LEADERSHIP EXCELLENCE...accountable & personal leadership!


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The content in this presentation discusses key principles centered on “ACCOUNTABLE LEADERSHIP” the responsibility of leading others, and “PERSONAL LEADERSHIP ”ones ability to lead themselves. I believe that there are good learnings from this presentation that can enhance your life—both professionally and personally.

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LEADERSHIP EXCELLENCE...accountable & personal leadership!

  1. 1. LEADERSHIP EXCELLENCE “Accountable Leadership” & “Personal Leadership” Presented by Andre’ Harrell
  2. 2. The content in this presentation discusses key principles centered on “ACCOUNTABLE LEADERSHIP” the responsibility of leading others, and “PERSONAL LEADERSHIP ”ones ability to lead themselves. I believe that there are good learnings from this presentation that can enhance your life— both professionally and personally.
  3. 3. LEADERSHIP EXCELLENCE • Distinguish “Personal Leadership” from “Accountable Leadership” • Applying “Personal Leadership” to maximize personal productivity and to model self-leadership behavior • Understanding the components to promote “Personal Leadership” in others and even in personal-directed teams • Applying the method of “Accountable Leadership” to specific job competencies Agenda
  4. 4. “ACCOUNTABLE LEADERSHIP” “Accountable Leadership” The practice of leading others to lead themselves. • The world is evolving at an unprecedented rate and information required to do a job at peak performance is evolving with it. • For several years, US organizations have experienced employee compliance rather than commitment, mediocre productivity and quality, and dissatisfaction among their work force. Modern organizations are complex and leaders have too much responsibility to do it all themselves. Recent increases in international competition have made it all too apparent that adjustments in traditional leadership methods are required if companies are to survive. • Today’s leaders need their teams to develop into self-leaders because the greatest resource is the meaningful motivation of human effort and innovative behavior. Today’s “Accountable Leader” is one who facilitates the internal energy and potential of people to achieve success for the organization, himself, and his team.
  5. 5. “ACCOUNTABLE LEADERSHIP” “Accountable Leadership” applies to the manager who has responsibility for leading others. A “Accountable Leader” is one who leads others to lead themselves. “Accountable Leadership” Keynotes • An important measure of a leader’s own success is the success of others. • What makes a leader successful at one level can be counterproductive at another level. • The strength of a leader is measured by the ability to facilitate the self-leadership of others— not the ability to bend the will of others to the leader’s. • If a person wants to lead somebody, he must first lead himself. • The best of all leaders is the one who helps people so that, eventually, they don’t need him. • Give a man a fish, and he will be fed for a day; teach a man to fish, and he will be fed for a lifetime.
  6. 6. “ACCOUNTABLE LEADERSHIP” “Accountable Leadership” APPROACH The main objectives of “Accountable Leadership” are to stimulate and facilitate self- leadership capability and practice and, further, to make the “Personal Leadership” process the central target of external influence. “Accountable Leadership” Personal Leadership • Personal Leadership behaviors • Personal Task Design • Productive Thought Patterns Modeling Encouragement Goals Reinforcement Constructive Reprimand Establishing “Personal Leadership Systems
  7. 7. “ACCOUNTABLE LEADERSHIP” “Accountable Leadership” THE CONCEPTS Antecedent (e.g. instructions, goals, models) Behavior (e.g.: task performance, self-leadership behaviors) Consequences (e.g.: contingent reward and reprimand) Antecedents: An event that precedes an individual’s behavior and establishes the occasion for the behavior. Antecedents frequently provide cues that inform individuals about what is expected and what behaviors will be reinforced. This is important for “Accountable Leadership” as they provide clues to expected behaviors among individual team members. Behavior: A target behavior that a manager wishes to concentrate on or change. This includes positive and negative feedback that is verbalized in specific terms that can be observed. Consequences: What happens as a result of the behavior. In order for a consequence to be effective in influencing behavior, it should be contingent upon the behavior desired. In other words, the consequence should only occur if a specific employee target behavior occurs. Using rewards to reinforce positive self-leadership is an essential part of the “Accountable Leadership” approach.
  9. 9. “PERSONAL LEADERSHIP” “Personal Leadership” Recognizing It All control over persons is ultimately self-imposed. Just as organizations provide their employees with standards, evaluations, and rewards and punishments, employees themselves provide and experience these same basic elements from within. People have their own expectations, and react positively or negatively toward themselves in response to their own self-evaluations. A company’s standards will not significantly influence their employees behavior if they are not accepted. Similarly, organizational rewards will not produce their desired effects if they are not valued by the employees receiving the rewards. This suggests that an effective leader must successfully influence the way people influence themselves. EXAMPLE: CORPORATE CONTROL SYSTEM Organizational Standards and Expectations Organizational Evaluations and Appraisals Organizational Rewards and Punishments PERSONAL CONTROL SYSTEM Self-Standards and Expectations Behavior/ Performance Self-Evaluations and Appraisals Self-Rewards and Punishments
  10. 10. “PERSONAL LEADERSHIP” Behavior Strategies To Influence Ourselves • If people lead themselves, is the person leading them really leading at all? Yes, although specific leader behaviors are quite different. • The core difference is that there is much less emphasis on command and instruction—the “Accountable Leader” gets others to command and instruct themselves. “Accountable Leadership” requires power, although this power is indirect and subtle. Followers are treated like, and become, leaders. There are three basic assumptions underlying the ideas of “Personal Leadership”: • Everyone practices “Personal Leadership” to some degree, but not everyone is an effective self-leader. • Effective “Personal Leadership” can be learned and thus is not restricted to people we intuitively describe as being born “self starters” “self-directed” or “self motivated.” • “Personal Leadership” is relevant to executives, managers, and non-managers. It is relevant to anyone who works.
  11. 11. “PERSONAL LEADERSHIP” “Personal Leadership” THE TYPES There are two types of “Personal Leadership”: 1. Behavioral-Focused (Behavior and Action) • Self-Set Goals • Management of Cues • Rehearsal • Self-Observation • Self-Administered Rewards • Self-Administered Punishment 2. Cognitive-Focused (Thinking and Feeling) • Building Natural Rewards into Tasks • Focusing Thinking on Natural Rewards • Establishing Constructive Thought Patterns
  12. 12. “PERSONAL LEADERSHIP” Behavior Strategies To Influence Ourselves Self-Set Goals By establishing goals for both immediate work tasks and longer term career achievements, an employee establishes self-directions and priorities. Example of Short-Term Goal If a person knows they talk too much, limiting personal conversations to 40minutes per day might be a reasonable self-imposed goal Example of Long-Term Goal Taking an MBA course at night that leads toward career advancement “Every three months, each manager sits down…to chart his goals for the next term….The manager puts them in writing….There’s something about putting your thoughts on paper that forces you to get down to specifics. That way it’s harder to deceive yourself – or anybody else.” --- Lee Iacocca
  13. 13. “PERSONAL LEADERSHIP” Behavior Strategies To Influence Ourselves Rehearsal Rehearsal or practice is a useful antecedent self-leadership strategy. Much like you would practice at golf, tennis, piano, etc, you need to practice self-leadership. Thinking through and practicing important tasks before they are done can contribute significantly to performance. Examples: • Mental rehearsal before calling on clients • Verbal rehearsal of a crucial presentation • Practicing the sensitive parts of an employee’s performance review • Role playing a Client interaction
  14. 14. “PERSONAL LEADERSHIP” Behavior Strategies To Influence Ourselves Self-Observation: Consequences of Work Performance Self-observation focuses on the consequences of work performance – after performing a task. First, you need information on how well the task has been done. By observing what leads to desirable and undesirable behavior, an employee can discover what needs to change and some cues on how to go about it. A simple record of what leads to a behavior – its frequency, how long it lasts, and when it does or does not occur—can provide a wealth of information Sample Action Resulting from Self-Observation: Observation: Employee dissatisfied with own work. Action: Observe and briefly record on a notepad nonproductive behaviors. These could include informal conversations, unnecessary busy work and so on. Keep a record of frequency and duration of these behaviors and the events that distracted more productive efforts. This will reveal behavioral tendencies of unproductivity and suggest their own remedies.
  15. 15. “PERSONAL LEADERSHIP” Behavior Strategies To Influence Ourselves Self-Administered Rewards What is received in return for effort is an important factor in determining the motivation and the choosing of future activities. Self-administered rewards can be an especially powerful strategy in motivating employees to do tasks they find difficult or unappealing. Self administered rewards can be: • Concrete and physical (eg, a nice dinner out) • Private, mental creations (eg, imagining a vacation accrued by successful work efforts) • Administered by withholding something until a particular task has been accomplished (eg, putting off the vacation until a challenge is completed) Self administered rewards are just as important as organizational rewards and can help sustain motivation and effort.
  16. 16. “PERSONAL LEADERSHIP” Behavior Strategies To Influence Ourselves Self-Administered Punishments Self administered punishment can also be part of the process, although generally not effective. Most self punishment is mental in nature. A mild degree of self-administered punishment can sometimes be useful, but excessive or habitual punishment can undermine motivation and effort. • Study the failure • Learn from it • Refocus energy on feeling good about accomplishments Mistakes are a part of life; you can’t avoid them. All you can hope is that they won’t be too expensive and that you don’t make the same mistake twice. Being too lenient can be a problem as well. There are times when a good self-scolding is appropriate. But generally, concentrating on self-administered rewards for desirable behavior will be more effective than relying on self-imposed punishments.
  17. 17. “PERSONAL LEADERSHIP” Cognitive Strategies for Productive Thinking and Feeling The way a person cognitively perceives and process information about work has a considerable impact on self-leadership. Cognitive self-leadership strategies are concerned with how a person can manage patterns of thinking, which in turn, influence behavior. Three Key Strategies: • Building Natural Rewards into Tasks • Focusing Thinking on Natural Rewards • Establishing Constructive Thought Patterns • How to use natural rewards that derive from the task itself to generate constructive thinking and feelings about one’s own effort • How individuals can develop productive patterns of thought.
  18. 18. “PERSONAL LEADERSHIP” Behavior Strategies To Influence Ourselves Building Natural Rewards into Tasks Work has at least some degree of latitude. Most work can be enjoyed and performed with commitment, not just compliance, when the right approach is encouraged and accepted. The right approach usually involves seeking out and facilitating the natural rewards of tasks. A natural reward is so closely tied to a given task or activity that the two cannot be separated. The SuperLeader can play a critical role in modeling, guiding, and reinforcing employee discovery and management of natural rewards, which are the keys to constructive self-leadership of thoughts and feelings. Tasks that promote constructive and positive thoughts and feelings about work contain three types: • A sense of competence • A sense of self-control • A sense of purpose Performance gains are possible when employees are given some latitude to essentially redesign their own work so that they can experience these feelings and thoughts.
  19. 19. “PERSONAL LEADERSHIP” Behavior Strategies To Influence Ourselves Focusing Thinking on Natural Rewards Self-Redesign of Tasks • Building more naturally enjoyable features into our tasks • Making the naturally rewarding aspects of work the focus of thinking about our own jobs. Identify aspects of tasks that are naturally enjoyable and increase these as much as is reasonably possible. Take on small chunks of greater and greater responsibility over time. Gradually, your initiatives will become obvious. Example strategies for making job more naturally enjoyable: • Hold a meeting at a pleasant off-site location • Schedule meetings face to face if you prefer personal interaction • Schedule important tasks in the AM if you are a morning person
  20. 20. “PERSONAL LEADERSHIP” Behavior Strategies To Influence Ourselves Establishing Constructive Thought Patterns Just as people develop behavior patterns, people develop habitual patterns of thinking. The challenge is to manage habitual thought patterns in such a way that personal effectiveness in work and life in general is increased. Managing Beliefs “Our expectancies not only affect how we see reality but also affect the reality itself” Beliefs and assumptions are fundamental to thinking. Perhaps one of the most important beliefs that influence employee’s self-leadership capability is self-expectation. Research shows that positive expectations enhance the probability of actually doing it and negative expectations decrease the probability. Imagined Experience “A man is what he thinks about all day long” Another important component of thought patterns is imagination. Mental images of the world, such as the visions of likely outcomes to problems, can influence subsequent actions and orientation toward work and life.
  22. 22. “ACCOUNTABLE LEADERSHIP” The Process Few people are capable of “perfect” “Personal Leadership” the moment they start a job. “Personal Leadership” must be learned. • How can “Accountable Leaders” guide followers to discover their own potential? • How can “Accountable Leaders” help their followers to become positive and effective “Personal Leaders”? • How can “Accountable Leaders” lead others to lead themselves? In the beginning, A “Accountable Leader” must provide: • Orientation • Guidance • Direction The Process: • Initial Modeling • Guided Participation • Gradual Development of Self-Leadership
  23. 23. Modeling “ACCOUNTABLE LEADERSHIP” Even if unintentional, the “Account Leader’s” self-leadership behavior inevitably serves as a model to subordinates. Therefore, the first step in teaching “Personal Leadership is to practice “Personal Leadership”. This means practicing behavioral and cognitive “Personal Leadership "and doing so in a vivid and recognizable manner that can serve as a model for others. Others will tend to adopt the standards they observe in exemplary models and then evaluate their performance against those standards.
  24. 24. “ACCOUNTABLE LEADERSHIP” Modeling Mechanisms of Modeling • Attention: An observer must first give attention to the key behaviors of the model. • Retention: Once the behavior is observed, the learner will generally need to repeat or rehearse the what was observed in order for retention to occur. • Behavior Reproduction: Retention enables the observer to reproduce the behavior when faced with the appropriate situation. The “Accountable Leader” role is to create opportunities for others to practice self-leadership and encouraging them to use the new behaviors they have learned. • Motivation: Performance is not likely to occur without proper motivation or if there aren’t any incentives to be self-leaders. Checklist • Capture the attention of others by being a credible example of self-leadership yourself. Display “Personal Leadership” behaviors in a vivid, detailed, and understandable manner. • Facilitate the retention of modeled “Personal Leadership” behaviors. Encourage others to rehearse “Personal Leadership” behavior. • Facilitate behavioral reproduction of “Personal Leadership” by providing opportunities and encourage others to use “Personal Leadership” behavior when appropriate.
  25. 25. Guided Participation “ACCOUNTABLE LEADERSHIP” Verbal behavior of “Accountable Leaders” is critical. Ignite the “Personal Leadership” flame in others by using directed questions. The aim is to give the individual practice in thinking about and then implementing “Personal Leadership behaviors. Specifically, shifting direction, evaluation, and reinforcement from external sources to the individual. Facilitating… Sample Questions Self Observation  “Do you know how well you are doing?”  “How about keeping a record of how many times that happened?” Self-Set Goals  “When do you want to have it finished?”  “How many will you shoot for?”  “What will your target be?” Self-Reinforcement  “How do you think you did?”  “Are you pleased with the way it went?” Rehearsal  “Why don’t you try it out?”  “Let’s practice that”? Cognitive-Focused Goals  “How do you like your job?”  “Have you thought about trying different work methods that you might enjoy more?”  What opportunities do you see in the current problem you face?”
  26. 26. Gradual Development of “Personal Leadership” “ACCOUNTABLE LEADERSHIP” • In order to affect the Gradual Development of “Personal Leadership”, “Accountable Leaders” must change their reinforcing functions and patterns as the subordinate becomes more and more capable of “Personal Leadership”. • With time, reinforcement shifts from the performance-related behaviors associated with an individual task to the process of “Personal Leadership” itself. In other words, the “Accountable Leader” reinforces “Personal Leadership "rather than specific task-related behavior. • The primary function of the “Accountable Leader” is to encourage, guide, and reinforce “Personal Leadership” behaviors and thought patterns rather than directly providing instructions and reinforcing performance. • In this phase, it is critical to provide social reinforcement when “Personal Leadership” behaviors occur. This will allow you to establish a culture in which your team supports and believes in “Personal Leadership”.
  27. 27. Caution Areas “ACCOUNTABLE LEADERSHIP” Implementation: Be sure to spell out “Personal Leadership” behaviors and strategies initially until “Personal Leadership” has been adopted. Attempts to encourage self-leadership can fail because of vague instructions or expectations. Overall, short-term expectations should be extremely modest and clear. It’s the long term that really counts. Appropriateness: Relying on self-leadership is not always appropriate. To determine appropriateness, you must look at three key factors. Using these parameters as a guide, it’s up to you to determine whether the task and situation are worth the benefits of self-leadership training. Key Factors Parameters for Appropriateness The Nature of the Task - The problem is unstructured - Information is need from the team member - Solutions must be accepted by team members to ensure implementation Availability of Time - You are not in a crisis situation - However, if a team member is likely to encounter a similar crisis situation in the future, training may be appropriate then. The Importance of the Team Member’s Development - Team member’s eagerness - Team member’s capacity for self-leadership
  28. 28. “Accountable Leadership” Framework “ACCOUNTABLE LEADERSHIP” A “Accountable Leader” follows a straightforward, underlying theme: shifting team members from dependence to independence. The goal is to improve the bottom line while benefiting the team: • Modeling self-leadership • Facilitating self-goals and productive thought patterns • Reinforcing self-leadership • Reprimanding constructively, with an emphasis on self-leadership • Facilitating cultures that foster self-leadership • Designing sociotechnical systems and teams
  29. 29. Developing “Personal Leadership” Through “Goal Setting” “ACCOUNTABLE LEADERSHIP” Goal setting is one of the most important antecedents to “Personal Leadership” and serves to focus team attention and energy and ultimately, improve performance. Goal Specificity The more specific the goal, the better. The following are three categories of objectives, although the mix depends on the nature of the job. • Quantitative: Refers to measurable standard against which results will be checked and against a specific time span or time deadline. These objectives are end-result oriented. • Qualitative: Refers to whether an event has occurred or not by a specific deadline. These objectives are activity or project oriented. • Personal Development: Refers to the development skills of individual rather than to the goals of the job itself. These objectives are typically activity oriented and can have a special focus on the development of “Personal Leadership” skills.
  30. 30. Punishment “ACCOUNTABLE LEADERSHIP” • When a manager practices regular, positive reinforcement, the use of an occasional deserved punishment can be quite effective. • It is always important to let an employee know specifically what is expected. • Reprimand should follow the occurrence of the undesired target behavior as immediately as possible. • Reprimand should be tied directly and obviously to the particular undesirable target behavior. • Focus on Behaviors, not the Person The real test of leadership is when management isn’t present. Punishment, while never pleasant, can be made into a valuable learning experience if administered correctly by the “Accountable Leader”. Use as a “Learning Experience”.
  31. 31. Conclusion “ACCOUNTABLE LEADERSHIP” Leading others to lead themselves is the key to tapping the intelligence the spirit, the creativity, the commitment, and, most of all, the tremendous unique potential of each individual. “Accountable Leadership” is a process that can be learned. • Principled Negotiation organizes what you already know and puts it in a framework. • Practice is required. • It’s not about winning. • The thrill is in the skill.
  32. 32. CLOSING Today, the most successful “LEADER” is one who can teach, coach and develop their teams into “Personal Leaders”. This can be done by creating an environment that rewards “Learning & Development” both personally/professionally and communicates with actions that EVERYONE has the opportunity to achieve success from the TOP DOWN. “LEADERSHIP EXCELLENCE” DEFINITION
  33. 33. Checkout my presentation on “Global Sales & Marketing Excellence Plan-Example”! http://slidesha.re/1dBavAO You can also checkout my background/work by clicking on the following links: http://www.slideshare.net/aharrell2000 www.linkedin.com/pub/andre-d-harrell/5/13/382/ http://thesalesprofessionalnetwork.blogspot.com/ www.ah2andbeyond.com https://www.facebook.com/pages/Sales-Marketing- Management-Consulting/267898536570725
  34. 34. Andre’ Harrell AH2 & Beyond Consulting www.ah2andbeyond.com 267-221-8529