MLA Style Workshop
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  • “The Basics,” an MLA style workshop presented by the SSTC.
  • In this workshop, there will be an introduction and overview to MLA style including: first page formatting, in-text citations, formatting sources for the works cited page, a discussion of plagiarism, and a fun quiz.
  • MLA, which stands for the Modern Language Association, is most used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. The purpose of using the MLA style is to provide a system for referencing sources through parenthetical citations and works cited pages, to document credibility of sources used, or ensure that they are scholarly, to avoid plagiarism material, and to provide information for those who want to further investigate the topic that is being written about.
  • The first page of your paper should be the first page with text on it. Do not make a title page for your paper unless it is specifically requested by your instructor. The first thing to be done when formatting the first page of the paper is to list your name, your instructor’s name, the course, and the date in the upper left-hand corner. Be sure that the text is double-spaced. Next, go to the Insert tab and click on the Page Number tool, then you will click on the “top of page” option and select “Plain Number 3.” A header and the page number will appear in the upper right-hand corner. Type your name in front of the number and put one space between the name and page number. These steps will create consecutive pages for your paper. Double space and center the title, but do not underline, italicize, or place your title in quotation marks. Write the title in Title Case, or standard capitalization, not in all capital letters. Then, double space between the title and the first line of the text.
  • In MLA style, referring to the works of others in your text is done by using what is known as parenthetical citation. This method involves placing relevant source information in parentheses after a quote or paraphrase. There are some general guidelines to follow for in-text citations. The source information required in a parenthetical citation depends upon the source of the medium, whether that be print, web, DVD, eBook, or something else, and also upon the source’s entry on the works cited page, also called the bibliography page. Any source information that you provide in-text must correspond to the source information on the works cited page. More specifically, whatever signal word or phrase you provide to your readers in the text must be in the works cited list.
  • MLA format follows the author-page method of in-text citation. This means that the author’s last name and the page number, or numbers, from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear on your works cited page. The author’s name may appear either in the sentence itself or in parentheses following the quotation or paraphrase, but the page number or numbers should always appear in the parentheses, not in the text of your sentence. Take the following 2 examples: in the first example, the author’s name is mentioned within the sentence, so the only information required within the parentheses is the page number. In the second example, the author’s name is not mentioned within the text of the sentence, so it is necessary to include the author’s name and the page number from which the information came in the parentheses. Remember that only the author’s name can be included within the text of the sentence, but never the page number.
  • Both citations in the examples from the previous slide tell readers that the information in the sentence can be located on page 263 of a work by an author named Wordsworth. If readers want more information about this source, they can turn to the works cited page where, under the name of Wordsworth, they would find the following information: The book Lyrical Ballads by William Wordsworth, was published in print in London by the Oxford University Press in 1967.
  • There are instances when a citation is not needed and common sense and ethics should determine your need for documenting sources. You do not need to give sources for: familiar proverbs, such as “a penny saved is a penny earned;” well-known quotations, “Ask not what your country can do for you, but ask what you can do for your country;” or common knowledge, “President Abraham Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth.
  • When citing non-print sources or sources from the Internet you want to include in the text the first item that appears in the works cited entry that corresponds to the citation, in other words, the author’s name, the name of the article, the website name, or the film name. You do not need to give paragraph numbers or page numbers based on your web browser’ print preview function. Unless you must list the website name in the signal phrase in order to get the reader to the appropriate entry, do not include URLs in the in-text citations. Only provide partial URLs when the name of the site includes a domain name, such as CNN.com or Forbes.com. Never write out the entire URL in the in-text citation.
  • There are many different types of media. Books can have an author or an editor, it can be a work in an anthology, or it can be an encyclopedia or dictionary. Articles can come from periodicals such as magazines, newspapers, or journals. Online sources can be an entire website, an online book, a work from a database, a CD-ROM, or an email. Multimedia sources include works of art, maps and charts, radio or television, podcasts, or personal interviews. Other sources can include government publications, historical or legal sources, personal letters, or pamphlets.
  • Now, let’s talk about the basic rules of the works cited page. The works cited page must be on a separate page at the end of your research paper. It should have the same one-inch margins and last name, page number header as the rest of your paper, and be centered. Title the page “Works Cited,” but do not italicize or put the words in quotation marks. Double space all of the citations, but do not skip spaces between entries. Indent the second and subsequent lines of citations five spaces so that you create a hanging indent. In Microsoft Word, this can also be done by clicking on the “Paragraph” tool, then under “Indents and Spacing” clicking the “Special” dropdown menu and choosing “Hanging.” List the page numbers of sources efficiently, when needed. If you refer to a journal article that appeared on pages 225 through 250, list the page numbers on your works cited page as 225-50.
  • Entries on the works cited page are listed alphabetically by the author’s last name, or the editor’s name for an entire edited collection. Author names are written last name first, then first name and middle initial. Sources without authors will be integrated into the alphabetical order of the list. The next several slides will include examples of formatting the sources.
  • For a basic print book, the author’s last name appears first followed by a comma and the first name. Next, in italics, is the name of the work, the city in which it was published, the publisher, and the year of publication. Finally, the medium of the work. Be sure to note the punctuation throughout the citation, as this is very important. An anthology is a collection of several works, and generally has an editor, not an author because each work may have a different author. The author of the work is put first, followed by the title of the work, the name of the anthology, the name of the editor preceded by “Ed.,” the city of publication, the publisher, the year of publication, the page numbers where the work can be found in the anthology, and the medium of the anthology.
  • With an encyclopedia entry you will include the author’s name, the name of the entry, the name of the encyclopedia in italics, the edition number, the year of publication, and the medium. The next example is an article in a periodical, in this case a magazine. The author’s name comes first, followed by the title of the article in quotation marks, the name of the magazine, the date the issue was published, the page number, and the medium.
  • When citing a newspaper include the author’s name, the name of the article in quotations, the name of the newspaper, the date the issue was printed, the section the article appeared in the newspaper, and the medium. For online sources, an entire website in this example, the editor’s name comes first, followed by the name of the website, the publisher of the website, the date the website was published, the medium, and the date the website was accessed.
  • Here are other examples of online sources. The first has the author’s name first, then the name of the work, the publisher of the website and the year published, the medium, and the month and year it was accessed followed by the entire URL. The second example begins with the title of the article from the website, as there was no author, then the name of the website, the publisher and year of publication of the website, the medium, and the date accessed. In a work from a database you include the author’s name, the name of the article in quotations, the name of the journal in italics followed by the volume, issue number, and date of publication, then the page numbers. Next, the name of the database where the article was retrieved, the medium, and finally the date the article was accessed.
  • For multimedia sources, and in this first case a chart, the authors are first (note how the first author’s name is inverted, but the second author’s name is not), then the name of the chart in quotation marks, the type of multimedia source, the source in which it came from, the date of publication, the section of the newspaper that the chart came from, and the medium. The next multimedia example is of a map. The citation begins with the name of the country that was located on the map, then the multimedia source, the title of the work from which the map came, the publisher and date published, the medium, and finally the date accessed.
  • The first citation example on this slide is an historical inaugural address by Thomas Jefferson. In the citation, the name of the speaker is first, then the work, the year of the work, the source where the work was located, the editor’s name, the city of publication, the publisher, and the year of publication. Finally, are the page numbers and medium. In this pamphlet example, the author is the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, issued by the Department of Jury Commissioner, titled A Few Facts about Jury Duty. The city of publication is followed by the publisher (which just happens to also be the author), then the date of publication and the medium.
  • So, what is plagiarism? Plagiarismis using others’ ideas and words without clearly acknowledging the source of that information. To avoid plagiarizing, you must give credit whenever you use:-another person’s idea, opinion, or theory-any facts, statistics, graphs, or drawings-information that is not common knowledge-quotations or paraphrases of another person’s spoken or written wordsIt is okay to double check with a professor, tutor or librarian? on a question of whether you cited something appropriately. Simply bring your cited facts and the cited resource with you.
  • Here are some strategies on preventing plagiarism in your own work:-know the difference between common knowledge and facts that are not common knowledge.Common knowledge - facts that can be found in many places and are likely to be known by most people.Example: President John F. Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas. This is generally known information. You do not need to document this fact.
  • What is NOT common knowledge? Specific facts unknown, other’s ideas, interpretations, research findings, statistics, etc.You must document facts that are not generally known and ideas that interpret facts.Example: According to the American Family Leave Coalition’s book (2005), Family Issues and Congress, former President Bush’s relationship with Congress hindered family leave legislation (p. 6).The idea that Bush’s relationship with Congress hindered family leave legislation is not a fact but an interpretation; thus, you need to cite your source.
  • Other Terms you need to know:Quotation - using someone’s words. When you quote, place the passage you are using in quotation marks, and document the source according to a standard documentation style.The following example uses the APA style:Example: According to Peter S. Pritchard in USA Today (2005), “Public schools need reform but they're irreplaceable in teaching the entire nation's young” (p. 14).
  • Terms you need to know:Paraphrase - using someone’s ideas, but putting them in your own words. This is probably the skill you will use most when incorporating sources into your writing. Although you use your own words to paraphrase, you must still acknowledge the source of the information.Let’s take a look at how to paraphrase…
  • -Remember, while paraphrasing, if you only changed around a few words and phrases, or simply changed the order of the original’s sentences, that is still considered plagiarism. -successful paraphrasingby students include the following:-the student uses his or her own words – Here’s a suggestion: to put something in your own words – do not look at the original source while trying to type or write a summary of the findings, facts or information you would like to use in your paper. Then, you will not rely on the original wording of the source – double-check it against the source, remember to include your in-text citation.-the student maintains the original message of the information -the student puts quotation marks around any unique phrases and sentences taken from a source-the student lets the reader know the source of the original information (cite!, Cite!, References Page!)
  • Put quotation marks around everything that comes directly from the text—especially when taking notes.When paraphrasing, read over what you want to paraphrase carefully. Cover up or close the text so you can't see any of it to be tempted to use it as a guide. Write out a summary of the passage in your own words without peeking.Check your paraphrase against the original text to be sure you have not accidentally used the same phrases or words, and that the information is accurate.
  • At this time, I am going to hand it over to our librarian to tell you a little bit about NoodleBib, which is powered by NoodleTools. Anytime that you have a question about how to cite, please come to the SSTC and we will help you to understand a little bit more about MLA style. If you have a question about NoodleBib, then you will want to see a librarian.
  • Thank you for listening to the presentation today brought to you by the SSTC and the library. Again, you will always want to refer back to the MLA manual for further assistance, or…
  • If you feel that you need additional help on this topic, or have questions, concerns, or comments, then please call or visit the SSTC center of your preference. Thank you, and good luck!
  • Now it’s time to take the quiz.Type the following webpage link in your browser:libguides.hgtc.edu/sstcClick on the “On Demand Workshops and Quizzes” tab Locate the quiz associated with this workshop title and click on the workshop image to enter the quizEvaluate what you have learned through this workshop! Don’t forget to enter your first and last name before starting the corresponding quiz.

MLA Style Workshop Presentation Transcript

  • 1. MLA STYLEWORKSHOP“THE BASICS”Presented by the SSTC and Library
  • 2. Outline for the Workshop1. Introduction to MLA style2. First page formatting3. In-text citations4. Formatting sources for Works Cited page.5. Discussion of Plagiarism6. How to use NoodleBib!
  • 3. Introduction to MLA StylePurpose:1. System for referencing sources2. Document credibility of sources3. Avoid plagiarism4. Provide information
  • 4. Formatting the First Page Do not make a title page for your paper unless specifically requested. Upper left-hand corner of the first page  your name,  your instructors name,  the course, and  the date. Insert tab, Click on Page Number tool, Click on “top of page” option, Select “Plain Number 3.”  Type your name in front of the number,  Put one space between name and page number. Double space again and center the title.  Double space between the title and the first line of the text.
  • 5. In-Text Citations In MLA style, referring to the works of others in your text is done by using what is known as parenthetical citation. This method involves placing relevant source information in parentheses after a quote or a paraphrase.General Guidelines for Source Information Source medium (e.g. Print, Web, DVD) Source’s entry on the Works Cited (bibliography) page. Any source information that you provide in-text must correspond to the source information on the Works Cited page.
  • 6. In-Text Citation: Author-PageStyle MLA format follows the author-page method of in- text citation.  The authors last name and the page number(s) from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear on your Works Cited page. Examples: Wordsworth stated that Romantic poetry was marked by a "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (263). Romantic poetry is characterized by the "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (Wordsworth 263).
  • 7. Works Cited page Wordsworth, William. Lyrical Ballads. London: Oxford U.P., 1967. Print.
  • 8. When a Citation Is Not Needed Familiar proverbs- “A penny saved is a penny earned.” Well-known quotations: “ Ask not what your country can do for you, but ask what you can do for your country.” JFK Common knowledge: President Abraham Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth.
  • 9. Citing Non-Print/Sources from theInternet Include in the text the first item that appears in the Work Cited entry that corresponds to the citation (e.g. author name, article name, website name, film name). No paragraph numbers or page numbers based on your Web browser’s print preview function. Do not include URLs in in-text citations.
  • 10. Types of Media Books-author, an editor, work in an anthology, encyclopedia or dictionary Articles in periodicals-magazine, newspapers, journals Online Sources-entire Web site, online book, work from a database, CD-ROM, email Multimedia Sources-work of art, map or chart, radio or television, podcast, personal interview Other sources-government publications, historical or legal sources, personal letter, pamphlet
  • 11. Works Cited Page“Basic rules” Begin your Works Cited page on a separate page at the end of your research paper.  Same one-inch margins and last name, page number header as the rest of your paper. Label the page Works Cited and center at the top of the page  Do not italicize the words Works Cited or put them in quotation marks  Double space all citations, but do not skip spaces between entries. Create a hanging indent. List page numbers of sources efficiently, when needed.  If you refer to a journal article that appeared on pages 225 through 250, list the page numbers on your Works Cited page as 225-50.
  • 12. Works Cited page Entries are listed alphabetically by  The authors last name  Editor names for entire edited collections Author names are written last name first, first name, then middle initial. Sources without authors will be integrated into the alphabetical order of your list
  • 13. Formatting SourcesBook:Wordsworth, William. Lyrical Ballads. London: . Oxford U.P., 1967. Print.Anthology:Desai, Anita. “Scholar and Gypsy.” The Oxford Book of Travel Stories. Ed. Patricia Craig. Oxford: Oxford U.P., 1996. 251-73. Print.
  • 14. Formatting SourcesEncyclopedia:Posner, Rebecca. “Romance Languages.” TheNew Encyclopedia Britannica: Macropaedia.15th ed. 1987. Print.Articles in periodicals: magazineLord, Lewis. “There’s Something about Mary Todd.” US News and World Report 19Feb. 2001: 53. Print.
  • 15. Formatting sourcesNewspaper:Brummitt, Chris. “Indonesia’s Food Needs Expected to Soar.” Boston Globe 1 Feb. 2005: A7. Print.Online sources: entire websiteHalsall, Paul, ed. Internet Modern History Sourcebook. Fordham U, 22 Sept. 2001. Web. Jan. 2009.
  • 16. Formatting SourcesMore online sources:Peterson, Susan Lynn, The Life of Martin Luther. SusanLynn Peterson, 2005. Web. 24 Jan. 2009. <http://www.susanlynnpeterson.com/index_files/ luther.htm>.“Utah Mine Rescue Funeral.” CNN.com. Cable NewsNetwork, 21 Aug. 2007. Web. 21 Aug. 2007.Work from database:Johnson, Kirk. “The Mountain Lions of Michigan.”Endangered Species Update 19.2 (2002): 27-31.Expanded Academic Index. Web. 26 Nov. 2008. (accessdate)
  • 17. Formatting SourcesMultimedia sources: chartJoseph, Lori, and Bob Laird. “Driving WhilePhoning Is Dangerous.” Chart. USAToday. 16 Feb. 2001: 1A. Print.Serbia. Map. Syrena Maps. Syrena, 2 Feb.2001. Web. 17 Mar. 2009.
  • 18. Formatting SourcesOther sources: historicalJefferson, Thomas. First Inaugural Address. 1801. The American Reader. Ed. Diane Ravitch. New York: Harper, 1990. 42-44. Print.Pamphlet:Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Dept. of Jury Commissioner. A Few Facts about JuryDuty. Boston: Commonwealth ofMassachusetts, 2004. Print.
  • 19. Plagiarism: What is it and how do Iavoid it? Plagiarism is using others’ ideas and words without clearly acknowledging the source of that information. To avoid plagiarizing, you must give credit whenever you use:  another person’s idea, opinion, or theory  any facts, statistics, graphs, or drawings  information that is not common knowledge  quotations or paraphrases of another person’s spoken or written words
  • 20. Strategies for AvoidingPlagiarismTerms you need to know: Common knowledge - facts that can be found in many places and are likely to be known by most people. Example: President John F. Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas. This is generally known information. You do not need to document this fact.
  • 21. Strategies for AvoidingPlagiarismWhat is NOT common knowledge? Specificfacts unknown, other’s ideas, interpretations,research findings, statistics, quotes, etc. You must document facts that are not generally known and ideas that interpret facts. Example: According to the American Family Leave Coalition’s book (2005), Family Issues and Congress, former President Bush’s relationship with Congress hindered family leave legislation (6).
  • 22. Strategies for AvoidingPlagiarismTerms you need to know: Quotation - using someone’s words. When you quote, place the passage you are using in quotation marks, and document the source according to a standard documentation style. The following example uses the MLA style: Example: According to Peter S. Pritchard in USA Today (2005), “Public schools need reform but theyre irreplaceable in teaching the entire nations young” (14).
  • 23. Strategies for AvoidingPlagiarismTerms you need to know: Paraphrase - using someone’s ideas, but putting them in your own words. Let’s take a look at how to paraphrase…
  • 24. How do I paraphrase? Remember, while paraphrasing, if you changed around a few words and phrases, or simply changed the order of the original’s sentences, that is still considered plagiarism. Successful paraphrasing by students include the following:  the student uses his or her own words  the student maintains the original message of the information  the student puts quotation marks around any unique phrases  the student lets the reader know the source of the original information
  • 25. Strategies for AvoidingPlagiarism Put quotation marks around everything that comes directly from the text—especially when taking notes. When paraphrasing, read over what you want to paraphrase carefully. Cover up or close the text so you cant see any of it to be tempted to use it as a guide. Write out a summary of the passage in your own words without peeking. Check your paraphrase against the original text to be sure you have not accidentally used the same phrases or words, and that the information is accurate.
  • 26. NoodleBib NoodleBib by NoodleTools is an online citation generator provided by HGTC Library that will help you create perfectly formatted MLA style citations. Beware: You must have some understanding of how citations work to get a correct citation out of NoodleBib. Note: To use NoodleBib from off-campus, you will need HGTCs school username and password:  Username: hgtclib  Password: hgtc09
  • 27. NoodleBib Access Instructions Go to www.hgtc.edu/library Click on the Citations tab Click on NoodleBib Full Version Make note of the username and password if off- campus Click on Current Users: Sign In If you are a new user, click on “Create a free Personal ID”  Returning users, enter your Personal ID and Password Click on Bibliography in the upper part of the screen Follow the on screen prompts  Choose MLA Style, then select Bibliography once again
  • 28. NoodleBib Help Assistance using NoodleBib is available through a variety of avenues:  Click on the Help link shown on all NoodleBib screens at any time.  View HGTC Library’s NoodleBib tutorial, available at http://libguides.hgtc.edu/librarytutorials  Pick up the NoodleBib Instructions guide available at any HGTC campus library.  Visit any HGTC campus library and ask for assistance.
  • 29. Thank you! Credits:  MLA Manual  Chris Williams, Reference Librarian at Horry Georgetown Technical College  Student Success and Technology Center  The Purdue OWL. Purdue U Writing Lab, 2010. Web. 18 January 2012.  Hacker, Diane. Research and Documentation in the Electronic Age. 4th Ed. Bedford/St. Martin’s, New York: 2009 146-71. Print.
  • 30. Questions? Do you have further questions, comments, concerns, or do you need additional help on this topic? Please call the SSTC:  Conway campus (843) 349-7872  Grand Strand campus (843) 477-2113  Georgetown campus (843) 520-1455 Thank you!
  • 31. Workshop Quiz Type the following webpage link in your browser: libguides.hgtc.edu/sstc  Click on the “On Demand Workshops and Quizzes” tab  Locate the quiz associated with this workshop title and click on the workshop image to enter the quiz  Evaluate what you have learned through this workshop! Don’t forget to enter your first and last name