Diversity of Living Things

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Diversity of Living Things

  1. 1. CLASSIFICATIONS <ul><li>SMP NEGERI 1 BOGOR </li></ul><ul><li>BIOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>Class : 7 </li></ul>
  2. 2. DIVERSITY OF LIVING THINGS <ul><li>CLASIFICATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Is a systematic method to study organism by observing similarities and or differences of characteristic and properties that appear or can be recognize </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>THE AIM OF CLASSIFICATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>To easy learning and recognizing the various kinds of living organism </li></ul><ul><li>To know the benefits of each organism </li></ul><ul><li>To know the kinship of organism </li></ul>
  4. 4. METHODE OF CLASSIFICATIONS <ul><li>Simple way : </li></ul><ul><li>A. Habitat </li></ul><ul><li>Xerofit (dry place) </li></ul><ul><li>Higrofit (Humid) </li></ul><ul><li>Hidrofit (Water) </li></ul><ul><li>Halofit (Salty) </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><ul><li>B. From they food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Karnivora </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Herbivora </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Omnivora </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insektivora </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fruityvora </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. HISTORY OF CLASSIFICATIONS <ul><li>Aristoteles (384 - 322 BC): </li></ul><ul><li>Zoologi’s father </li></ul><ul><li>Spare into 2 groups: </li></ul><ul><li>Plants : ----- morfology </li></ul><ul><li>Tree </li></ul><ul><li>Bushes </li></ul><ul><li>Herbs </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Trees </li></ul><ul><li>Brushes </li></ul>
  8. 8. 2. Animals <ul><li>Homoiotermik : </li></ul><ul><li>Body temperature is constant or not </li></ul><ul><li>influenced by environment temperature, </li></ul><ul><li>such as : Mammalia dan Aves </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Poikilotermik : </li></ul><ul><li>Body temperature </li></ul><ul><li>changes following </li></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>such as: </li></ul><ul><li>Pisces </li></ul><ul><li>Amphibian </li></ul><ul><li>Reptile </li></ul>
  10. 10. Theophrastus (370 – 287 SM ): <ul><li>Spare in to 4 groups of Plants: </li></ul><ul><li>Tree </li></ul><ul><li>Perdue </li></ul><ul><li>Brushes </li></ul><ul><li>Herbs </li></ul>
  11. 11. Carolus Linnaeus (1707 – 1778): Father of Tacsonomy <ul><li>Spare into 2 Kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>1. Kingdom Animalia </li></ul><ul><li>2. Kingdom Plantae </li></ul><ul><li>Binomial nomenclature </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Bos sundaicus or </li></ul><ul><li>Bos sundaicus </li></ul>
  12. 12. Tacsonomy <ul><li>Rice </li></ul><ul><li>Kingdom : Plantae </li></ul><ul><li>Division : Angiospermae </li></ul><ul><li>Class : Monocotyledonae </li></ul><ul><li>Order : Poales </li></ul><ul><li>Family : Poaceae </li></ul><ul><li>Genus : Oryzae </li></ul><ul><li>Species : Oryza sativa </li></ul><ul><li>Cat </li></ul><ul><li>Kingdom : Animalia </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum : Chordata </li></ul><ul><li>Class : Mammalia </li></ul><ul><li>Order :Carnivore </li></ul><ul><li>Family : Felidae </li></ul><ul><li>Genus : Felis </li></ul><ul><li>Species : </li></ul><ul><li>Felis domesticus </li></ul>
  13. 13. Robert H. Whittaker (1969) <ul><li>Spare into 5 Kingdom: </li></ul><ul><li>Monera </li></ul><ul><li>Protista </li></ul><ul><li>Fungi </li></ul><ul><li>Plantae </li></ul><ul><li>Animalia </li></ul>
  14. 14. Carl Woese, dkk (1977) <ul><li>Spare into 6 Kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>Eubacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Archaebacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Protista </li></ul><ul><li>Fungi </li></ul><ul><li>Plantae </li></ul><ul><li>Animalia </li></ul>
  15. 15. Carl Woese, dkk (1990) <ul><li>Spare into 3 domain: </li></ul><ul><li>Eubacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Archaebacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Eukaryotes </li></ul>
  16. 16. CLASSIFICATIONS 5 KINGDOM <ul><li>KINGDOM MONERA </li></ul><ul><li>No Nucleus membrane (Prokaryote) </li></ul><ul><li>Unicellular </li></ul><ul><li>Monera consist of </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria and Blue Algae (Cyanophyta) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Bacteria <ul><li>Consist of 1 cell </li></ul><ul><li>Have no Chlorophyll </li></ul><ul><li>Live in various environment </li></ul><ul><li>Breed asexually ---- Dividing itself </li></ul><ul><li>Breed sexually ---- Conjugations </li></ul><ul><li>Can be seen when they form colony </li></ul>
  18. 18. The Shape of Bacteria <ul><li>Bacillus </li></ul><ul><li>Coccus </li></ul><ul><li>Spiral </li></ul>
  19. 19. Blue Algae (Cyanophyta) <ul><li>The simplest algae </li></ul><ul><li>Some live colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Have Chlorophyll </li></ul><ul><li>Live on the ground, stone, wood skin, in fresh water and the sea </li></ul>
  20. 20. 2. KINGDOM PROTISTA <ul><li>Eukaryotic cell (have Nucleus membrane ) </li></ul><ul><li>Commonly have properties between plants and animals </li></ul><ul><li>Divided into 2 groups: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Protozoa </li></ul><ul><li>2. Algae </li></ul>
  21. 21. Protozoa <ul><li>Rhizophoda </li></ul><ul><li>Using false legs </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduce by dividing themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Have no fixed shapes </li></ul><ul><li>Examples : </li></ul><ul><li>Amoeba proteus </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>2 . Flagellate </li></ul><ul><li>Moving by using whip hair (flagella) </li></ul><ul><li>Live freely in water or as parasites inside organism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phytoflagellata : have a Chlorophyl Ex : Euglena viridis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zooflagellata : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>have no Chlorophyl </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: Trypanosoma sp. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Euglena viridis </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>3. Cilliata </li></ul><ul><li>Vibrating hair </li></ul><ul><li>Also called “Sandal Animal” </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduce vegetatively by dividing themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Paramaecium caudatum </li></ul>
  24. 24. 4. Sporozoa <ul><li>Have a spora in 1 phase of they life cycle </li></ul><ul><li>They have no movement organs </li></ul><ul><li>Live as parsites in a organism body </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: Plasmodium sp. </li></ul><ul><li>Caused Malaria disease </li></ul><ul><li>Vektor : female Anopheles Mosquito </li></ul>
  25. 28. ALGAE <ul><li>Algae have no root, stem, and leave. No included in plants </li></ul><ul><li>Commonly live in water, sea water or fresh water </li></ul><ul><li>Commonly algae are Heterotrof </li></ul><ul><li>Algae are used by human as a nutricion source, fertilizer, for dishes and body cream </li></ul>
  26. 29. Chlorophyta (Green Algae) <ul><li>Have a Chlorophyl and carotene </li></ul><ul><li>Live in fresh water, sea water and humid place </li></ul>
  27. 30. Chrysophyta (Golden Algae) <ul><li>Have a Carotine </li></ul><ul><li>Can move </li></ul><ul><li>Live in fresh water, sea commonly found on humid ground surface </li></ul><ul><li>Called silicate algae (Diatom) </li></ul><ul><li>Diatome used as filter, cup cleaning and scouring powder </li></ul>
  28. 31. Phaeophyta (Brown Algae) <ul><li>Have a fikosantin </li></ul><ul><li>A shape like a rod or sheet and have floater </li></ul><ul><li>They are useful as food, to make toothpaste, candy and cosmetic cream </li></ul><ul><li>Examples : </li></ul><ul><li>Laminaria, Fucus, Sargassum and Mocrocystis </li></ul><ul><li>Fucus </li></ul>
  29. 32. Rhodophyta (Red Algae) <ul><li>Have a Pikoeritrin pygment </li></ul><ul><li>Live in the sea </li></ul><ul><li>The size smaller than Brown algae </li></ul><ul><li>Useful to make agar, cosmetic, paint and ice cream </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Erythrophyllum delesseriodes </li></ul><ul><li>Microcladia coulteri </li></ul>
  30. 33. 2. KINGDOM FUNGI <ul><li>Characteristic of Fungi : </li></ul><ul><li>Have a nucleus& cell wall </li></ul><ul><li>Have spores </li></ul><ul><li>Have no chlorophyll ---- Heterotrophic </li></ul><ul><li>Breed sexually & asexually </li></ul><ul><li>Live in rubbish, rotten wood, rotten food with enough humidity </li></ul>
  31. 34. Fungi are distinguished into 4: <ul><li>Phycomycetes </li></ul><ul><li>Ascomycetes </li></ul><ul><li>Basidiomycetes </li></ul><ul><li>Deuteromycetes </li></ul>
  32. 35. Zygomycota <ul><li>Tempe Fungus </li></ul><ul><li>Has unpartitioned hypa </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: Rhizopus and Mycorhiza </li></ul>
  33. 38. Ascomycetes <ul><li>Make spores in a bag (Askus) </li></ul><ul><li>Breeding Sexually & Asexually </li></ul><ul><li>Commonly live on land, that is a rotten food </li></ul><ul><li>Their color is red, brown or green </li></ul>
  34. 39. Beneficial : to make food and medicine <ul><li>Saccharomyces cerevicae </li></ul><ul><li>Penicillium notatum </li></ul>
  35. 40. Harmful: cause disease in humans, animal and plants <ul><li>Athletes foot disease </li></ul>
  36. 41. Basidiomycetes <ul><li>Have a macroscopic size </li></ul><ul><li>The hypha has a partition </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: </li></ul><ul><li>(Volvariella volvacea) </li></ul><ul><li>(Auricularia polytricha) </li></ul>
  37. 42. Harmful : contain Hallodine which is very poisonous and cause disturbance in a kidney, Liver and heart <ul><li>Amanita muscaria </li></ul><ul><li>Amanita phalloides </li></ul>
  38. 43. Deuteromycetes <ul><li>Sexual reproduction is not yet known </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: (Oncom) </li></ul><ul><li>Monilia sitophyla Aspergilus wentii </li></ul>

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