Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Knowledge management systems in electronic business ahmed adel
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Knowledge management systems in electronic business ahmed adel

1,470
views

Published on

Knowledge Management systems in Electronic Business

Knowledge Management systems in Electronic Business

Published in: Education, Business

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,470
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
61
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Knowledge Management Systems in Electronic Business Management & e-business DR. NEZAR SAMI, ESLSCA 34C October 23, 2011 Authored by: Ahmed Adel Kamel
  • 2. Table of contents:Table of contents: ............................................................................................................................ 1List of figures: .................................................................................................................................. 2List of tables: ................................................................................................................................... 2 Executive Summary ......................................................................................................... 3 Abstract ........................................................................................................................... 4 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................... 4What is knowledge? ........................................................................................................................ 4Knowledge management ................................................................................................................ 5Why do organizations need Knowledge management ................................................................... 7Knowledge management process: .................................................................................................. 8Biggest difficulties to successfully managing knowledge in organizations: .................................. 10e-Business Development and Knowledge Management .............................................................. 10KM and real business application from your working environment. ............................................ 12Conclusion ..................................................................................................................................... 12REFERENCES .................................................................................................................................. 12
  • 3. List of figures:Figure Description PageFigure 1 (NASA KM roadmap) 8Figure 2 KM Success Factors 9Figure 3 Biggest difficulties to successfully manage knowledge 11Figure 4 (Position KM Process Perspective within E-Business Development) 12Figure 5Developing e-BusinessSystems based onKnowledgeManagementProcess 13PerspectiveList of tables:Table Description PageTable 1 Sharing and Using Knowledge 9
  • 4. Executive SummaryKnowledge management is a strategic initiative essential for any corporation mission success. Asa rising retirement rate diminishes the size of the workforce, the organization’s ability to protect– and effectively utilize – its intellectual capital is similarly diminished. A lack of criticalknowledge negatively impacts an organization’s ability to make effective decisions in a timelymanner. This limitation also inhibits organizations from being able to successfully execute theirprogram on time, as well as being able to stay within the program’s budgetary limits. Oneassessment of this dilemma comes from the Aberdeen Group, who says, “Knowledge workerstoday are losing productivity in an endless search for information they know resides in theorganization but is not easily accessible.” By implementing an enterprise knowledgemanagement strategy coupled with an effective knowledge framework, the organization candistribute this critical program knowledge to widely dispersed stakeholders. This flexibilityenables teams to continuously understand the interdependencies and consequences ofchanging requirements and changing environments across the life of the entire program/project. However, data by itself is only representative of a single point in time with nounderstanding of that data’s relationships or how it can be used for decision making. By beingable to fully comprehend all aspects of organization knowledge (i.e., its lifecycle), knowledgeworkers can employ this information more effectively during the decision making process. Thisapproach allows end users to understand organization knowledge as a whole so that they canascertain its patterns and develop additional knowledge about how to use this information on abest practice basis. In turn, these knowledge management techniques enable organizations tomake informed decisions that improve the likelihood of successWhat is “knowledge management”? Knowledge management is getting the right information tothe right people at the right time, and helping people create knowledge and share and act uponinformation in ways that will measurably improve the performance of the corporation and itspartners. This means providing access to information at the time people need it to make thebest decisions possible for mission safety and success. It means Providing an engineer the history of design decisions on previous projects Giving a project manager access to the best risk management practices and tools when he or she needs them Providing the time for a senior scientist to mentor a promising young starSome of this can be accomplished through clever information technology solutions. The largerpart of this relates to capturing the tacit knowledge of our workforce and effecting culturalchanges that will encourage people to share what they know.There are three goals where KM activities can help corporation’s ability to deliver its missions1. To sustain the corporation’s knowledge across missions and generations, KM activities willidentify and capture the information that exists across the organization.2. To help people find, organize, and share the knowledge we already have, KM implementationswill help to efficiently manage the Agency’s knowledge resource.3. To increase collaboration and to facilitate knowledge creation and sharing, KM teams willdevelop techniques, tools, venues, and facilities to enable teams and communities to collaborateacross the barriers of time and space In realizing these goals, some of the specific near-termobjectives should include capturing key employee knowledge, managing the information
  • 5. resources organization already have, and creating ways for remote teams to workcollaboratively. The knowledge management efforts are envisioned as a coordinating functionthat encompasses implementation responsibilities that might be necessary to “fill the gaps” thatexist between organizations.AbstractThe focus of this paper is proposing a framework for developing e-Business systems based onknowledge management (KM) process perspective. In past, developing e-Business systems wereoften given priority according to technical criteria rather than business imperatives. “Technologyfor technology’s sake” problem tends to be a business phenomenon. The study tries to givesome ideals for building e-Business systems based on KM process perspective and expects thatthe viewpoint will facilitate the company using IT to achieve the effectiveness of ebusinesssystems development.INTRODUCTIONIn today’s 21st century, e-Business has become an important means by which enterprisesrespond to competition. *Hesterbrink (1999) pointed out that e-Business uses an innovationapproach to utilize organizationalresources and partner relationships in order to create strategicadvantage. Moreover, *Kalakota and Robinson (1995)consider e-Business to be the complexfusion of business processes, enterprise applications, and organizationalstructure necessary tocreate a high-performance model. According to the above discussion, e-Business is withoutadoubt the means to survival of enterprises in the future, and a necessary path for theenterprise to follow. As a result,e-Business has already become a major policy and program usedby the world’s industrialized countries andenterprises in responding to this new economy.Following a five-year study, *Luftman and Brief (1999) pointed outthat the vast majority ofenterprises that engaged in computerization did not obtain ideal results, which meant that itwas not necessary for them to engage in computerization to increase the value of theirenterprise and createbusiness competitiveness(*Davenport,1998;Ryan, Harrison andSchkade,2002). As soon as managers regarded e-Business as that computers had beenpopularized, that time spent on line had increased, and that thecomputerization of the originalfunctional procedures, it had in fact been of little real assistance in creating andincreasingenterprise competitiveness.What is knowledge?Denham Grey offers the following view on Knowledge stating that it is the full utilization ofinformation and data, coupled with the potential of peoples skills, competencies, ideas,intuitions, commitments and motivations.
  • 6. In todays economy, knowledge is people, money, leverage, learning, flexibility, power, andcompetitive advantage. Knowledge is more relevant to sustained business than capital, labor orland. Nevertheless, it remains the most neglected asset. It is more than justified true belief andis essential for action, performance and adaption. Knowledge provides the ability to respond tonovel situations.A holistic view considers knowledge to be present in ideas, judgments, talents, root causes,relationships, perspectives and concepts. Knowledge is stored in the individual brain or encodedin organizational processes, documents, products, services, facilities and systems.Knowledge is the basis for, and the driver of, our post-industrial economy. Knowledge is theresult of learning which provides the only sustainable competitive advantage. Knowledge is thenext paradigm shift in computing following data processing 1945-1965 and informationmanagement 1966-1995. Knowledge is action, focused innovation, pooled expertise, specialrelationships and alliances. Knowledge is value-added behavior and activities. For knowledge tobe of value it must be focused, current, tested and shared.Knowledge managementAn Open Discussion of Knowledge Management", Brian (Bo)Newman, 1991, KnowledgeManagement is the collection of processes that govern the creation, dissemination, andutilization of knowledge. In one form or another, knowledge management has been around fora very long time. Practitioners have included philosophers, priests, teachers, politicians, scribes,Liberians, etc.So if Knowledge Management is such an ageless and broad topic what role does it serve intodays Information Age? These processes exist whether we acknowledge them or not and theyhave a profound effect on the decisions we make and the actions we take, both of which areenabled by knowledge of some type. If this is the case, and we agree that many of our decisionsand actions have profound and long lasting effects, it makes sense to recognize and understandthe processes that effect or actions and decision and, where possible, take steps to improve thequality these processes and in turn improve the quality of those actions and decisions for whichwe are responsible?Knowledge management is not a, "a technology thing" or a, "computer thing" If we accept thepremise that knowledge management is concerned with the entire process of discovery andcreation of knowledge, dissemination of knowledge , and the utilization of knowledge then weare strongly driven to accept that knowledge management is much more than a "technologything" and that elements of it exist in each of our jobs.“Knowledge Management” Pankaj Sharma 2008,Maarten Sierhuis provided the followingdefinition of Knowledge Management and supporting concepts. Knowledge Management
  • 7. (KM):This is, as the word implies, the ability to manage "knowledge". We are all familiar withthe term Information Management. This term came about when people realized thatinformation is a resource that can and needs to be managed to be useful in an organization.From this, the ideas of Information Analysis and Information Planning came about.Organizations are now starting to look at "knowledge" as a resource as well. This means that weneed ways for managing the knowledge in an organization. We can use techniques and methodsthat were developed as part of Knowledge Technology to analyze the knowledge sources in anorganization. Using these techniques we can perform Knowledge Analysis and KnowledgePlanning. Knowledge Analysis (KA): In Knowledge Analysis we model a knowledge source insuch a way that we can analyze its usefulness, its weaknesses and its appropriateness within theorganization. Knowledge Analysis is a necessary step for the ability to manage knowledge.Within Knowledge Analysis we can use knowledge modeling and knowledge acquisitiontechniques. Knowledge Planning (KP): When an organization has a grip on its knowledge (i.e.has performed Knowledge Analysis), it will be able to plan for the future. An organization willnow be able to develop a multi-year knowledge plan that defines how the organization willdevelop its knowledge resources, either by training its human agents, or by developingknowledge-based systems to support the human agents, or by other means that allow theorganization to stay competitive. Knowledge Technology (KT): This is, as the word alreadyimplies, the (application of) techniques and methods from the field of AI, or to be more specific,the field of knowledge-based systems. KT has been around for quite some time, and mostpeople know about the application of KT in the form of expert systems, and decision supportsystems. Techniques and methods to design these kind of systems are well known; The bestknown methodology for building knowledge-based systems is CommonKADS (formerly known asKADS). Computer Supported Work Systems (CSWS): This is a formal and informal (human)activity system, within an organization where the (human) agents are supported by computersystems. The application of Knowledge Technology is very helpful in such work systems,although definitely *not* the only important factor in the analysis and design, nor in theeffectiveness of the activity system.In April 2002 NASA has releases its Knowledge management strategic plan identifyingKnowledge management is getting the right information to the right people at the right time,and helping people create knowledge and share and act upon information in ways that willmeasurably improve the performance of NASA and its partners. For NASA this means deliveringthe systems and services that will help our employees and partners get the information theyneed to make better decisions. There are three priority areas where KM systems and processescan help NASAs ability to deliver its missions: 1)To sustain NASAs knowledge across missionsand generationsKM activities will identify and capture the information that exists across theAgency. 2)To help people find, organize, and share the knowledge we already haveKM processes will help to efficiently manage the Agencys knowledge resources. 3)To increasecollaboration and to facilitate knowledge creation and sharingThe Knowledge Management
  • 8. Team will develop techniques and tools to enable teams and communities to collaborateacross the barriers of time and space. Figure 1 (NASA KM roadmap)Why do organizations need Knowledge managementThe three key areas upon which organizations need to move forward to more effectivelymanagetheir knowledge are; Capturing more of the critical knowledge organizations need to safely conductmissions. Enabling virtual teams to work collaboratively at peak efficiency Managing more effectively the information we have already capturedIf organizations do not begin to manage their knowledge, they will repeat their mistakes. Worse,they will be destined to never learn from their successes.
  • 9. Knowledge management process:Knowledge management—facilitating the sharing of knowledge—occurs when people have easyaccess to and use tools, processes, venues, and facilities provided to help them solve problemsand achieve understanding. Given the highly distributed, “virtual” teams at the organizationtoday, the challenge before is to bring together people and their expertise across barriers oftime, space, and culture. KM activities can provide an environment in which knowledge sharingand learning lead to actions in support of the corporation’s goals (Figure 1). KM activities is tocapture design decisions as they occur and share those with current and future projects couldhelp lead to a culture where sharing knowledge is part of the daily work.Sharing and Using KnowledgePeople Process Technology Enable remotecollaboration Enhance knowledge capture • Enhance system integration and data Support communities Manage mining ofpractice information Reward and recognize • Utilize intelligent knowledge sharing agents Encourage storytelling • Exploit expert systemsSupporting ActivitiesEducation and IT Infrastructure HR SecuritytrainingSome organizations have achieved success in knowledge management through a centralized KMorganization, others through an architecture that unites distributed activities. Successfulimplementation of KM is truly measured by its contribution to mission success. However,researches show that there are four primary success factors for KM: culture, an architecture,services, and a robust infrastructure. Figure 2 (KM Success Factors)
  • 10. Effron (2004), asserts that given the definition of knowledge as “the fact or condition of knowingsomething with familiarity gained through experience or association”, it is “impossible toacquire “knowledge” without either experiencing something yourself or interacting withsomeone else who has” (p. 40). Knowledge Management is not synonymous with IT systems andprocesses. Rather knowledge resides in the experiences of people in different contexts. Withregard to Knowledge Management, the aim of an organization is to work within businessprocesses that create, and transfer knowledge throughout the organization. If knowledge iscreated and transferred via human experiences then these business processes must encompassan understanding of how people learn and transfer their knowledge; that is the businessprocesses must emphasize person-to-person contact (Effron, 2004).Examples of business processes that will lead to effective knowledge management are: The setting of goals and objective – be realistic and recognize the limitations of data mining and information gathering. Make the increase of organizational knowledge a stated and specific goal for the all. Employee retention – HR processes should focus on what it takes to retain employees who hold key knowledge. Provide opportunities that are developmental, have purpose, and have a high impact on business performance. Compensate such employees above typical market rates. Employee development processes – pairing experts (what some companies call “Oak Trees”) and apprentices provide opportunities for employees with differing levels of knowledge to work together and increase the organizational knowledge. These relationships allow for a true exchange of knowledge through a human relationship and experience. Organized networking and annual conferences – these provide forums for face-to-face interaction and knowledge sharing and can lead to effective organizational knowledge management. Knowledge Knowledge Identification storage and capture Knowledge Knowledge creation sharing Knowledge application and useIn the process of KM there must be significant steps taken to eliminate any barriers that may getin the way of becoming or increasing the ability to be a learning organization. Cummings
  • 11. challenged our intentionality for to effectively help the processes of KM within an organizationthere must be intentional efforts to remove barriers that would inhibit ideas, talent, and moneyfrom getting to the point of best use (Trompenaars& Hampden-Turner, 2004).Biggest difficulties to successfully managing knowledge inorganizations:In Maximum performance: A practical to leading and managing people at work Nick Forster:Ruggles 1998, he has shown that the biggest difficulties to successfully manage knowledge inorganizations are sorted as per below graph: Figure 3 (biggest difficulties to successfully manage knowledge)e-Business Development and Knowledge ManagementFrom viewpoint of knowledge management, e-Business is an important process by which anenterprisewisely uses knowledge to create value. Many articles point out that the meaning of e-Business notonly relates to the renewal and upgrading of information technology, but also tothe renewal of industrial processdesign and the creation of operating value. For thisreason,building e-Business not only involves the application of information technology, but also refersto theconstruction of business knowledge. Based onthe knowledge management processperspective, it is believed that organizational knowledge is not somethingstatic or passive that isstored in the individual, but is rather something that, through appropriatemanagementactivities, like various processes such as knowledge identification, selection,acquisition, construction andlearning can cause the effectiveness of the organization’s
  • 12. knowledge to shine forth (Wiig’s, 1997; Beckman,1997;Demarest 1997; Cohen,1998; Ruggles1998).In discussing the development of e-Business from knowledgemanagement process perspective,three stages need to be considered. The first is the system planning stage: Theorganizationshould, by means of “knowledge identification,” decide its core competitiveness, and confirmthescope of its related knowledge along with its core abilities. Second stage: is theimplementation stage. By pooling this core knowledge together, theorganization engages intranslating the tacit knowledge into an information system. Finally, the third stage: is theusestage. By means of learning and management culture for knowledge, suchas specializedtraining and learning by doing, the organization makes sure that endusers will be able andwilling to use the systems (as in figure1 below). For this reason, the effectiveness ofdevelopinge-Business not only arises from the application and renewal of enterprise’s informationtechnology, butalso, from the process that the organization how to identify, select, constructand apply organizational knowledge.Effective KM processes will contribute to the development of e-Business systems. Figure 4 (Position KM Process Perspective within E-Business Development)Figure 5 (Developing e-BusinessSystems based onKnowledge ManagementProcess Perspective)
  • 13. KM and real business application from your working environment. From my point of view and my interaction within the organization, I have found that the e-business applications (ERP, Exchange servers, intranet, etc.. ) used within my organization doesn’t serve the knowledge management intended end results in a good manner, how much it increased the productivity and create the lessons learned that benefits the organization can’t be significantly seen. Nevertheless it has created the media that overcome some challenges that face the knowledge management, such as space and time, but it didn’t deal with one of the major obstacles which is the culture of the users, and the goals of the implementation wasn’t that clear. The identification of knowledge wasn’t that clear, what has to be shared and when wasn’t put in a specific plan to be followed.ConclusionThe whole point of knowledge management process is to make sure that the knowledge in anorganization is applied productively for the benefit of that organization. Based on KM processesperspective, the processes developing e-Business systems are the one that a business how toidentify, select, acquire the tacit knowledge in an organization, how to translate the tacitknowledge into e-Business systems (constructing knowledge), and how to educate the users touse the systems well and learning the knowledge embodied in the systems out of habit (learningknowledge and management culture for knowledge). To discuss the development of e-Businessfrom KM process perspective, its main meaning is to assist the enterprise’s management inanswering the question to help systems implementation personnel in understanding “how toengage in building e-Business,” and to assist system users regarding “how toby means of thesystem operate and learn from it”, as a means of enabling the system to show forth itseffectiveness. The traditional approach to systemsdevelopment, such as the traditional life cycleapproach, has provided e-Business building with clear-cut planning and guidance, but todaythere are still many enterprises that have failed. From knowledge management perspective, thebuilding of an e-Business system is truly the construction of the organization’s knowledge.“Knowledge” is the basic component of an information system, and e-Business systemsdevelopment is also theprocess that a company how to identify, construct and applyorganization’s knowledge.REFERENCESDavenport, T.H. 1998 : Living with ERP, CIO Magazine, 12 (5): 30-32.Davenport, T. H., and Klahr. 1998: Managing Customer Support Knowledge”, California Management Review, 3(40): 193-208.Hesterbrink, C. 1999: Ringing two Paradigms Together, Price water house Coopers.Kalakota, R., and Whinston, A.B. 1997:Electronics Commerce: A Manager’s Guide, Addition-Wesley.Kalakota, R., and Robinson, M. 1995: E-Business Roadmap for Success, Reading, Mass.: Addition-Wesley.Luftman, J. and Brief, T. 1999 : Achieving and Sustaining Business-IT Alignment, California Management Review, 1 (42): 109-122.Ryan, S.D. , Harrison, D.A. and Schkade, L.L. 2002: Information-Technology Investment Decisions Social Subsystem Matter?The Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge * March 2005NASA strategic plan for knowledge management 2002