.). Continuum International Publishing Group.
    30. 30. “Investigation will be most educational when it is most critical, and most critical when it avoids the narrow outlines of partial or ‘focalized views of reality, and sticks to the comprehension of total reality. Thus, the process of searching for the meaningful thematics should include a concern for the links between themes, a concern to pose themes as problems, and a concern for their historical-cultural context” (Freire, 2008, p. 108) Freire, P. (2008). Pedagogy of the oppressed (30th ed.). Continuum International Publishing Group.
    31. 31. “Human beings are because they are in a situation. And they will be more the more they not only critically reflect upon their existence but critically act upon it” (Freire, 2008, p. 109) Freire, P. (2008). Pedagogy of the oppressed (30th ed.). Continuum International Publishing Group.
    32. 32. mLearning: • mLearning is different from traditional institutionalized learning, • in traditional formal classroom instruction learners are viewed as objects that hold knowledge that has been pre-determined and pre-planned for delivery.
    33. 33. mLearning: • mLearning does not demand conformity like institutionalized education does. • Content adapts to the learner. • The Learner does not have to conform to the content. • mLearners are not vessels to hold knowledge. They have mobile devices for that. • mLearners transform that knowledge in the process of mLearning. Cobcroft, R. S., Towers, S. J., Smith, J. E., & Bruns, A. (2006). Mobile learning in review: Opportunities and challenges for learners, teachers, and institutions. In Online Learning and Teaching (Vol. 2006, pp. 21-30). Presented at the Proceedings Online Learning and Teaching (OLT) Conference 2006, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia: QUT ePrints. Retrieved from http://eprints.qut.edu.au/5399/
    34. 34. mLearning: Ubiquitous Computing • Today’s learners do not shut down without a fight. • Educational institutions that demand that leaners turn in, turn mobile devices off, and drop out of their wireless network will soon find that students view them as irrelevant. Cobcroft, R. S., Towers, S. J., Smith, J. E., & Bruns, A. (2006). Mobile learning in review: Opportunities and challenges for learners, teachers, and institutions. In Online Learning and Teaching (Vol. 2006, pp. 21-30). Presented at the Proceedings Online Learning and Teaching (OLT) Conference 2006, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia: QUT ePrints. Retrieved from http://eprints.qut.edu.au/5399/
    35. 35. mLearning Significance: • Students are digital natives, a tribe of multi-tasking, technologically-mediated communicators, collaborators, and content-creators. • Rather than ignoring such changes, educators will need to develop meaningful contexts to apply technology to meet digital native’s learning needs. Cobcroft, R. S., Towers, S. J., Smith, J. E., & Bruns, A. (2006). Mobile learning in review: Opportunities and challenges for learners, teachers, and institutions. In Online Learning and Teaching (Vol. 2006, pp. 21-30). Presented at the Proceedings Online Learning and Teaching (OLT) Conference 2006, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia: QUT ePrints. Retrieved from http://eprints.qut.edu.au/5399/
    36. 36. mLearning Challenges: • Learners will increasingly refuse to be taught. • Instead of being taught, they will demand relevant contexts wherein knowledge can be socially constructed. Cobcroft, R. S., Towers, S. J., Smith, J. E., & Bruns, A. (2006). Mobile learning in review: Opportunities and challenges for learners, teachers, and institutions. In Online Learning and Teaching (Vol. 2006, pp. 21-30). Presented at the Proceedings Online Learning and Teaching (OLT) Conference 2006, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia: QUT ePrints. Retrieved from http://eprints.qut.edu.au/5399/
    37. 37. mLearning • mLearners do not want the terms of learning dictated to them. • They want to choose what, when, where, why, and how they learn in a way that is individualized, personalized, and highly interactive. Cobcroft, R. S., Towers, S. J., Smith, J. E., & Bruns, A. (2006). Mobile learning in review: Opportunities and challenges for learners, teachers, and institutions. In Online Learning and Teaching (Vol. 2006, pp. 21-30). Presented at the Proceedings Online Learning and Teaching (OLT) Conference 2006, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia: QUT ePrints. Retrieved from http://eprints.qut.edu.au/5399/
    38. 38. mLearning • Mobile learning provides anytime/anywhere access to learning and communication. • Without these mobile wireless multimedia technology, these interactions would not be possible. • As the affordability, availability, and capabilities of these devices increase, access will become increasingly ubiquitous. • Always on, always there...has positive and negative implications Kim, S. H., Holmes, K., & Mims, C. (2004). Mobile wireless technology use and implementation: Opening a dialogue on the new technologies in education. TechTrends, 49(3), 54-63. doi:10.1007/ BF02763647  
    39. 39. mLearning of these devices • As the ubiquity, availability, and capability and their educational applications increases, educators and educational systems will find the the demand for mLearning increases • Increasingly, educators and institutions that shy away from mLearning, will be put on the defensive. • Instead of having to justify adopting mLearning, they will have to justify why they have not adopted mLearning into the curriculum. Kim, S. H., Holmes, K., & Mims, C. (2004). Mobile wireless technology use and implementation: Opening a dialogue on the new technologies in education. TechTrends, 49(3), 54-63. doi:10.1007/BF02763647  
    40. 40. mLearning: Pedagogical Imperatives • Fusing the capabilities of mobile technologies for learning with pedagogical practices to enable, support and enhance the learning potential of mobile platforms are critical to successful development and utilization of mLearning applications. • Pedagogical practice must shift with technology to become more individualized, situated, collaborative, and lifelong. Motiwalla, L. F. (2007). Mobile learning: A framework and evaluation. Computers & Education, 49(3), 581-596. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2005.10.011  
    41. 41. mLearning as a Mobile Bridge Across the Digital Divide: • Mobile devices reduce barriers to acessibility • Cheaper than computers, and more portable • Enhances learner’s ability to view courseware, complete coursework, • Expands opportunities for participation and collaboration • Maximizes productivity Motiwalla, L. F. (2007). Mobile learning: A framework and evaluation. Computers & Education, 49(3), 581-596. doi:10.1016/j.compedu.2005.10.011  
    42. 42. mLearning • Allows learner more opportunities to accomplish goals and learning aims • Allows for greater work/life balance as access improves and learning process is streamlined • Allows leaners who otherwise would not have access to participate
    43. 43. mLearning: Work in Progress • Although mLearning is a relatively new field, criticisms and predictions of inevitability of its failure as a learning modaility are unwarranted • Such criticisms rely on stagnant assumptions of education, culture, technology and communications while ignoring the role of innovation and progress • Development of instructional design, organizational and institutional aspects of mLearning are needed to bring mLearning to the forefront of education (Muyinda, 2007, p. 102) Muyinda, P. B. (2007). MLearning: pedagogical, technical and organisational hypes and realities. Campus-Wide Information Systems, 24(2), 97-104. doi:10.1108/10650740710742709
    44. 44. mLearning • Technology is a means to allow people to live their life more effectively - giving people more freedom, instead of more mandates • The effectiveness of technology cannot be measured by assessment in terms of standards, benchmarks, and performance on standardized tests • Instead, the real advantages provided by mLearning technologies are that they enhance the value and reach of individualized learning for individual benefit.. Sharples, M., Corlett, D., & Westmancott, O. (2002). The Design and Implementation of a Mobile Learning Resource. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 6(3), 220-234. doi:10.100s007790200021  
    45. 45. mLearning: Technology as a Means of Empowerment • Individual controls content • Content does not control individual • The medium that delivers the content is not as important as what content enables in a given context • Devices and systems for mobile learning should augment individual opportunities to learn, do, create, recall, incorporate, experiment,a nd communicate effortlessly and intuitively Sharples, M., Corlett, D., & Westmancott, O. (2002). The Design and Implementation of a Mobile Learning Resource. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 6(3), 220-234. doi:10.100s007790200021  
    46. 46. “An epoch is characterized by a complex of ideas, concepts, hopes, doubts, values, and challenges in dialectical interaction with their opposites, striving towards plenitude. . .” (Freire, 2008, p. 101)
    47. 47. “. . . The concrete representation of many of these ideas, values, concepts or hopes, as well as the obstacles that impede the people’s full humanization, consitute the themes of that epoch. . .” (Freire, 2008, p. 101)
    48. 48. “...These themes imply others which are opposing or even antithetical; they also indicate tasks to be carried out and fullfilled. Thus, historical themes are never isolated, independent, disconnected, or static, they are always interacting dialectically with their opposites. . .” (Freire, 2008, p. 101)
    49. 49. “. . .Nor can these themes be found anywhere except in the human-world relationship. The complex of interacting themes of an epoch constitutes its ‘thematic universe’. . .” (Freire, 2008, p. 101)
    50. 50. “. . .Confronted by this ‘universe of themes’ in dialectical contradiction persons take equally contradictory positions: some work to maintain the structures, others to change them…” (Freire, 2008, p. 101)
    51. 51. “… As antagonism deepens between themes which are an expression of reality, there is a tendency for the themes and for reality itself to be mythicized, establishing a climate of irrationality and sectarianism…” (Freire, 2008, pp. 101-102)
    52. 52. “ ...This climate threatens to drain the themes of their deeper significance and to deprive them of their characteristically dynamic aspect. In such a situation, myth- creating irrationality itself becomes a fundamental theme. . .” (Freire, 2008, p. 102).
    53. 53. “ … Its opposing theme, the critical and dynamic view of the world, strives to unveil reality, unmask its mythicization, and achieve a full realization of the human task: the permanent transformation of reality in favor of the liberation of the people” (Freire, 2008, p. 102).
    54. 54. “It's not about pop culture, and it's not about fooling people, and it's not about convincing people that they want something they don't. We figure out what we want. And I think we're pretty good at having the right discipline to think through whether a lot of other people are going to want it, too. That's what we get paid to do. So you can't go out and ask people, you know, what the next big [thing.] There's a great quote by Henry Ford, right? He said, 'If I'd have asked my customers what they wanted, they would have told me ‘A faster horse. ' " (Jobs & Morris, 2008).
    55. 55. AL-Fahdi, A., Al-siyabi, K., & tech4101. (2008). mobile learning. Slideshow, . Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/tech4101/ mobile-learning-presentation-805226 Au, W. (2010). The Idiocy of Policy: The Anti-Democratic Curriculum of High-Stakes Testing. Critical Education, 1(1), 1-16. Retrieved from http://m1.cust.educ.ubc.ca/journal/index.php/ criticaled/article/view/60/0   Cobcroft, R. S., Towers, S. J., Smith, J. E., & Bruns, A. (2006). Mobile learning in review: Opportunities and challenges for learners, teachers, and institutions. In Online Learning and Teaching (Vol. 2006, pp. 21-30). Presented at the Proceedings Online Learning and Teaching (OLT) Conference 2006, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia: QUT ePrints. Retrieved from http://eprints.qut.edu.au/5399/ Freire, P. (2008). Pedagogy of the oppressed (30th ed.). Continuum International Publishing Group.  
    56. 56. Fromm, E. (1964). The heart of man, its genius for good and evil (1st ed.). New York, NY: Harper & Row. Goodell, J. (1994, June 16). From the Archives: A Revealing Interview with Steve Jobs. Rolling Stone, (684). Retrieved from http://www.rollingstone.com/news/story/31896381/ from_the_archives_a_revealing_interview_with_steve_jobs Kim, S. H., Holmes, K., & Mims, C. (2004). Mobile wireless technology use and implementation: Opening a dialogue on the new technologies in education. TechTrends, 49(3), 54-63. doi: 10.1007/BF02763647   Morris, B., & Jobs, S. (2008, March 7). Steve Jobs Speaks out On the Birth of the iPhone. Retrieved from http://money.cnn.com/ galleries/2008/fortune/0803/gallery.jobsqna.fortune/index.html
    57. 57. Motiwalla, L. F. (2007). Mobile learning: A framework and evaluation. Computers & Education, 49(3), 581-596. doi: 10.1016/ j.compedu.2005.10.011   Muyinda, P. B. (2007). MLearning: pedagogical, technical and organisational hypes and realities. Campus-Wide Information Systems, 24(2), 97-104. doi:10.1108/10650740710742709 Sharples, M., Corlett, D., & Westmancott, O. (2002). The Design and Implementation of a Mobile Learning Resource. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 6(3), 220-234. doi: 10.100s007790200021   Traxler, J. (2009). Chapter 1: Current State of Mobile Learning. In Ally, M (Ed), Mobile Learning (eBook). Athabasca, Canada: Athabasca University Press. Retrieved from http:// www.aupress.ca/index.php/books/120155
    58. 58. evaluation. Computers & Education, 49(3), 581-596. doi: 10.1016/ j.compedu.2005.10.011   Muyinda, P. B. (2007). MLearning: pedagogical, technical and organisational hypes and realities. Campus-Wide Information Systems, 24(2), 97-104. doi:10.1108/10650740710742709 Sharples, M., Corlett, D., & Westmancott, O. (2002). The Design and Implementation of a Mobile Learning Resource. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 6(3), 220-234. doi: 10.100s007790200021   Smithsonian Institution. (2010). Chandra X-ray Observatory - a set on Flickr. Flickr - The Commons. Retrieved from http://www.flickr.com/ photos/smithsonian/sets/72157608016866848/ Traxler, J. (2009). Chapter 1: Current State of Mobile Learning. In Ally, M (Ed), Mobile Learning (eBook). Athabasca, Canada: Athabasca University Press. Retrieved from http:// www.aupress.ca/index.php/books/120155

    ×