Managing conflict in cross functional and virtual teams. power point


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Managing conflict in cross functional and virtual teams. power point

  1. 1. Managing Conflict in Cross-Functional and Virtual Teams<br />Angela Hamilton, Gina Lappano, Laura Sechrest, and Tammy Jordan-Cary<br />Leading Teams – Saint Joseph’s University<br />OL2 ODL_665<br />
  2. 2. Introduction<br />Teamwork can be a more efficient, stimulating and enjoyable way to get work done. <br />In recent decades, cross-functional teams have been used to get new products to market more rapidly.  <br />In the last decade, virtual teams have been a response to a global and technology-driven workplace.  <br />
  3. 3. Introduction<br />To create a high performing and successful team requires advance planning  and on-going attention to the group dynamics during the work process.   <br />Simply combining individuals with specific skill sets in a group will not guarantee great results.<br />
  4. 4. Definitions<br />Cross-Functional Teams –<br /> A group of people with complementary skills who are  chosen to achieve a common goal and are mutually accountable for the team’s success. <br />(Katzenbach and Smith, 1993 as cited by Hsieh, 2009, p. 302)<br />
  5. 5. Definitions<br />Virtual Teams - <br /> “A virtual team is a group of geographically dispersed employees who are assembled using a combination of telecommunication and information technologies for the purpose of accomplishing an organizational task...”<br />(Shin, p.331)<br />
  6. 6. Four virtual dimensions that characterize virtual teams include:<br />Spacial dispersion<br />Temporal dispersion<br />Cultural dispersion <br />Organizational dispersion<br />(Shin)<br />
  7. 7. Definitions<br />Cross-Functional Virtual Work Team- <br /> A group of people who work interdependently with a shared goal across space, time and organization boundaries by using the latest information and communication technology (ICT). <br /> (Hong & Vai, 2008, p 21)<br />
  8. 8. Definitions<br />Conflict -<br /> “is defined as a disagreement between two or more parties who are interdependent” <br />Types of Conflict –<br />Intergroup<br />Interpersonal <br />Intrapersonal<br />(Shin, p.332)<br />
  9. 9. Five Conflict resolution styles:<br />Collaborating<br />Compromising<br />Accommodating<br />Controlling <br />Avoiding<br /> Some other research suggests:  Collaboration, competition, avoidance, accommodation and compromise.<br />(Shin 340), (Liu, Magjuka and Lee, 833)<br />
  10. 10. Cross Functional Teams<br />Traditionally, project management relied on functional groups working in a linear, sequential, and isolated fashion.<br />Cross-functional teams have developed due to rapid pace for new product development, highly competitive markets, resizing and restructuring, new technologies, and globalization.<br />(Hsieh)(p.301) <br />
  11. 11. Cross Functional TeamCharacteristics<br />Cross-functional teams function in an integrated <br /> manner.<br />Allows access to combined intelligences.<br />Brings together specialized talents representing functional areas. <br />(Hsieh)<br />
  12. 12. Cross Functional Team Advantages<br />Improved product development.<br />Greater involvement of production and marketing in decision-making.<br />A well-formed team can reduce project time, improve quality, and customer satisfaction. <br />Increased creativity and cost reduction. <br />(Hsieh), (Jassawalla et al)<br />
  13. 13. Cross Functional Team Challenges<br />Dumping old habits<br />Updating your viewpoint<br />Development of new theories of implementation<br />Willingness to behave differently<br />Skilled interpersonal interaction<br />(Jassawallaet al)<br />
  14. 14. Keys to a Successful Cross Functional Team<br />Many make the mistake of simply putting people together and assuming  that collaboration will occur and lead to success.<br />Training and coaching.<br />Identification and selection of the right individuals.<br />Identification and selection of the team.<br />Avoid excessive capability overlap among the individuals. <br />(Hsieh)<br />
  15. 15. Virtual Teams<br />There has been important research in last decade on transformational leadership and it’s relationship to shared leadership in virtual teams<br />
  16. 16. Transformational Leadership in Virtual Teams <br />e-communication is lacking in visual and auditory cues.<br />Emotional component of communication is lost.<br />Transformational leaders inspire, motivate, stimulate.<br />Transformational leaders improve performance of the virtual team.<br />(Purvanova and Bono -343-346)<br />
  17. 17. Shared Leadership in Virtual Teams<br />Need for more research.<br />Shared leadership may be more effective due to member separation.<br />Impacted by the virtual nature and the distribution.<br />Leader functions that may be enhanced or challenged by a shared leadership model. <br />      (Shuffler, Wiese, Salas and Burke)<br /> <br />
  18. 18. Virtual Team Characteristics<br />Members may represent very diverse backgrounds.<br />Typically temporary.<br />Lends itself well to adaptability. <br />(Purvanova  & Bono ), (Hong & Vai)<br />
  19. 19. Virtual Team Advantages<br />Quality improvement.<br />Shorter response time.<br />Improved socialization.<br />Improved knowledge sharing. <br />(Hong & Vai)<br />
  20. 20. Virtual Team Challenges<br />Information technology is not a substitute for social dynamics.<br />All sources of conflict in face to face teams also cause conflict in virtual teams. <br />Overcoming the reluctance to capitalize on each other’s knowledge and capabilities.<br />Overcoming the lack of mutual understanding of the goals and objectives. <br />(Shin, 335), (Hong & Vai) <br />
  21. 21. Keys to a Successful Virtual Team<br />Shared understanding<br />Learning climate <br />Structured coaching <br />Promote job rotation <br />(Hong & Vai(p23-24)   <br />
  22. 22. Challenges in Managing Virtual Teams<br />Virtual Teams = teams + electronic links + groupware <br />Status in a virtual group depends on skills and contribution.  <br />Difficulty establishing consistent roles and structure.  <br />Failure to establish a common ground will reduce collaboration.<br />   <br />(Nydegger, 2010)<br />
  23. 23. What can managers do to help virtual teams succeed? <br />Provide a sense of team purpose.<br />Clearly define roles.<br />Reinforce the culture of the organization.<br />Support positive communication.<br />Provide feedback often.<br />
  24. 24. What can managers do to help virtual teams succeed? <br />Maintain a consistent pace of work.<br />Get new members up to speed quickly.<br />“Weaving” conversations <br />Participation <br />Flow <br />   <br />
  25. 25. Why is Understanding Conflict Important?<br />Affects employees’ emotion, cognitions , behaviors and organization’s productivity.<br />“Conflict management is a fundamental issue for effective virtual teams’ performance, given the inherent communication and coordination challenges they face.” (Shin, 332), (Montoya-Weiss, et all, p.1252)<br />
  26. 26. Managing Conflict <br />Workplace conflicts can be resolved using methods such as negotiation, mediation, arbitration and litigation.  <br />(Shin)<br />
  27. 27. Managing Conflict in Cross-Functional Teams <br />Collaboration is key –<br /> “Competing interests reach win-win outcomes.” <br />(Jassawalla & Sashitta, p. 51)<br />
  28. 28. Managing Conflict in Virtual Teams <br />Sources of conflict in virtual teams:<br />Spatial dispersion  <br />Temporal dispersion <br />Cultural dispersion <br />Organizational dispersion <br />   <br />
  29. 29. Managing Conflict in Virtual Teams <br />The Virtual Negotiation System (VNS) is <br />defined as an on-line negotiation system based<br />on Raider and Coleman’s collaborative <br />negotiation strategies, using on-line chat<br />software.”<br />  (Shin 335) <br />
  30. 30. Managing Conflict in Virtual Teams <br />Temporal coordination mechanisms is a process structure imposed to intervene and direct the pattern, timing and content of communication in a group. <br />(Montoya-Weiss, et al)<br />        <br />
  31. 31. Top Take-Away Tips<br />Assess Conflict Management Styles <br />Avoidance behavior has a significant negative effect on performance.<br />Temporal coordination significantly weakens the negative effect of avoidance behavior on performance.<br />
  32. 32. Top Take-Away Tips<br />Accomodation behavior has no effect on performance.<br />Temporal coordination has no effect.  <br />Competition behavior has a positive effect but temporal coordination has not effect. <br />Collaboration behavior has a significant positive effect on performance, but temporal coordination has no effect. <br />(Montoya Weiss, et all, p.1237)<br />
  33. 33. Top Take-Away Tips<br />Online Training for Virtual Teams:<br />        1.  Conflict Resolution training<br />        2.  Diversity training <br />(Montoya Weiss, et all, p.1237)<br />