Managing conflict in cross functional and virtual teams. power pointPresentation Transcript
Managing Conflict in Cross-Functional and Virtual Teams Angela Hamilton, Gina Lappano, Laura Sechrest, and Tammy Jordan-Cary Leading Teams – Saint Joseph’s University OL2 ODL_665
Introduction Teamwork can be a more efficient, stimulating and enjoyable way to get work done. In recent decades, cross-functional teams have been used to get new products to market more rapidly. In the last decade, virtual teams have been a response to a global and technology-driven workplace.
Introduction To create a high performing and successful team requires advance planning and on-going attention to the group dynamics during the work process. Simply combining individuals with specific skill sets in a group will not guarantee great results.
Definitions Cross-Functional Teams – A group of people with complementary skills who are chosen to achieve a common goal and are mutually accountable for the team’s success. (Katzenbach and Smith, 1993 as cited by Hsieh, 2009, p. 302)
Definitions Virtual Teams - “A virtual team is a group of geographically dispersed employees who are assembled using a combination of telecommunication and information technologies for the purpose of accomplishing an organizational task...” (Shin, p.331)
Four virtual dimensions that characterize virtual teams include: Spacial dispersion Temporal dispersion Cultural dispersion Organizational dispersion (Shin)
Definitions Cross-Functional Virtual Work Team- A group of people who work interdependently with a shared goal across space, time and organization boundaries by using the latest information and communication technology (ICT). (Hong & Vai, 2008, p 21)
Definitions Conflict - “is defined as a disagreement between two or more parties who are interdependent” Types of Conflict – Intergroup Interpersonal Intrapersonal (Shin, p.332)
Five Conflict resolution styles: Collaborating Compromising Accommodating Controlling Avoiding Some other research suggests: Collaboration, competition, avoidance, accommodation and compromise. (Shin 340), (Liu, Magjuka and Lee, 833)
Cross Functional Teams Traditionally, project management relied on functional groups working in a linear, sequential, and isolated fashion. Cross-functional teams have developed due to rapid pace for new product development, highly competitive markets, resizing and restructuring, new technologies, and globalization. (Hsieh)(p.301)
Cross Functional TeamCharacteristics Cross-functional teams function in an integrated manner. Allows access to combined intelligences. Brings together specialized talents representing functional areas. (Hsieh)
Cross Functional Team Advantages Improved product development. Greater involvement of production and marketing in decision-making. A well-formed team can reduce project time, improve quality, and customer satisfaction. Increased creativity and cost reduction. (Hsieh), (Jassawalla et al)
Cross Functional Team Challenges Dumping old habits Updating your viewpoint Development of new theories of implementation Willingness to behave differently Skilled interpersonal interaction (Jassawallaet al)
Keys to a Successful Cross Functional Team Many make the mistake of simply putting people together and assuming that collaboration will occur and lead to success. Training and coaching. Identification and selection of the right individuals. Identification and selection of the team. Avoid excessive capability overlap among the individuals. (Hsieh)
Virtual Teams There has been important research in last decade on transformational leadership and it’s relationship to shared leadership in virtual teams
Transformational Leadership in Virtual Teams e-communication is lacking in visual and auditory cues. Emotional component of communication is lost. Transformational leaders inspire, motivate, stimulate. Transformational leaders improve performance of the virtual team. (Purvanova and Bono -343-346)
Shared Leadership in Virtual Teams Need for more research. Shared leadership may be more effective due to member separation. Impacted by the virtual nature and the distribution. Leader functions that may be enhanced or challenged by a shared leadership model. (Shuffler, Wiese, Salas and Burke)
Virtual Team Characteristics Members may represent very diverse backgrounds. Typically temporary. Lends itself well to adaptability. (Purvanova & Bono ), (Hong & Vai)
Virtual Team Challenges Information technology is not a substitute for social dynamics. All sources of conflict in face to face teams also cause conflict in virtual teams. Overcoming the reluctance to capitalize on each other’s knowledge and capabilities. Overcoming the lack of mutual understanding of the goals and objectives. (Shin, 335), (Hong & Vai)
Keys to a Successful Virtual Team Shared understanding Learning climate Structured coaching Promote job rotation (Hong & Vai(p23-24)
Challenges in Managing Virtual Teams Virtual Teams = teams + electronic links + groupware Status in a virtual group depends on skills and contribution. Difficulty establishing consistent roles and structure. Failure to establish a common ground will reduce collaboration.
What can managers do to help virtual teams succeed? Provide a sense of team purpose. Clearly define roles. Reinforce the culture of the organization. Support positive communication. Provide feedback often.
What can managers do to help virtual teams succeed? Maintain a consistent pace of work. Get new members up to speed quickly. “Weaving” conversations Participation Flow
Why is Understanding Conflict Important? Affects employees’ emotion, cognitions , behaviors and organization’s productivity. “Conflict management is a fundamental issue for effective virtual teams’ performance, given the inherent communication and coordination challenges they face.” (Shin, 332), (Montoya-Weiss, et all, p.1252)
Managing Conflict Workplace conflicts can be resolved using methods such as negotiation, mediation, arbitration and litigation. (Shin)
Managing Conflict in Cross-Functional Teams Collaboration is key – “Competing interests reach win-win outcomes.” (Jassawalla & Sashitta, p. 51)
Managing Conflict in Virtual Teams Sources of conflict in virtual teams: Spatial dispersion Temporal dispersion Cultural dispersion Organizational dispersion
Managing Conflict in Virtual Teams The Virtual Negotiation System (VNS) is defined as an on-line negotiation system based on Raider and Coleman’s collaborative negotiation strategies, using on-line chat software.” (Shin 335)
Managing Conflict in Virtual Teams Temporal coordination mechanisms is a process structure imposed to intervene and direct the pattern, timing and content of communication in a group. (Montoya-Weiss, et al)
Top Take-Away Tips Assess Conflict Management Styles Avoidance behavior has a significant negative effect on performance. Temporal coordination significantly weakens the negative effect of avoidance behavior on performance.
Top Take-Away Tips Accomodation behavior has no effect on performance. Temporal coordination has no effect. Competition behavior has a positive effect but temporal coordination has not effect. Collaboration behavior has a significant positive effect on performance, but temporal coordination has no effect. (Montoya Weiss, et all, p.1237)
Top Take-Away Tips Online Training for Virtual Teams: 1. Conflict Resolution training 2. Diversity training (Montoya Weiss, et all, p.1237)