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  • 1. “Study on Sampling of a Garments Industry” 1.Introduction Sampling is one of the main processes in garment manufacturing and it plays vital role in attracting buyers and confirming the order, as the buyers generally places the order once satisfied with the quality and responsiveness of the sampling. It is the most crucial and most important stage of fashion merchandising. Sampling department makes samples on the basis of the specification and requirement by the buyer. Sampling in merchandising may be defined as "The concept, perception and ideas of fashion designer developed into product samples, in systematic stages of product development, with technical and quality clarity in a development." Though sampling is a difficult and time bound process, it will help the exporter to get the order from the buyer. Before placing any order to the factory, the buyer wants to know whether the factory is capable of producing the styles with the desired quality levels or not. The samples decide the ability of exporters to deal with any given style of garment. The buyer accesses the capability of exporter only with the help of Samples. If the samples are of good quality naturally the buyers will be willing to place the order to factory. Sampling also work as a bridge between the productions and marketing department, hence it has the influence of both marketing as well as production department. So it is essential that the samples should be innovative and should be manufactured with optimum quality. 1|Page
  • 2. “Study on Sampling of a Garments Industry” 2. LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1. Garments Sampling Garment sampling is very much important process. It is a model of what the bulk production is going to be done. The sampling is quite difficult but it will make the buyers to get attractiveness towards the industry. Because the buyers generally places the order after they are satisfied with the quality of the samples. Garment sampling is a very important task in an apparel manufacturing because it gives the satisfaction of the customer with respect to the product being manufactured. This is in turn important because if the buyer is not satisfied by the samples, this puts the following at risk: • Placement of the order • Acceptance of the some or the entire quantity of garments produced. There may be a separate sampling department in a company. But as the merchandiser is the person who is interacting with the buyers regarding samples and other requirements, this sampling department will work under the guidance Also as the samples are to be made according to the buyers’ price ranges and quality levels, merchandiser has to advise. 2.2. Purpose of Sampling a. To allow the buyer to judge the production capabilities of the manufacturer. b. To provide a means for making revisions in the bulk production process. c. To let the manufacturer estimate the thread and fabric consumption, and develop cost quotations. 2|Page
  • 3. “Study on Sampling of a Garments Industry” 2.3 The Details Attached to the Garment Sample After the confirmation of order, each sample sent to the buyer has the following details attached to it, with the help of a tag. It contains the details of both, what the buyer has demanded and what the supplier fabric/trim etc they have used. • Ref no. • Color • Fabric • Composition • Description • Quantity • Style no/ Size • Store 2.4 Sampling Process The process of sample department varies continuously, and the development process will covers a wide range of unique products from new fibers, fiber blends, new yarns, fabric structures ,finishes and surface effects new technology and all types of made up products such as woven , knit wear, hosiery, cut and sewn garments, household products, technical and medical products. There are different phases of sampling; the first phase covers the development of the initial concept or design idea and getting the approval by the customer. The second phase covers the process after getting acceptance of the first prototype sample and carry out the functions of sourcing and ordering component, testing the product and carry out trails once the finalized sample specifications has been drawn up. 3|Page
  • 4. “Study on Sampling of a Garments Industry” The third and final phase includes a range of activities that are carried out before large scale or bulk production capacity outside the producer/developers if this is needed. 2.5 Sampling Types We have to send many samples to buyers. They are • Proto samples or fit samples • Photo shoot samples • Salesmen samples or promotional samples • Size set samples • Pre-production samples • Online sample • Shipment sample • Counter samples or reference samples A . Proto Samples or Fit Samples These samples are done after getting the new order from the buyer. These samples are needed to check the measurements, style and fit. So they can be made in available similar fabrics but in the actual measurements and specifications given from the buyer. Some buyers may need these samples if they want to print the photos of garments on packing box, hang tag, in showrooms,etc.,. After sending the proto samples the buyers will conduct discussion over the samples and they will access the content of the sample and give us comment and reviews. B .Photoshoot Sample 4|Page
  • 5. “Study on Sampling of a Garments Industry” In this category which deals mainly with the real fitting on garments.The buyers will conduct photoshoot sessions with the samples we have sent. By this we can clearly get the fitting requirements and problems in the measurements.By doing this buyers can give us comments with the photo attachments. C .Salesman Sample The buyer needs these samples for getting the orders from their customers. If the buyer is having 7 salesmen in his office, then the buyer will ask us to make 7 samples in each style. The salesmen will book the orders from their customers, by showing these samples. Buyer will place the order to us according to customer attractness towards the sample. Sales samples are made with actual fabric and trims and accessories. Buyer pays for salesman samples to the developer D . Sizeset Samples These sample are done after the salesman sample.In SMS we will sent samples in one size only.Hence sizeset samples are are done to check the grading of all sizes are ok and the measurements are quite good. E . Counter Sample or Reference Sample These are the sample which are made as same as the other samples.We will sent samples to the buyer and keep one of the same sample for our reference.By getting acceptance from the buyer we can proceed the work according to the reference sample we have with us. F . Pre-production Samples These samples are almost like approval samples. They have to be made in actual production fabric with actual bulk trims. They will represent that the production will be 5|Page
  • 6. “Study on Sampling of a Garments Industry” like these samples. These samples are to be sent before starting the actual production. Hence these samples are needed to be perfect in all manners. Buyer may check these samples for everything or anything. Some times, they may do wash test also. We should not get any remark or comment. We have to get only ‘OK’ from the buyer. G . Wash Sample Wash sample is made and submitted to buyer for assessment of feel and handle of fabric after washing of Denim or shirt washing program, hence either at size set stage or PP stage washing sample is sent to buyer for approval and carry forward of washing program.If sample is not approved or approved with comments, factory needs to submit 2nd sample to get approval. After feel assessment buyer may suggest the changes in washing program. H . Online Sample Once production is online, few pieces is taken out in the middle of the production. Production pieces are sent to buyer as TOP sample. All buyers does not asked for TOP sample. Purpose is to cross-check whether factory is following PP sample specification or not. I . Shipment Samples These samples are to be sent just before shipment. They should be sent in actual packing with all labels, tags, etc. (Generally these samples will not be tested by buyer for anything). And even if we get some comments from buyers like changes in price tag or changes in the assortments we can adopt the changes in the process but its not the risk for the supplier. 6|Page
  • 7. “Study on Sampling of a Garments Industry” 2.6. Workflow of Sampling 2.7 Meeting with Buyers In this stage designer of a manufacturing house shows their creations, latest designs to buyers. On other hand if buyer already had fixed design of a style and need few changes on it related to fit, fabrics or trims they discuss those thing with the merchandiser of the manufacturing unit. 7|Page
  • 8. “Study on Sampling of a Garments Industry” 2.8 Development of Initial Samples for the Buyer In this stage after receiving buyer’s concept or instructions on the new style, samples are made with available fabrics and trims 2.9 Development of Fabric Sample, Bit Loom, Print and Embroidery Artwork Fabric is developed as per the buyer requirement. Fabric development means sourcing of customer specific fabric with matching properties, dyed and finished for solid colors. For the solid color lap dip approval is very important process. Until lap dip sample is approved merchants re-submit lap dips. In case of yarn dyed fabrics merchants develop fabric sample with specified design, stripes or checks. These fabric samples called as Bit Loom. Other approvals such as print and embroidery artwork approval and color approval are done. It may be done later stage at time of pre-production. 2.10 Costing of Garment (complete cost as well as manufacturing cost) Merchants prepare cost sheet with details cost break up such as raw material cost, manufacturing cost, overheads and margin. Costing is very a critical stage. Because whether a company will get order or not depends on their costing. If they garment cost is very high then manufacturer may lose the order and on other hand if factory keep their cost low, they will not earn profit from the order. Estimation of the garment cost should be done on data based. 8|Page
  • 9. “Study on Sampling of a Garments Industry” 3. SAMPLE MAKING PROCEDURE OF SOME BUYERS 3.1. H & M buyer`s T-shirt Sample Making Procedure Order If costing is in satisfactory level than the buyer will send the order sheet to the factory and will request to send sample of the ordered garments for approval. Here I present some copy of order sheet. Supplier: padma group . Mode of Delivery: Boat Time of Delivery: End December Style: JACOBSON Composition: 95% cotton 5% elastane Wash: Enzyme Weight: 180/200 gsm Srinkage: 4% maximum Label: HOPE „N LIFE Price: 3.00 USD/PC CIF Pieces/box: 24 pieces Total pieces: 1008 pieces Total box: 42 boxes We won’t accept not assorted boxes. a. Proto samples or fit samples 9|Page
  • 10. “Study on Sampling of a Garments Industry” These samples are done after getting the new order from the buyer. These samples are needed to check the measurements, style and fit. So they can be made in available similar fabrics but in the actual measurements and specifications given from the buyer. Buyer`s given measurement chart: MEASUREMENT CHART: Style A Size M 48/50 L 52/54 XL 56/58 A ½ chest 55 59 63 H ½ hem 55 59 63 H2 hem height 2 2 2 FF shoulder to shoulder pls adjust F shoulder 13.5 14 14.5 L sleeve length 19 20 21 Z ½ armhole 24 25 26 Z1 ½ upper arm width 20 21 22 N ½ sleeve hem width 18 19 20 N2 sleeve hem height 2 2 2 P neck opening 19 19.5 20 P1 neck drop, back 2.5 3 3 P2 neck drop, front 11 11.5 12 rib height at neck 1.5 1.5 1.5 back length from HSP 73 75 77 RL Table No : 1 10 | P a g e
  • 11. “Study on Sampling of a Garments Industry” SKETCH: Style A Fig No : 1 Pattern making The appearance and fit of a garment is highly dependent on each process. Patternmaking is one of the earliest steps in the development of a garment. It is a craft that has evolved over the centuries into a skilled technical process. Today, patternmaking tools have been carefully tailored to quickly perform repetitive time-consuming tasks, allowing apparel companies to cater 11 | P a g e
  • 12. “Study on Sampling of a Garments Industry” to the fast paced world of fashion. Now a days ophisticated software programs are used for pattern making. Pattern grading is the scaling of a pattern to a different size by incrementing important points of a pattern to smaller or bigger sizes. Once a designer has completed a drawing of a garment, it is transformed into a sample pattern. "Patternmaking" is the process of creating all the correctly sized pieces needed to make a complete garment. For many smaller manufacturers, pattern making is still done on paper because the cost of computerized systems remains prohibitive The patternmaker may use one of the following techniques to develop a sample pattern. We may "manipulate" a new pattern by using geometric rules to modify or alter existing pattern pieces. We may translate a design that has been "draped" and pinned on a dress form by converting the shapes of the draped garment sections into paper pattern pieces. Alternatively, We may pin pieces of muslin to a garment being copied and rub tailor's chalk over the seams and darts, making a "muslin rub." The chalk markings are then used to create a flat paper pattern. From this initial pattern, a sample garment is developed. The sample process allows a designer to correct any problems inherent in translating a one-dimensional sketch into a two-dimensional garment; it ensures that the designer's fabric yardage specifications are accurate; and it provides an opportunity to spot potential production problems inherent in a design. Once the sample is made, the manufacturer makes a small batch of duplicates for its sales force to test market. If they sell well, the garment goes into larger volume production. Although many firms still make patterns by hand, larger manufacturers make production patterns on a computer using CAD software. Other systems have been developed that allow patternmakers to create patterns manually by using a life-sized, sensitized table and a stylus attached to a computer. As the patternmaker indicates points with the stylus, the pattern pieces are automatically entered into the CAD system where they can immediately be accessed for grading and marking. Although pattern making is becoming increasingly computerized, patternmakers still must learn the manual method because making patterns manually develops an 12 | P a g e
  • 13. “Study on Sampling of a Garments Industry” advanced understanding of garment construction, knowledge that cannot yet be replaced by a computer. Cutting Cutting is separating of the garment in to its components and in a general form it is the production process of separating (sectioning, curving, severing) a spread into garment parts that are the precise size and shape of the pattern pieces on a marker. The cutting process may also involve transferring marks and notches from the garment parts to assist operators in sewing, chopping or sectioning a spread in to blocks of pieces goodsmany precede precision cutting of individual patter shapes.This is done to allow for accurate matching of fabric design or easier manufacturing of acutting knife. Once the marker is made, pattern pieces must be cut out of the specified fabric, a process called "cutting." Currently, several cutting techniques exist, ranging from low- to high-tech. Although scissors are used very rarely-only when working with very small batches or sensitive fabricscutting continues to be done by hand, particularly in many lower volume establishments. Here, cutters guide electric cutting machines around the perimeter of pattern pieces, cutting through the fabric stack. An electric drill may be used to make pattern notches. The accuracy and efficiency of this system is considerably less than in computerized cutting systems. Computerized cutting systems are achieving more widespread use as technology costs decrease and labor costs rise. These computer-driven automated cutters utilize vacuum technology to hold stacks of fabric in place while cutting. Cutting blades are sharpened automatically based upon the type of fabric being cut. Gerber Garment Technology manufactures one of the most commonly used cutting systems. This technology has the advantage of being highly accurate and fast, but does cost considerably more than other cutting techniques. 13 | P a g e
  • 14. “Study on Sampling of a Garments Industry” Factors involved in Cutting Fabrics Factors affect the cutting process for fabrics are as follows:• Nature of fabric (grain line shade, twill etc.) • Thickness of fabric. • Design characteristics of finished garment. • Machines and tables used. Sewing After receive the garments components from cutting section, all the garments parts are joined and sewn as sequentially. Obviously all the components are sewn respects on buyer requirement. Sewing section is the most important department of a garment manufacturing industry. Sewing machines of different types are arranged as a vertical line to assemble the garments. Sequence of types of sewing machine arrangement depends on sequence of assembling operations. Sewing sequence of t-shirt manufacturing process: Number matching front 2 back part ↓ Shoulder stitching ↓ Neck rib truck ↓ Neck rib sewing ↓ Neck rib joins with body part ↓ 14 | P a g e
  • 15. “Study on Sampling of a Garments Industry” Neck top seam ↓ Solder to solder back tip ↓ Size label sewing ↓ Solder to solder back top seam ↓ Sleeve tuck with body part (Sleeve mark point & solder mark point) ↓ Sleeve joint with the body part ↓ Side sewing and care label joint ↓ Bottom hem tuck (at the end side) ↓ Bottom hem sewing ↓ Arm bottom hem joint ↓ Inspection Inspection 15 | P a g e
  • 16. “Study on Sampling of a Garments Industry” Open seams, wrong stitching techniques, non- matching threads, and missing stitches, improper creasing of the garment, erroneous thread tension and raw edges are some of the sewing defects which can affect the garment quality adversely. Pressing/ Finishing The next operations are those of finishing and/or decorating. Molding may be done to change the finished surface of the garment by applying pressure, heat, moisture, or certain other combination. Pressing, pleating and creasing are the basic molding processes. Creasing is mostly done before other finishing processes like that of stitching a cuff. Creasing is also done before decorating the garment with something like a pocket, appliqués, embroidered emblems etc. Vertical and form presses is automated machines. Perform simple pressing operations, such as touching up wrinkles in knit shirts, around embroidery and snaps, and at difficult-to-reach places on garments. Send to buyer for approval..... If any problem in sample then we make a second fit sample again in the same process but with actual fabric. b. 2nd fit sample MEASUREMENT CHART: Style A Size M 48/50 L 52/54 XL 56/58 A ½ chest 55 59 63 H ½ hem 55 59 63 H2 hem height 2 2 2 FF shoulder to shoulder NEW 43.5 45 46.5 F shoulder 13.5 14 14.5 L sleeve length 19 20 21 Z ½ armhole 24 25 26 Z1 ½ upper arm width 20 21 22 16 | P a g e
  • 17. “Study on Sampling of a Garments Industry” N ½ sleeve hem width NEW 17 18 19 N2 sleeve hem height 2 2 2 P neck opening 19 19.5 20 P1 neck drop, back 2.5 3 3 P2 neck drop, front 11 11.5 12 neck stretched min NEW 30 31 31 rib height at neck 1.5 1.5 1.5 back length from HSP 73 75 77 RL Table No : 2 SKETCH: Style A 17 | P a g e
  • 18. “Study on Sampling of a Garments Industry” Fig No: 2 Pattern making: Making pattern again with reversed size wise. Cutting : Cutting again pattern wise. Sewing: Number matching front 2 back part (back on part on upper side) ↓ Shoulder stitching (By over lock m/c) ↓ Neck rib truck (By plain m/c) ↓ Neck rib sewing by plain m/c ↓ Neck rib joins with body part ↓ Neck top seam ↓ Solder to solder back tip ↓ 18 | P a g e
  • 19. “Study on Sampling of a Garments Industry” Size label sewing ↓ Solder to solder back top seam ↓ Sleeve tuck with body part (Sleeve mark point & solder mark point) ↓ Sleeve joint with the body part ↓ Side sewing and care label joint ↓ Bottom hem tuck (at the end side) ↓ Bottom hem sewing ↓ Arm bottom hem joint ↓ Inspection Inspection: Inspect Open seams, wrong stitching techniques, non- matching threads, and missing stitches, improper creasing of the garment, erroneous thread tension and raw edges.etc After inspection pressing the sample and send it to buyer for approval. If approved then we go for p.p. sample with actual fabric, actual size, actual accessories. c. P.P sample 19 | P a g e
  • 20. “Study on Sampling of a Garments Industry” These samples are almost like approval samples. They have to be made in actual production fabric with actual bulk trims. They will represent that the production will be like these samples. Cutting as 2nd fit pattern wise ↓ Sewing ↓ Pre-Production Inspection This is done before production starts. It is done to crosscheck for final verification of Bulk fabric and trims materials, styling cutting way, manufacturing details and workmanship of the garment or pre-production sample as per the customer requirement. Once pre-production (PP) sample is approved (also called sealer sample) and most of the trims are sourced, merchants or production planning department conduct pre-production meeting with production team, quality team and sourcing team. All important comments, procedures to be followed, dos and don’ts are discussed. Scheduling of PCD (planned cut date) and shipment date is announced to all teams. d. Photo sample These samples are needed to check the measurements, style and fit. So they can be made in available similar fabrics but in the actual measurements and specifications. Some buyers may need these samples if they want to print the photos of garments on photo inlays, packing box, hang tag, etc. These samples may be needed for local advertisement or buyer’s promotional occasions. In any case, the samples will be worn by the highly paid models. The buyers will arrange the photo shoot session, by spending huge money to the advertising agencies. So the buyers will need these samples strictly on time. If they don’t get samples on time, the buyers will have to pay more compensation to the advertising agencies and models. 20 | P a g e
  • 21. “Study on Sampling of a Garments Industry” Buyers will ask us to make the photo samples according to the intended model’s body fit. So it is important to strictly adhere to these measurements. Buyer may ask these samples to send either from production or before starting production. 21 | P a g e
  • 22. “Study on Sampling of a Garments Industry” Fig No : 3 22 | P a g e
  • 23. “Study on Sampling of a Garments Industry” Bulk production Production Pattern: Its wise to make a production sample that will be hanged out in front of every labor that are recruited to make this clothing eventually. Grading: Grading is done in order to grade various sizes of garment in separate place so that it would be easier to inspection and maintain the export works at last. Marker Making: Market making is the process to sketch on fabric before cutting it. Market is to be in standard size required by the buyers. Spreading: After making a market; we have to spread the whole fabric over the spreading table in order to put Marker and pattern over it. Cutting: After successfully spread the fabric and putting all the marks and sketch by the marker; this is the time to cut the fabrics according to design. Shorting & Bundling: Some shorting task is done in order to list the same number of parts in a separate place. Sewing & Assembling: Each of the parts of a clothing should be sewed or assembled in order to make a complete apparel that are wearable. e. Production Samples These samples are to be sent before shipment to get the buyer’s confirmation for shipment. Hence these samples are needed to be perfect in all manners. Buyer may check these samples for everything or anything. Some times, they may do wash test also. We should not get any remark or comment. We have to get only ‘OK’ from the buyer. Then only we can ship the goods and we can be sure of getting payment. So these samples are to be sent with more and more care. Inspection: In this step of garment manufacturing process each of the complete apparel or garment is to be checked and recheked. If any faults is found; then the whole process should be repeated. 23 | P a g e
  • 24. “Study on Sampling of a Garments Industry” Pressing or Finishing: After making an apparel it is to be pressed by the Compressed Machine in order to bring it in bale form for export. Packing: After making a bale of these garment clothing; Packing is done! Then its redy for delivery. f. Shipment Samples These samples are to be sent after shipment. They should be sent in actual packing with all labels, tags, etc. (Generally these samples will not be tested by buyer for anything. And even if we get some comments from buyers, we can save ourselves by saying that these samples were sent from the left over garments after the shipment; hence there might be some mistakes. If we expect any comments in these samples, it is better to inform the buyer during sending these samples). 3.2. Prenatal buyer`s Ladies t- shirt Sample making procedure Order If costing is in satisfactory level than the buyer will send the order sheet to the factory and will request to send sample of the ordered garments for approval. Here I present some copy of order sheet. Buyer:Prenatal S.P.A P/I No.-iwl/GB0198/2014 Article:s407ts344jj00s Department :PNT Fabrication:100% cotton 180 GSM Description:Ladies (3Yrs – 8 yrs) T-shirt Supplier: Impress-newtex composite textile ltd. Quantity:17,185 pcs Delivery:30-1-2014 24 | P a g e
  • 25. “Study on Sampling of a Garments Industry” a. Proto samples or fit samples These samples are done after getting the new order from the buyer. These samples are needed to check the measurements, style and fit. So they can be made in available similar fabrics but in the actual measurements and specifications given from the buyer. Buyer`s given measurement chart: 86/92 98/104 110/116 Sl no Measurement points Tolerance in cm 1 2 +/- 1.0 30.5 22.0 32 24.0 33.5 26.0 +/+/+/+/+/- 28.0 31.0 30.0 33.0 31.5 35.0 5.5 23.0 6.0 24.5 6.5 26.0 +/- 1.0 9.5 10.5 11.5 +/- 0.5 +/- 1.0 +/- 1.0 +/- 1.0 +6.0/-0.0 9.5 13.0 10.0 14.0 10.5 15.0 13.0 27.0 13.5 27.5 14.0 28.0 +/- 0.5 +/- 0.5 +/- 1.0 +/- 1.0 +/- 0.3 +/- 0.3 6.5 2.5 7.0 2.5 7.5 2.5 33.0 1.0 37.0 1.0 41.0 1.0 3 4a 4b 5a 5b 6 7 8 9 10a 10b 11 12 13 14 15 16 ½ Chest width Measurement point for waist from HSP ½ Waist belt ½ Hem Width ½ Width above hem Shoulder Width Shoulder point to point Shoulder point Sleeve length from Shoulder point ½ Sleeve hem Width Arm hole Length ½ Upper arm Width Neck Width Minimum Size ½ neck Stretched Neck drop front Neck drop back Length CB Back length from HPS Collar length at CB Collar length Table No : 3 25 | P a g e 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.5 1.0
  • 26. “Study on Sampling of a Garments Industry” Pattern making Pattern grading is the scaling of a pattern to a different size by incrementing important points of a pattern to smaller or bigger sizes. Once a designer has completed a drawing of a garment, it is transformed into a sample pattern. . Photo no : 1 Cutting Cutting blades are sharpened automatically based upon the type of fabric being cut. Gerber Garment Technology manufactures one of the most commonly used cutting systems. This technology has the advantage of being highly accurate and fast, but does cost considerably more than other cutting techniques. scissors are used for cutting fabric in sample section.first we set up pattern over the fabric and cut fabric pattern wise. 26 | P a g e
  • 27. “Study on Sampling of a Garments Industry” Sewing After receive the garments components from cutting section, all the garments parts are joined and sewn as sequentially. Obviously all the components are sewn respects on buyer requirement. Wing sequence of ladies t-shirt manufacturing process Attach Interlining by heat Photo no : 2 ↓ Loop Attach by Plain Machine 27 | P a g e
  • 28. “Study on Sampling of a Garments Industry” Photo no : 3 ↓ Neck Piping by Over Lock Photo no : 4 ↓ Roiling by Plain machine 28 | P a g e
  • 29. “Study on Sampling of a Garments Industry” Photo no : 5 ↓ Maching back and front Part Photo no : 6 29 | P a g e
  • 30. “Study on Sampling of a Garments Industry” ↓ Shoulder Join by Over Lock Photo no : 7 ↓ Neck Top Seam by flat Lock 30 | P a g e
  • 31. “Study on Sampling of a Garments Industry” Photo no : 8 ↓ Tuck by Plain Machine Photo no : 9 ↓ 31 | P a g e
  • 32. “Study on Sampling of a Garments Industry” Sleeve gathering by Plain Machine Photo no : 10 ↓ Sleeve Hem by flat lock Photo no : 11 ↓ 32 | P a g e
  • 33. “Study on Sampling of a Garments Industry” Sleeve Join by Over Lock machine Photo no : 12 ↓ Sleeve Tuck by plain machine Photo no : 13 ↓ 33 | P a g e
  • 34. “Study on Sampling of a Garments Industry” Side & Level Over Lock machine Photo no : 14 ↓ Sleeve Tuck Plain machine Photo no : 15 ↓ 34 | P a g e
  • 35. “Study on Sampling of a Garments Industry” Bottom Hem Plain machine Photo no : 16 ↓ Button Hole Hole machine 35 | P a g e
  • 36. “Study on Sampling of a Garments Industry” Photo no : 17 ↓ Button Attach by button attaching machine Photo no : 18 36 | P a g e
  • 37. “Study on Sampling of a Garments Industry” Inspection Open seams, wrong stitching techniques, non- matching threads, and missing stitches, improper creasing of the garment, erroneous thread tension and raw edges are some of the sewing defects which can affect the garment quality adversely. Photo no : 19 Pressing/ Finishing: The next operations are those of finishing and/or decorating. Send to buyer for approval. If any problem in sample then we make a second fit sample again in the same process but with actual fabric. 37 | P a g e
  • 38. “Study on Sampling of a Garments Industry” b. S.S. Sample MEASUREMENT CHART: Style A Size M 48/50 L 52/54 XL 56/58 A ½ chest 55 59 63 H ½ hem 55 59 63 H2 hem height 2 2 2 FF shoulder to shoulder NEW 43.5 45 46.5 F shoulder 13.5 14 14.5 L sleeve length 19 20 21 Z ½ armhole 24 25 26 Z1 ½ upper arm width 20 21 22 N ½ sleeve hem width NEW 17 18 19 N2 sleeve hem height 2 2 2 P neck opening 19 19.5 20 P1 neck drop, back 2.5 3 3 P2 neck drop, front 11 11.5 12 neck stretched min NEW 30 31 31 rib height at neck 1.5 1.5 1.5 back length from HSP 73 75 77 RL Pattern making: Making pattern again with reversed size wise. 38 | P a g e
  • 39. “Study on Sampling of a Garments Industry” Cutting : Cutting again pattern wise. Sewing: Attach Interlining by heat ↓ Loop Attach by Plain Machine ↓ Neck Piping by Over Lock ↓ Roiling by Plain machine ↓ Machine back and front Part ↓ Shoulder Join by Over Lock ↓ Neck Top Seam by flat Lock ↓ Tuck by Plain Machine ↓ Sleeve gathering by Plain Machine ↓ Sleeve Hem by flat lock ↓ Sleeve Join by Over Lock machine 39 | P a g e
  • 40. “Study on Sampling of a Garments Industry” ↓ Sleeve Tuck by plain machine ↓ Side & Level Over Lock machine ↓ Sleeve Tuck Plain machine ↓ Bottom Hem Plain machine ↓ Button Hole Hole machine ↓ Button Attach by button attaching machine Inspection: Inspect Open seams, wrong stitching techniques, non- matching threads, and missing stitches, improper creasing of the garment, erroneous thread tension and raw edges.etc After inspection pressing the sample and send it to buyer for approval.If approved then we go for p.p. sample with actual fabric, actual size, actual accessories. c. P.P sample These samples are almost like approval samples. They have to be made in actual production fabric with actual bulk trims. They will represent that the production will be like these samples. Cutting as s.s. sample pattern wise 40 | P a g e
  • 41. “Study on Sampling of a Garments Industry” ↓ Sewing ↓ Pre-Production Inspection: This is done before production starts. It is done as per the customer requirement. d. Photo sample Buyers will ask us to make the photo samples according to the intended model’s body fit. Bulk production: Production Pattern ↓ Grading ↓ Marker Making ↓ Spreading ↓ Cutting ↓ Shorting & Bundling ↓ 41 | P a g e
  • 42. “Study on Sampling of a Garments Industry” Sewing & Assembling ↓ Production samples ↓ InspectionPressing or Finishing ↓ Packing ↓ Shipment samples ↓ Shipment 3.3 Kappa buyer`s Jacket Sample making procedure Order If costing is in satisfactory level than the buyer will send the order sheet to the factory and will request to send sample of the ordered garments for approval. Here I present some copy of order sheet. Buyer:Prenatal Department :PNT Style no.:0911982 Fabrication:100% pes Weight:700 gsm 42 | P a g e
  • 43. “Study on Sampling of a Garments Industry” Supplier: Impress-newtex composite textile ltd. Quantity:17,185 pcs Delivery:30-1-2014 Size range s- XL a. Proto samples or fit samples These samples are done after getting the new order from the buyer. These samples are needed to check the measurements, style and fit. So they can be made in available similar fabrics but in the actual measurements and specifications given from the buyer. Buyer`s given measurement chart: S M L XL A Length from HSP 68 70 72 74 B 47 49 51 53 C ½ chest width (2cm from armhole) ½ waist 47 43 45 47 D ½ bottom 45 47 49 51 E Armhole(STRAIGHT) 20 21 22 23 F Sleeve length from shoulder 62.5 63.5 64.5 65.5 G ½ muscle width 16.5 17.5 18.5 19.5 H ½ sleeve opening 10 10.5 11 11.5 I Shoulder total 40 42 44 46 J Neck width 20.5 21 21.5 22 K Collar height in CB 9 9 9 9 Table No: 3 Pattern making Pattern grading is the scaling of a pattern to a different size by incrementing important points of a pattern to smaller or bigger sizes. Once a designer has completed a drawing of a garment, it is transformed into a sample pattern. 43 | P a g e
  • 44. “Study on Sampling of a Garments Industry” Cutting Cutting blades are sharpened automatically based upon the type of fabric being cut. Gerber Garment Technology manufactures one of the most commonly used cutting systems. This technology has the advantage of being highly accurate and fast, but does cost considerably more than other cutting techniques. scissors are used for cutting fabric in sample section.first we set up pattern over the fabric and cut fabric pattern wise. Sewing After receive the garments components from cutting section, all the garments parts are joined and sewn as sequentially. Obviously all the components are sewn respects on buyer requirement. Wing sequence of jacket manufacturing process Rib top sein by flat lock m/c ↓ Pocket & rib joint by over lock m/c ↓ Pocket join by plain m/c ↓ Shoulder join by over lock m/c ↓ 44 | P a g e
  • 45. “Study on Sampling of a Garments Industry” Shoulder top sean by Flat lock m/c ↓ Sleeve join by over lock m/c ↓ Arm hole top stitch by Flat lock m/c ↓ Side join by over lock m/c ↓ Fasing by over lock m/c ↓ Neck join by over lock m/c ↓ Button join by over lock m/c ↓ Fasing tuck by plain m/c ↓ Buton top sean by Flat lock m/c ↓ Neck Piping by Flat lock m/c ↓ Level top sean by plain m/c ↓ Cuff make by plain m/c ↓ Cuff join by over lock m/c 45 | P a g e
  • 46. “Study on Sampling of a Garments Industry” ↓ Cuff top sean by Flat lock m/c ↓ Jipper join by plain m/c ↓ Fasing join by plain m/c ↓ Shoulder tuck by plain m/c ↓ Fasing top sein by plain m/c ↓ Zipper top sein by plain m/c ↓ Collar top sein by Flat lock m/c Inspection Open seams, wrong stitching techniques, non- matching threads, and missing stitches, improper creasing of the garment, erroneous thread tension and raw edges are some of the sewing defects which can affect the garment quality adversely. Pressing/ Finishing The next operations are those of finishing and/or decorating. Send to buyer for approval. If any problem in sample then we make a second fit sample again in the same process but with actual fabric. b. S.S sample 46 | P a g e
  • 47. “Study on Sampling of a Garments Industry” S M L XL A Length from HSP 68 70 72 74 B 47 49 51 53 C ½ chest width (2cm from armhole) ½ waist 47 43 45 47 D ½ bottom 46 48 50 53 E Armhole(STRAIGHT) 21 22 23 24 F Sleeve length from shoulder 62.5 63.5 64.5 65.5 G ½ muscle width 16.5 17.5 18.5 19.5 H ½ sleeve opening 10 10.5 11 11.5 I Shoulder total 40 42 44 46 J Neck width 20.5 21 21.5 22 K Collar height in CB 9 9 9 9 Table No : 4 Pattern making: Making pattern again with reversed size wise. Cutting : Cutting again pattern wise. Sewing: Attach Interlining by heat ↓ Loop Attach by Plain Machine ↓ Neck Piping by Over Lock ↓ 47 | P a g e
  • 48. “Study on Sampling of a Garments Industry” Roiling by Plain machine ↓ Machine back and front Part ↓ Shoulder Join by Over Lock ↓ Neck Top Seam by flat Lock ↓ Tuck by Plain Machine ↓ Sleeve gathering by Plain Machine ↓ Sleeve Hem by flat lock ↓ Sleeve Join by Over Lock machine ↓ Sleeve Tuck by plain machine ↓ Side & Level Over Lock machine ↓ Sleeve Tuck Plain machine ↓ Bottom Hem Plain machine ↓ 48 | P a g e
  • 49. “Study on Sampling of a Garments Industry” Button Hole Hole machine ↓ Button Attach by button attaching machine Inspection: Inspect Open seams, wrong stitching techniques, non- matching threads, and missing stitches, improper creasing of the garment, erroneous thread tension and raw edges.etc After inspection pressing the sample and send it to buyer for approval. If approved then we go for p.p. sample with actual fabric, actual size, actual accessories. c. P.p. sample ↓ Cutting as s.s. sample pattern wise ↓ Sewing ↓ Pre-Production Inspection: This is done before production starts. It is done as per the customer requirement. d. Photo sample Buyers will ask us to make the photo samples according to the intended model’s body fit. Bulk production Production Pattern ↓ Grading ↓ Marker Making 49 | P a g e
  • 50. “Study on Sampling of a Garments Industry” ↓ Spreading ↓ Cutting ↓ Shorting & Bundling ↓ Sewing & Assembling ↓ Production samples ↓ InspectionPressing or Finishing ↓ Packing ↓ Shipment samples ↓ Shipment 50 | P a g e
  • 51. “Study on Sampling of a Garments Industry” 3.4 CNA buyer`s Trouser Sample making procedure Order If costing is in satisfactory level than the buyer will send the order sheet to the factory and will request to send sample of the ordered garments for approval. Here I present some copy of order sheet. Buyer:Prenatal Season:FW 2014 Article type:Articolo Basico Sample size:5/6 A Theme:Basic Color:890 INDIA INK Supplier: Impress-newtex composite textile ltd. Quantity:17,185 pcs Delivery:30-1-2014 a. Proto samples or fit samples These samples are done after getting the new order from the buyer. These samples are needed to check the measurements, style and fit. So they can be made in available similar fabrics but in the actual measurements and specifications given from the buyer. Buyer`s given measurement chart: POM Description 102 108 116 122 128 C Waist taken Relaxed 23.50 24.50 25.50 26.50 27.50 D Hip 29 30.20 31.40 32.60 33.80 51 | P a g e
  • 52. “Study on Sampling of a Garments Industry” E Bottom hem 11 11.40 11.80 12.20 12.60 H Thing width 17.10 18.10 19.10 20.10 21.10 O LENGTH 54.70 59.40 64.10 68.80 73.50 P LENGTH 40.30 44.40 48.50 52.60 56.70 Q FRONT CROTCH 17.20 18.10 19 19.90 20.80 R BRONT CROTCH 22.70 23.70 24.70 25.70 26.70 Table No : 4 Pattern making Pattern grading is the scaling of a pattern to a different size by incrementing important points of a pattern to smaller or bigger sizes. Once a designer has completed a drawing of a garment, it is transformed into a sample pattern. Cutting Cutting blades are sharpened automatically based upon the type of fabric being cut. Gerber Garment Technology manufactures one of the most commonly used cutting systems. This technology has the advantage of being highly accurate and fast, but does cost considerably more than other cutting techniques. scissors are used for cutting fabric in sample section.first we set up pattern over the fabric and cut fabric pattern wise. Sewing After receive the garments components from cutting section, all the garments parts are joined and sewn as sequentially. Obviously all the components are sewn respects on buyer requirement. Wing sequence of trouser manufacturing process 52 | P a g e
  • 53. “Study on Sampling of a Garments Industry” Elastic tuck by plain M/C ↓ Front Rise by over lock m/c ↓ Back rise and Level Joint by Over lock m/c ↓ Side Seam joint by over lock m/c ↓ Elastic joint over lock m/c ↓ In seam joint by Over lock m/c ↓ Elastic tuck and main level by flat lock m/c ↓ Top seam by flat lock ↓ Bottom hem by flat lock m/c ↓ Back rise and front rise tuck plain M/C Inspection Open seams, wrong stitching techniques, non- matching threads, and missing stitches, improper creasing of the garment, erroneous thread tension and raw edges are some of the sewing defects which can affect the garment quality adversely. Pressing/ Finishing 53 | P a g e
  • 54. “Study on Sampling of a Garments Industry” The next operations are those of finishing and/or decorating. Send to buyer for approval. If any problem in sample then we make a second fit sample again in the same process but with actual fabric. b. S.S Sample: POM Description 102 108 116 122 128 C Waist taken Relaxed 23.50 24.50 25.50 26.50 27.50 D Hip 29 30.20 31.40 32.60 33.80 E Bottom hem 11 11.40 11.80 12.20 12.60 H Thing width 18 19.10 20.5 21 22 O LENGTH 54.70 59.40 64.10 68.80 73.50 P LENGTH 40.30 44.40 48.50 52.60 56.70 Q FRONT CROTCH 17.20 18.10 19 19.90 20.80 R BACK CROTCH 22.70 23.70 24.70 25.70 26.70 Fig No : 5 Pattern making: Making pattern again with reversed size wise. Cutting : Cutting again pattern wise. Sewing: 54 | P a g e
  • 55. “Study on Sampling of a Garments Industry” Elastic tuck by plain M/C ↓ Front Rise by over lock m/c ↓ Back rise and Level Joint by Over lock m/c ↓ Side Seam joint by over lock m/c ↓ Elastic joint over lock m/c ↓ In seam joint by Over lock m/c ↓ Elastic tuck and main level by flat lock m/c ↓ Top seam by flat lock ↓ Bottom hem by flat lock m/c ↓ Back rise and front rise tuck plain M/C Inspection: Inspect Open seams, wrong stitching techniques, non- matching threads, and missing stitches, improper creasing of the garment, erroneous thread tension and raw edges.etc After inspection pressing the sample and send it to buyer for approval. If approved then we go for p.p. sample with actual fabric, actual size, actual accessories. c. P.p. sample 55 | P a g e
  • 56. “Study on Sampling of a Garments Industry” ↓ Cutting as s.s. sample pattern wise ↓ Sewing ↓ Pre-Production Inspection: This is done before production starts. It is done as per the customer requirement. d. Photo sample Buyers will ask us to make the photo samples according to the intended model’s body fit. Bulk production Production Pattern ↓ Grading ↓ Marker Making ↓ Spreading ↓ Cutting ↓ 56 | P a g e
  • 57. “Study on Sampling of a Garments Industry” Shorting & Bundling ↓ Sewing & Assembling ↓ Production samples ↓ InspectionPressing or Finishing ↓ Packing ↓ Shipment samples ↓ Shipment 57 | P a g e
  • 58. “Study on Sampling of a Garments Industry” 4. DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION Several people and departments are invloved in sampling process.They are: merchandising department, sampling/ product development team, trim and fabric store, pattern making department, quality assurance team, dispatch department and etc. Buyer assesses the sample and gives the feed back within 5 - 7 days to factory with respect to sample. Feedback from the buyer is 3 types i.e. accepted, rejected, and accepted with comments. The rejection of sample may be due to following reasons: There could be one or more reasons for the sample rejection from buyer, these are: sample made out of tolerance, incorrect construction, fabric quality may not up to mark, incorrect packaging, incorrect size submission, frequent change in style and more. When we work with some buyers continuously, we will have to keep on sending samples to them very often. Whenever they have enquiries, buyer may need samples. Buyers may like to see the garments in a new fabric. For one enquiry, they may need samples in different fabrics to choose 58 | P a g e
  • 59. “Study on Sampling of a Garments Industry” from. If they want to develop new style in new fabric, then also we will have to send these samples. We may have to spend too much on these samples. But these samples are inevitably important to develop business. Some times, even the buyer is not so confident of some enquiries, if our samples are good and attractive at reasonable prices, they will bring orders to us. Also we will have to send samples to the newly contacted buyers to show our workmanship, product range, quality standards and price level. These samples should be sent so that they would attract the buyers. So it is better for a company to have a separate sampling department so that they can create new styles in new fabrics to impress the buyers. We have to send many samples to buyers. They are • Salesmen samples or promotional samples • Proto samples or fit samples • Counter samples or reference samples or approval samples • Wash test samples • Photo samples • Fashion show samples • Pre-production samples • Production samples • Shipment samples 59 | P a g e
  • 60. “Study on Sampling of a Garments Industry” 5. CONCLUSION Sampling is the heart of any export order processing. The future of any style purely depends on buyer and factory which are adding value to the samples. So it is very important to understand the sample development process to control quality and costs in the initial stage or in the sampling development. Merchandiser plays the central role in sampling process as, the only person between the buyer and factory who understands the buyer specification, technical details and time line of sampling. The process of sampling is about the eventual satisfaction of specific needs. It is about products the company can make or out-source profitably for which there is a market demand. Sampling is the best way to place an order. The purpose of sampling is not only to get bulk order and also it gives some additional benefits to the exporters. The use of technology, computer based designing, as well as innovation and creativitiy are important tools in driving apparel sampling. 60 | P a g e
  • 61. “Study on Sampling of a Garments Industry” 6. REFERENCES http://textilelearner.blogspot.com/2012/03/process-flow-chart-of-garments-sample.html http://textilelearner.blogspot.com/2012/02/process-sequence-of-garments.html http://www.textileschool.com/School/Apparel/Sampling.aspx http://gulnazahmad.hubpages.com/hub/A-Step-by-Step-of-Garment-Manufacturing Factory merchandiser hand note Garments Technology book Supervisor Hand Note 61 | P a g e
  • 62. “Study on Sampling of a Garments Industry” 62 | P a g e