Unit 1: An understanding of the terms used in nutrition and nutrition related problems
1. Discuss the effects on the body of a deficiency of protein. (3)
2. Explain what happens to any excess protein in the body. (3)
3. What could be the result of saturated fat in the diet? (4)
4. Name two possible results of a lack of dietary fibre in the diet. (1)
5. Dietary advice is to reduce the intake of sugar:
a. Give reasons for this advice. (3)
b. How can sugar be reduced in the diet. (2)
6. Identify with reasons those individuals who might require a low calorie diet. Explain giving examples
how a healthy low calorie diet can be provided. (20)
7. What is a balanced diet?(2)
8. Current dietary advice is to reduce the amount of fat, sugar and salt in the diet.
a. Give two reasons for reducing the intake of each of them. (6)
b. Give four ways to reduce the intake of each of them. (6)
9.Discuss the information which could be found on a food label and state why the information is important.
Unit 2: Nutritive Value of Food
1. State 4 functions of protein. (4)
a) four animal sources of protein. (2)
b) four plant sources of protein. (2)
3. Define the following terms:
a) High Biological Value protein. Give four foods which are good sources of HBV protein. (3)
b) Low Biological Value protein. Give four foods which are good sources of LBVprotein. (3)
c) Explain, with examples, what is meant by the term complementary proteins. (3)
d) Give two examples of protein complementation. (1)
e) What is meant by deamination of proteins? (2)
f) Name the elements which combine to form proteins. (2)
4. Name four good sources of Vitamin C (ascorbic acid). (2)
5. State four functions of vitamin C. (2)
6. Name the deficiency disease caused by a lack of vitamin C. (1)
7. Give four symptoms of the deficiency disease named above. (2)
8. Iron is important for the production of energy.
a. Explain how iron is used in the body. (3)
b. Describe the symptoms of a deficiency of iron in the diet (2)
c. Name four foods which are good sources of iron.(2)
d. Name the vitamin which is important for the absorption of iron. (1)
9. An adequate supply of NSP is essential in a healthy diet.
a. Explain how NSP is used in the body. State the functions of NSP.(4)
b. Name four good sources of NSP.(2)
10. Write an informative paragraph on:
a. saturated fats. (5)
b. non-starch polysaccharide (NSP). (5)
c. water in the diet. (5)
11. Name one nutrient which is involved in the:
a. formation of enzymes.
b. Production of thyroxin.
c. Prevention of rickets.
d. Production of visual purple. (4)
12. Nutritional information is often given on a food label. List five other pieces of information found on
a food label and in each case give a reason for the information. (5)
13. Vitamins are sometimes listed by name. Give the names by which the following vitamins are known.
Vitamin D (2)
14. Describe how the body would obtain vitamin D from a non-food source. (2)
15. What is meant by the term average RDI often found in the nutritional information on the label. (2)
16. Vitamin A and D are classified as fat soluble vitamins.
Explain how these vitamins are not easily lost when using moist methods of cooking. (2)
Name two vitamins which are not fat soluble. State how they are classified. (2)
17. Describe in detail the functions in the body of vitamin A and D and the possible results of a
deficiency of these vitamins. (5)
18. Give an account of the structure, functions and digestion of fats. Explain why it is recommended that
fats should only provide 30-35% of the daily intake. Suggest ways to reduce fats in the diet. (20)
19. Discuss the information which could be found on a label and state why the information is important.
20. State 3 reasons for including sodium chloride (salt)in the diet.(3)
21. Name two situations in which individuals will require additional salt. Give a reason for each of your
22. What would be the result if a diet is lacking in salt? (1)
23. Give advice, with explanations, on the choice or preparation of foods for those who wish to reduce
their intake of salt. (6)
24. Name the elements which combine to form fats. (3)
25. State four functions of fats. (4)
26. Define the term saturated fats. (2)
27. Give two examples of saturated fat. (1)
28. Define the term polyunsaturated fat. (2)
29. Give two examples of polyunsaturated fat. (1)
30. State and explain five uses of water in the body. (5)
31. Define the term water balance. (1)
32. Starches and sugars are carbohydrates and provide the body with energy.
a. Name the elements from which carbohydrates are formed. (3)
b. Name two other nutrients which can provide energy. (2)
c. Define the following terms and give two examples of each.
i. monosaccharides. (3)
ii. disaccharides. (3)
33. Study the examples of carbohydrates named below: pectin, starch, glucose, maltose, sucrose,
galactose, fructose, lactose, cellulose.
i. Identify the carbohydrates which fit into the following groups:
a. Monosaccharides (simple sugars)
b. Disaccharides (double sugars)
ii. Name the two carbohydrates which can be describe as unavailable and explain why they are described as
34. List four factors which affect the daily protein needs of different individuals. (4)
35.Starches and sugars are carbohydrates:
a. State four facts about simple sugars. (2)
b. Give two examples of simple sugars. (1)
c. Sate four facts about double sugars. (2)
d. Give two examples of double sugars. (1)
36.a. Sate 3 functions of calcium. (3)
b. Name four good sources of calcium. (2)
c. Name one deficiency disease associated with the lack of calcium. (1)
d. Which vitamin assists in the absorption of calcium. (1)
e. State one food source and one non food source of this vitamin. (1)
37. State and explain 3 uses of water in the body. (3)
38. State four functions of fat. (4)
39. Define saturated fat and give one example. (2)
40. Define monounsaturated fat and give one example. (2)
41.Define polyunsaturated fat and give one example. (2)
42. Describe digestion and absorption of fat. (5)
43. Give reasons for reducing the amount of fat in the diet. (3)
44. Suggest four ways to reduce fats in meals. (2)
45. Vitamin A and D are fat soluble vitamins. Give two functions of vitamin A. (2)
46. Name two animal and two plant sources of vitamin A. (2)
47. Name a deficiency disease associated with a poor supply of vitamin A. (1)
48. Give two functions of vitamin D. (2)
49. Name 3 food sources and one non food source of vitamin D. (2)
50. Name a deficiency disease associated with a poor supply of vitamin D. (1)
51. Explain why non starch polysaccharide (NSP) or dietary fibre is important in the diet. Name 4 good
sources of NSP. (5)
52. State four different ways in which the body uses energy. (4)
Unit 3: Digestion and Absorption
1. Describe digestion and absorption of proteins. (10)
2. Describe digestion and absorption of fat. (5)
3. Describe the digestion and absorption of starch in the mouth and in the small intestine (duodenum and
4. Identify two areas of the digestive tract where starch is digested and state how starch is broken down into
5. Name the smallest unit of protein which can be absorbed.(1)
Unit 4: Dietary Guidelines
1. Give advice, with reasons, on the choice and cooking of foods for a very active person. (6)
2. Give advice, with reasons on the choice and cooking of food for the elderly. (6)
3. Give advice with reasons on the choice and cooking of food for a pregnant mother. (6)
4. Give: a. One advantage of using local foods instead of imported foods.
b. One disadvantages of using imported foods. (2)
5. Discuss with examples how money, time, energy and fuel can be saved when preparing family meals.
6. There is evidence that more people are becoming vegetarians. Suggest reasons for the increasing
popularity of vegetarian diets. Explain how a balanced diet can be provided for different types of
7. Discuss ways of encouraging good eating habits in children. (5)
8. Meals should be well balanced.
a. Explain other points to consider when planning and cooking family meals.
b. Explain with examples how vegans can be provided with HBV protein. (20)
9. Most countries have festivals when traditional dishes are served. Name two festivals and one dish
associated with each festival. (2)
10.Identify two factors which can affect local food production. (2)
11. State two advantages of home-grown vegetables. (2)
12. Bread is a staple food in most countries. Name the main types of bread available in your country and
explain why bread is an important food. Describe how bread can be made successfully at home. (20)
13. Explain the importance of a high standard of hygiene wherever food is prepared. Describe how you
would achieve this standard when preparing family meals. (20)
14. Give advice on healthy eating to a teenager. (5)
15. Identify and discuss the importance of the main mineral elements needed by the body. Suggest how
these might be provided in family meals. (20)
16. List 4 important points to remember when preparing packed lunches. (4)
17. Recommended Daily intakes (RDI) are average amounts and not ideal for all individuals. Give one
a. reducing the caloric value of meals for the elderly.
b. providing a high fibre diet for diabetics.
c. preparing meals with an increased caloric value during pregnancy.
d. ensuring a high intake of Vitamin C from people recovering from a surgery. (4)
18. Current dietary advice is to include fresh fruit and vegetables in the diet each day.
a. Give six reasons for their importance. (3)
b. Suggest how children can be encouraged to eat fresh fruits and vegetables. Give reasons for your
19. Discuss the points to consider when planning meals. Explain the particular nutritional needs of teenagers
and suggest how their needs can be met when planning their meals. (15)
20. State, with reasons, the special dietary needs of manual workers. (6)
21. Explain why some people choose to follow a vegetarian diet. (3)
22. Discuss ways in which vegetarians obtain sufficient amounts of High Biological Value protein in the diet.
23. All meals should be well balanced.
a. List six other points to consider when planning meals. (3)
b. Discuss the nutritional requirements of the elderly. (6)
c. Explain with examples the importance of fresh fruits and vegetables in the diet. (6)
24. State with reasons the special nutritional needs of young children. (6)
Unit 5: Composition and value of the main foods in the diet
1. Name six of the nutrients in eggs. (3)
2. State 5 different uses of eggs in meal preparation. Give one example of each group. (5)
3. Give advice on the storage of eggs. (2)
4. Describe and explain the changes which occur when an egg is boiled. (4)
5. List six of the nutrients found in fish. (3)
6. State six points to look for when buying fresh fruit. (3)
7. Describe how to:
a. clean a whole fresh fish before cooking. (2)
b. prepare fish for freezing. (2)
8. a. Explain how freezing preserves fish. (1)
b. Name two other methods of preserving fish. In each case, state the principles of preservation involved.
9. a. Sate two characteristics of tough meat. (2)
b. Meat must be tenderized to make it easier to eat and easier to digest. Give two ways of tenderizing
meat before it is cooked and suggest two methods of cooking which tenderize meat. (2)
d. Explain how meat becomes tender during cooking. (3)
10. Name: a. two citrus fruits
b. two berry fruits
c. two fruits with stones
d. four nutrients found in fruits (5)
11. Describe how to prevent the browning of prepared fresh fruit and explain why browning is prevented
by this method. (2)
12. State the type of milk produced by each of the following processes.
The milk is heated to 72º C for 15 seconds then cooled to not more than 10º C.
Milk is forced through a fine mesh to break down fat globules.
Milk is sealed in bottles and heated above 100º C for 20-30 minutes.
Milk is heated to not less than 132º C for 1 second, cooled rapidly, and packed into foil-lined cartons.(4)
13. State one reason for processing milk with heat. (1)
14. Give five rules for the storage of fresh milk in the home. (2)
15. Name six of the nutrients in milk. (3)
16. Name four milk products. (2)
17. Explain why milk becomes sour. (2)
18. Name six of the nutrients in red meat. (3)
19. Suggest four methods of tenderizing tough meat before cooking. (2)
20. Current nutritional advice is to reduce the intake of red meat.
a. Give reasons for this statement. (3)
b. Suggest four alternatives to red meat. (2)
21. Discuss different fats and oils and their use in the preparation of dishes. (20)
22.Explain why white flour has a longer shelf-life than whole-wheat or brown flour. (4)
23.State, with reasons, one way in which you would store biscuits and milk? (4)
24.Eggs are very useful in cooking.
a. Explain how eggs should be stored to maintain freshness. (2)
b. Describe the appearance of a fresh egg which has been broken onto a plate. (2)
25. Name two main dishes made from eggs and state why eggs are important ingredients for main
26. For each of the following give an example of when and how eggs are used, and a scientific
explanation of changes which take place.
a. eggs as glaze.
b. eggs as coating.
c. eggs as raising agents.
d. eggs as emulsifiers. (12)
27.a. Give 6 reasons for the importance of cereals. (3)
b. Name 4 different cereals. (2)
c. Explain how cereals should be stored at home. (3)
d. Flour is a widely used cereal product. Give, advice, with reasons on the choice of flour for bread making.
e. Identify three different types of flour. State two facts about each flour and give one example of its use.
f. Describe the changes which take place when a loaf of bread is baked. (4)
28. Discuss the nutritive value, storage and uses of eggs in the preparation of meals. (15)
29. State the nutritional value of egg. Explain, using examples, different ways in which they can be used when
30. Name two oily fish and give one reason for eating oily fish rather than white. (2)
31. Discuss different fats and oils and their use in the preparation of dishes. (15)
32. Write an informative paragraph on each of the following:
a. soya. (5)
b. the use of yeast as a raising agent. (5)
c. different uses of sugar.(5)
33.Discuss advantages and disadvantages of using convenience foods. Suggest ways in which convenience
foods can be used in family meals. (15)
34.Discuss the safe storage, preparation, cooking and serving meat. (6)
35. Discuss the importance of fruit in the diet and suggest ways of including fruit in family meals. (15)
36. Explain with examples the following terms:
coagulation, fermentation, gelatinization, hydrogenation, pasteurization (15)
Unit 6:Methods of Cooking
1. State two ways of saving fuel when cooking on top of the stove and two ways of saving fuel when cooking
in the oven. (4)
2. Suggest how colour, flavour and texture might be provided when serving steamed fish in a main meal. (3)
3. Refrigerators and deep freezers are popular appliances but they are often used incorrectly.
a. State two factors which would affect your choice of refrigerator.
b. Suggest two reasons why it might be useful for a family to own a deep freezer. (4).
4. Describe the effect on bacteria of temperature of:
a.4o C to 5o C in a refrigerator cabinet
b.-18o C in a deep freeze. (2)
5. Explain the causes of cross contamination in a refrigerator and suggest ways of reducing the risk of it. (2)
6. Explain why poultry and large pieces of meat should be completely defrosted before cooking. (2)
7. Explain the importance of blanching vegetables before they are frozen.
8. Discuss the safe storage, preparation, cooking and serving meat.
9. Give two moist methods of cooking meat and describe the changes which take place when meat is cooked
by one of these methods. (5)
10. Freezing is often used to preserve food. Explain:
a. How freezing prevents food spoilage. (2)
b. the reason for fast freezing food. (2)
c. Give the temperature at which a domestic refrigerator should operate. (1)
g. What would happen if the temperature in the refrigerator was too high or too low. (2)
h. Sate and explain five rules to observe when storing foods in a refrigerator. (5)
11. State five reasons for cooking food. Give an example to illustrate each reason. (5)
12. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each of the following methods of cooking:
a. Steaming. (3)
b. Frying. (3)
c. Microwave Oven. (4)
13. Study the list of terms below.
Use these terms to complete the following sentences.
a. The effect of moist heat on starch is
b. The removal of water from starch occurs during
c. The effect of heat on protein is
d. The process where oils are changed into solid fats is
e. The removal of water from sugar results in
f. A stable mixture of oil and water produced by
14. Write an essay about:
a. Discuss reasons for cooking food. Suggest ways of saving money when buying and cooking food. (20)
b. Discuss frying as a method of cooking. Explain how good results can be achieved when frying different
15. Discuss reasons for cooking food and explain the different methods of heat transfer used in the
preparation of dishes. (15)
16. a. State four reasons for preserving food. (2)
b. Freezing is a popular method of preservation.
i. State and explain four rules to follow when freezing food at home (4)
ii. State the temperature for storing food in a domestic freezer. (1)
iii. State why freezing delays food spoilage. (3)
iv. Identify the information which should be stated on a frozen food label. (2)
v. Discuss the types of packaging suitable for use in a freezer. (3)
Unit 8: Basic proportions and methods of making
1. Successful cake and pastry making depends on using an accurate list of ingredients, following the
recommended method and baking at the correct temperature.
a. Give quantities to complete the following list of ingredients.(3)
Short crust pastry Victoria sandwich cake Swiss roll
250 g flour 3 eggs 2 eggs
Fat Flour Sugar
water Sugar Flour
b. Complete the following table to indicate the types of ingredients needed for these mixtures.(4)
Basic mixture Type of flour Type of fat Type of sugar
Victoria sandwich cake
c. Give the temperature at which each mixture should be baked. (3)
2.a. The following ingredients can be used to make flaky pastry.
225 g flour
150 g fat
8 tablespoons cold water
b.Describe with reasons how to make a flaky pastry. (6)
c. Give advice, with reasons, on the choice of flour and fat for making the pastry. (5)
d. Name four dishes which could be made with flaky pastry. (2)
e.Sate four rules to follow when rolling any type of pastry. (2)
f.Give reasons for each of the following faults which could occur:
the pastry has not flaked well
the pastry has risen unevenly
3.a. The correct choice of ingredients is important for successful short crust pastry. Name the type of flour and
the type of fat you would choose. Give reasons for your choice. (4)
b. State two important rules to follow when:
mixing a short crust pastry
rolling out short crust pastry.(4)
i. Give the temperature at which short crust pastry should be baked.(1)
j. Name two dishes which could be made with short crust pastry.(1)
4. Identify factors which would influence your choice of flour for bread making. (3)
5.Describe and explain the changes which take place when a loaf of bread is baked. (4)
6.The following list of ingredients can be used to make plain scones.
200 g plain flour
4 level teaspoons baking powder
½ level teaspoon salt
50 g margarine, lard or other hard fat
125 ml milk
Describe with reasons the method of making and baking scones. (6)
Name two ingredients which could be used to vary the mixture. (1)
Name the gas used as the raising agent in scones. (1)
a. Explain how it is produced in the mixture (1)
b. Explain its raising action in scones. (1)
7.The following ingredients can be used to make a Victoria sandwich cake.
100 g plain flour
1 level teaspoon baking powder
100 g sugar
100 g fat
a. Describe the method for making and baking the cake. (5)
b. Suggest two ways of varying the cake. (1)
c. Give advice with reasons on the choice of flour, sugar and fat for the cake.(6)
d. Describe and explain the changes which take place when the cake is baked. (3)
8.a. State with examples five reasons for serving sauces with meals. (5)
b. Describe the making of a roux sauce using the following ingredients: (5)
25 g flour
25 g margarine
250 ml milk
c. State two ways to change the flavour. (1)
d. Give reasons for each of the following:
i. using a wooden spoon when making the sauce. (1)
ii. lumps in the finished sauce. (1)
e. Describe the changes which take place during the cooking of the sauce.(3)
f. The following ingredients can be used to make cheese sauce
25 g flour, 25 g margarine, 250 ml milk, 50 g cheese
Describe with reasons how to make cheese sauce by the roux method. (4)
i.Name three dishes which include cheese sauce. (1)
ii.Suggest three reasons for a lumpy sauce. (3)
iii.Identify three different ways to reduce the amount of fat in the cheese sauce. (3)
9. The following ingredients can be used to make bread:
200 g flour, 12 g fresh yeast or 1 level tsp dried yeast, 1 level tsp sugar, 1 tsp salt, 125 ml warm water
a.Describe with reasons how to carry out the following processes in bread making:
kneading, proving (6)
b.Give advice with reasons on the choice of flour for bread making. (4)
c. Describe and explain the changes which take place when bread is make. (5)
Unit 9: Raising Agents
1. List six methods of incorporating air into mixtures. Give an example of a dish to illustrate each method.
2. Name a dish which uses steam (water vapor) to make it rise. (1)
3. Bread rises due to the action of yeast. List the conditions required by yeast. (2)
4. Name the process which describes the production of carbon dioxide and alcohol by yeast. (1)
5. What will be the effect on yeast of:
a. adding too much salt to the dough
b. adding boiling water to mix the dough.
c. putting the dough into the freezer. (3)
6. Discuss different raising agents and their use in the preparation of dishes. (20)
Unit 10 and 11: Food spoilage and preservation
1. Discuss the reasons for food spoilage. Explain ways of storing and preserving food to improve keeping
2. Identify four conditions which promote food spoilage. (2)
3. Sate two reasons why it is important to store food correctly. (2)
4. Identify with reasons conditions suitable for storing flour. (3)
5. A refrigerator can also be used for the short term storage of perishable foods. What is meant by the term
perishable foods? (1)
6. Explain why a refrigerator will not preserve foods. (1)
7. Give reasons for the following instructions:
a. Cover all foods before placing in the refrigerator.
b. Allow foods to cool before putting in the refrigerator.
c. Place raw meat at the bottom of the refrigerator. (3)
8. Explain the important of:
a. defrosting meat before cooking
b. thoroughly cooking meat before serving. (5)
9. State, with reasons five points to consider when shopping to ensure that food in not contaminated. (5)
10. Discuss the reasons for preserving food and explain how spoilage is prevented in named methods of
11. Give 4 reasons for preserving food and state four causes of food spoilage. (4)
12. List the conditions which are necessary for food spoilage. (2)
13. Explain the principles of freezing and jam making. (4)
14. Discuss reasons for using preserved food when preparing meals. (5)
15. Discuss the causes and prevention of food poisoning when storing, preparing and cooking food. (15)
16. Additives are used by food manufacturers in many products. Explain, giving examples, why additives are
used. What measures are taken to protect the consumer? (20)
17. Food do not keep indefinitely.
a. Sate two reasons why the deterioration of food should be slowed down or prevented. (2)
b. The following terms refer to different types of food spoilage. What causes rancidity,
souring, shrivelling, fermentation? (4)
c. Name two bacteria which causes illness, two foods which require the action of bacteria
during their manufacture and two foods particularly at risk from bacterial contamination.(4)
17. Explain why is important to understand how bacteria behave at different temperatures. (5)
18.a. Why are preserved foods useful in the home? (2)
b. Give one example of preserving by the use of high temperatures and very low temperatures, the use of a
chemical and the removal of water. (4)
19.Explain the importance of high standards of hygiene wherever food is prepared. Describe how you would
achieve this standard when preparing family meals. (15)
20.explain the causes of cross contamination in the refrigerator and freezer burn. Suggest ways of reducing
the risk of them. (4)
21.Discuss ways in which enzymes can bring about changes in foods. (6)
Unit 12: Kitchen planning
1. List three points to consider when planning a kitchen. (3)
2. Identify five causes of accidents in the kitchen. (5)
3. Discuss the importance of good lighting and ventilation in the kitchen. (6)
Unit 13: Kitchen equipment
1. Give advice, with reasons, on choosing the following equipment.
a. Saucepan (3)
b. Kitchen knives (3)
2. A cooking stove is a major piece of equipment. Identify two factors to be considered before buying this
appliance. What is the function of an automatic timer found on some cooking stoves? State one
advantage and one disadvantage of a ceramic hob. (5)
3. State how you would use a cooking stove efficiently and safely. (4)
4. Describe the distribution of heat in an electric fan oven and in a gas oven. State how these differences
affect the way in which these ovens are used. (5)
5. Refrigerators and deep freezers are popular appliances but they are often used incorrectly. State two
factors which would affect your choice of refrigerator and suggest two reasons why it might be useful for
a family to own a deep freezer.(4)
Unit 14: Kitchen safety, simple first aid
1.The kitchen should be a safe, pleasant place in which to work.
a. Discuss the causes and prevention of accidents in the kitchen. (15)
b.State how accidents can be prevented when:
i. Storing and using knives. (3)
ii. Deep frying. (3)
iii. Using electrical equipment. (3)
c. Write an informative paragraph on each of the following:
i. work surface. (3)
ii. ventilation. (3)
2.Write an informative paragraph about:
a. the choice and care of kitchen knives. (5)
b. the disposal of kitchen waste. (5)
c. hygiene in shops and markets. (5)
d. lighting and flooring. (5)